Bibliotheca Symbolica Ecclesiæ Universalis: The Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes, 5th Edition: VOLUME II: THE GREEK AND LATIN CREEDS, WITH TRANSLATIONS

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Bibliotheca Symbolica Ecclesiæ Universalis: The Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes, 5th Edition: VOLUME II: THE GREEK AND LATIN CREEDS, WITH TRANSLATIONS


Philip Schaff (1819 – 1893)


Bibliotheca Symbolica Ecclesiæ Universalis: The Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes, 5th Edition: VOLUME II: THE GREEK AND LATIN CREEDS, WITH TRANSLATIONS




The Confession of Nathanael (Bartholomew).

The Confession of Peter.

The Confession of Thomas.

The Confession of the Eunuch.

The Elementary Articles.

Other Allusions to Creeds.



Introductory Remarks.

Ignatius of Antioch. A.D. 107.

Irenæus. A.D. 180.

Tertullian. A.D. 200.

Cyprian, of Carthage. A.D. 250.

Novatian, of Rome. A.D. 250.

Origen, of Alexandria. About A.D. 250.

Gregorius Thaumaturgus, of Neo-Cæsarea. About A.D. 270.

Lucian, of Antioch. A.D. 300.

The Private Creed of Arius. A.D. 328.

Eusebius, of Cæsarea. A.D. 325.

Cyril, of Jerusalem. About A.D. 350.

Two Creeds of Epiphanius. A.D. 374.

The Creed of the Apostolical Constitutions. About A.D. 350.

The Apostles' Creed. Gregory. (Neo Cæsarea.) A.D. 270. Lucian. (Antioch.) A.D. 300. Eusebius. (Cæsarea, Pal.) A.D.325. Cyril. (Jerusalem.) A.D. 350. Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan Creed. A.D. 325 and 881. I believe [We believe in] [We believe in] We believe We believe We [I] believe





(d) AN OLD ITALIAN (Pseudo-Ambrosian) FORM OF THE APOSTLES' CREED. About A.D.  350.






(a) Forma Recepta Ecclesiæ Orientalis. A.D. 381.

(b) Forma Recepta, Ecclesiæ Occidentalis.

(c) Symbolum Nicænum. A.D. 325.










II. PROFESSIO FIDEI TRIDENTINÆ. Profession of the Tridentine Faith. A.D. 1564.

III. DECRETUM PII IX. DE IMMACULATA CONCEPTIONE BEATÆ VIRGINIS MARIÆ. The Decree of Pope Pius IX. on the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

IV. SYLLABUS ERRORUM. The Papal Syllabus of Errors. A.D. 1864.
























The Confession of Dositheus, or the Eighteen Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem.
















The Encyclical of 1888.


Facsimiles of the Oldest Manuscripts of the Athanasian Creed and the  Apostles' Creed.


The Bull of Boniface VIII., Unam Sanctam, Nov. 18, 1302.


Leo XIII.'s Apostolicæ Curæ, on Anglican Orders, Sept. 13, 1896.


Americanism and Modernism Condemned.


Pius X.'s Oath Against Modernism--juris jurandi formula.


Pius XI.'s Encyclical on Church Union, Mortalium animos, Jan. 6, 1928.


Pius Xi. and the Russian Christians.











 In the present edition I have added, at the close of this volume, an important document--namely, the Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII., on the Christian constitution and government of States. It is closely connected with the famous Syllabus of his predecessor, Pius IX. (vol. II. pp. 213-233), and sets forth more fully the papal or mediæval theory of the relation between Church and State.



 NEW YORK, December, 1889.







 The Bible is the Word of God to man; the Creed is man's answer to God. The Bible reveals the truth in the popular form of life and fact; the Creed states the truth in the logical form of doctrine. The Bible is to be believed and obeyed; the Creed is to be professed and taught. Hence we find few traces of creeds in the Bible.

 In the Old Testament the fundamental doctrine of Monotheism is placed as a command at the head of the Decalogue, Exod. xx. 2, 3, and put in the form of a dogma, Deut. vi. 14:

 sm ysr'l        Hear, O Israel:

 yhvh '?hynv yhvh 'chd        Jehovah our Elohim, Jehovah is one        [The Lord our God, the Lord is one].

 These words form the beginning of what is termed Shama (Hear), and are repeated in the daily morning and evening services of the Jews. They are the Creed of the Jews, in distinction from the Gentiles or idolaters.

 The sentence does not mean, 'Jehovah is our God, Jehovah alone' (and no other God), but it means either 'Jehovah, our God, Jehovah is one,' [1] or, 'Jehovah, our God, is one Jehovah.' [2] In either case it is an affirmation of the unity of God, and this is made the basis of the fundamental moral precept which follows (ver. 5): 'And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.' Hence our Lord, Mark iv. 29, quotes these two passages together as 'the first of all the commandments.'

 Similar assertions of the unity of God are found in Deut. iv. 35, 39 ('Jehovah is the God; there is none else beside him'); 2 Sam. vii. 22; xxii. 32; 1 Kings viii. 60; I Chron. xvii. 20; Psa. xviii. 31 ('Who is God save Jehovah? or who is a rock save our God?'); Psa. lxxxvi. 10 ('Thou art God alone'); Isa. xliii. 10-12; xliv. 6, 8; xlv. 22; Joel ii. 27; Zech. xiv. 9.

 The New Testament confirms this doctrine repeatedly: Mark xii. 29; John xvii. 3 ('Thee, the only true God'); 1 Cor. viii. 4 ('There is none other God but one'); Gal. iii. 20; 1 Tim. ii. 5.

 But while the New Testament presupposes the unity of the Godhead, it makes the Divinity and Messiahship of Jesus of Nazareth the centre of the Christian religion in its distinctive fundamental creed. The following are the passages which furnished the nucleus for the ancient rules of faith and baptismal creeds.



  The Confession of Nathanael (Bartholomew).

 John i. 50 (49).

 Apekrithe Nathanael kai legei auto ;

             Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rhabbi, su ei ho huios tou theou, Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God,

 su ei ho basileus tou Israel.

             Thou art the King of Israel.

 Note.--'King of Israel' is a designation of the Messiah, and an anticipation of the Confession of Peter. Nathanael reasons from the divine character of Christ as revealed in his supernatural knowledge of the heart, to his Messiahship, and returns the commendation, 'Behold an Israelite indeed without guile,' by the acknowledgment, 'Thou art the King of Israel,' and hence my King. The term 'Son of God' was also a designation of the Messiah in his divine nature, derived from Psa. ii. 5,12 (comp. Isa. ix. 6), and is so used by Peter, Matt. xvi. 16; by the disciples in the ship, Matt. xiv. 33; by Martha, John xi. 27; and by the high-priest, Matt. xxvi. 63. The Apostles, before the pentecostal illumination, had no clear insight into the full meaning of the expression; but their faith, based upon the Old Testament and the personal knowledge of our Lord, contained the living germ of the full knowledge.   


  The Confession of Peter.

 Matt. xvi. 16.

 Apokritheis de Simon Petros eipen ;

 And Simon Peter, answering, said,

 Su ei ho Christos, ho huios tou theou tou zontos

 Thou art the Christ [the Messiah], the Son of the living God.

 Note.--This is the fundamental Christian Confession, and the rock on which the Church is built. See Schaff's Annotations to Lange on Matthew, pp. 293-295.

 John vi. 68.

 Kurie, pros tina apeleusometha? remata zoes aioniou echeis; kai hemeis pepisteukamen, kai egnokamen hoti

 Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast words of life eternal, and we have believed and known that

 Su ei ho hagios tou theou

 Thou art the Holy One of God.

 Note.--This is the true reading, instead of the received text: 'Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God', ( su ei ho Christos, ho huios tou theou tou zontos ) which is conformed to Matt. xvi. 16. It is equivalent to Thou art the Messiah, and coincides with the testimony of the demoniacs (Mark i. 26), who with ghost-like intuition perceived the supernatural character of Jesus. This Confession of Peter belongs to an earlier period than the one recorded by Matthew. See Lange, Com. on John, pp. 234 sq. (Am. ed.).



  The Confession of Thomas.

 John xx. 28.

 Apekrithe Thomas kai eipen auto; Thomas answered and said unto him, Ho kurios mou kai ho theos mou My Lord and my God!

 Note.--This is the strongest apostolic Confession of Faith in the Lordship and Divinity of Christ, an echo of the beginning of the fourth Gospel (i. 1, 'the Word was God'), and an anticipation of its close (xx. 31, 'that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye may have life in his name'). For the words are undoubtedly addressed to Christ, as is evident from the preceding 'to him,' and from the appellation, 'My Lord;' [3] and not an exclamation of astonishment addressed to God. [4] For in the latter case Thomas would utter a profanity unrebuked by the Lord. The words indicate a triumph of faith over doubt. Thomas was not an unbeliever--he was not a doubter from indifference to the truth (as Pontius Pilate), still less from hostility to the truth, but from love of truth. He was an honest and earnest inquirer; his heart was anxious and ready to believe, but his understanding demanded evidence, which he embraced with joy as soon as it was presented. He represents the principle, intellectus precedit fidem , which is not entirely inconsistent with the other, fides precedit intellectum. He was a rationalist in the best sense of the term, animated and controlled by a love of truth. Blessed are those that seek the truth, for they shall find it. This kind of skepticism, or spirit of inquiry rather, is a stimulating and propelling force in the Church, and is necessary to the progress of theological science and historical and philosophical research. To such skepticism the words of the poet may be applied:

 'There lives more faith in honest doubt,

 Believe me, than in half the creeds:

 He fought his doubts, and gathered strength,

 To find a stronger faith his own.'

 And yet there is a higher faith, which believes without seeing (ver. 29; (1 Pet. i. 8; 2 Cor. v. 7), which holds fast to the invisible as seeing him (Heb. xi. 27), which goes to Christ as the child to his mother's breast, as heart to heart, as love to love, with undoubting, implicit, unbounded trust and confidence.



 [3] The Greek nominative with the article is used for the vocative, as in Matt. xi. 26, where God is addressed in prayer, ho pater ; xxvii. 29, chaire ho basileus ; in Mark xv. 34, ho theos mou, ho theos mou, eis ti enkatelipes me ; in Luke viii. 54, and in many other passages.

 [4] Theodore of Mopsnestia: ' Quasi pro miraculo facto Deum collaudat. ' He is followed by Socinians and Rationalists.   


  The Baptismal Formula.

 Matt. xxviii. 19.

 Matheteusate panta ta ethne, baptizontes autous

 Disciple [make disciples of] all the nations, baptizing them

 eis to onoma tou patros

 into the Name of the Father,

 kai tou huiou

 and of the Son,

 kai tou hagiou pneumatos,

 and of the Holy Ghost;

 didaskontes autous terein panta hosa eneteilamen humin.

 teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.

 Note.--For an explanation of the Baptismal Formula, which is the basis of the old Trinitarian creeds, and for the various renderings of eis (into, to, in, with reference to), see Schaff and Lange, Com. on Matt. pp. 556-558.



  The Confession of the Eunuch.

 Acts viii. 37.

 Pisteuo ton huion tou theou einai ton Iesoun Christon.

 I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

 Note.--This confession of the Ethiopian Eunuch before his baptism by Philip the Deacon, together with the preceding words of Philip, 'If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest' [be baptized], according to the received text (with sundry variations), is not contained in the best Uncial MSS., and is given up by critical editors (Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, Westcott and Hort), as an interpolation made to suit the baptismal service of the Church; but it is found even in Irenæus and Cyprian, and tends to prove the apostolical origin of a baptismal confession of faith in Christ as the Son of God.



  One God and One Lord.

 1 Cor. viii. 6.

 Heis theos ho Pater,     There is One God the Father,

 ex hou ta panta,

            of whom are all things,

 kai hemeis eis auton;

            and we unto [for] him;

 kai eis kurios Iesous Christos,

            and One Lord Jesus Christ,

 di hou ta panta,

            by whom are all things,

 kai hemeis di autou.

            and we by him.



  The Mystery of Godliness.

 1 Tim. iii. 16.

 Homologoumenos mega estin to tes eusebeias musterion;

 Confessedly great is the mystery of godliness:

 Hos [Theos] ephanerothe en sarki,

 'Who [God] was manifested in the flesh,

 edikaiothe en pneumati,

 justified in the Spirit,

 ophthe angelois,

 seen of angels,

 ekeruchthe en ethnesin,

 preached among the Gentiles,

 episteuthe en kosmo,

 believed on in the world,

 anelephthe en doxe.

 received up in glory.'

 Note.--The relative OC ( hos , who) is best sustained by evidence ( ' AC--though Aleph has been meddled with, and B is wanting), instead of the noun Th C ( theos , God, in the text. rec.), or of the neuter gender, ho (which). See Tischendorf, ed. viii. maj. ii. p. 849, and the long notes of Alford and Wordsworth. The reading hos improves the rhythm without changing the sense; for it certainly refers to Christ the God-Man, whether we connect it with musterion (by transition from the mystery to the person of Him who is the sum and substance of the revelation of God), or regard it (in accordance with the parallelism and continuity of the following clauses) as a quotation from a primitive hymn or confession. Wordsworth refers 'who' to the preceding 'living God,' but God as such can not be said to have been 'received in glory.'



  The Elementary Articles.

 Heb. vi. 1, 2.

 Dio aphentes ton tes arches tou Christou logon, epi ten teleioteta pherometha; me palin themelion kataballomenoi

 Therefore, leaving the word concerning the beginning of [the] Christ, let us go unto perfection [maturity], not laying again a foundation

 metanoias apo nekron ergon,

 of repentance from dead works,

 kai pisteos epi theon,

 and of faith in God,

 baptismon didaches,

 of the doctrine of baptisms [washings],

 epitheseos te cheiron,

 and of laying on of hands,

 anastaseos te nekron,

 and of resurrection of the dead,

 kai krimatos aioniou.

 and of eternal judgment.

 Note.--Many commentators suppose that the sacred writer here refers to the fundamental and elementary articles of catechetical instruction in the apostolic Church; but the articles mentioned were held by Christians in common with the Jews, and are distinguished from the fullness of Christian knowledge ( teleiotes ), or 'the strong meat for those who are of full age' (ver. 14). The passage has only a remote bearing on creeds. For details, see the commentaries of Bleek, Tholuck, Delitzsch, Lünemann, Alford, Moll and Kendrick.



  Other Allusions to Creeds.

 The duty of confessing the faith is taught by our Lord, Matt. x. 32, 33, and by St. Paul, Rom. x. 9, 10.

 Allusions to a creed may be found in the following passages:

 Acts xvi. 31, where Paul and Silas, in answer to the question of the jailer at Philippi, say: 'Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shall be saved, and thy house.'

 Rom. xii. 6: ' The analogy of faith' ( kata ten analogian tes pisteos ).

 1 Cor. xv. 3: 'I delivered unto you among the first things that which I also received, that Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures, and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures,' etc.

 2 Tim. i. 13, 14: 'Hold fast the form of sound words [ hupothuposin ton hugiainonton logon , a sketch or outline of the healing words] which thou hast heard from me, in faith and love, in Christ Jesus. That good thing which was committed unto thee [ ten paratheken , or parakatatheken, the deposit] keep, by the Holy Ghost, which dwelleth in us.' Comp. ver. 12, and 1 Tim. vi. 20 ( ten paratheken phulaxon ).

 Heb. v. 12: 'Ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of god' ( ta stoicheia tes arches ton logion tou theou ). Comp. vi. 1, 2.

 1 John iv. 2: 'Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh [ homologei Iesoun Christon en sarki eleluthota ] is of God.'

 2 John 10: 'If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine [ tauten ten didachen , viz., the doctrine of Christ, ver. 9], receive him not into your house.'

 Jude 3: 'Exhorting that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints' ( te hapax paradotheise tois hagiois pistei ).   


 [1] So Oehler (Theologie des A. Test. Vol. I. p. 159), and others: 'Our Elohim' is in apposition to the first Jehovah, and 'chd is predicate to the second Jehovah.

 [2] So our English Version, Keil, and others, who take 'Jehovah, our Elohim' as the subject, and 'one Jehovah' as the predicate, of the sentence. The Mohammedans have borrowed their monotheistic watchword from the Jews, with a heretical addition--'There is no God but Allah; and Mohammed is his prophet.'   








  Ante-Nicene and Nicene Rules of Faith and Baptismal Creeds.

 Introductory Remarks.

 The Rules of Faith and Baptismal Confessions which we find among the ecclesiastical writers of the second and third centuries mark the transition from the Bible to the OEcumenical Creeds. They contain nearly all the articles of the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, and some are even more full, especially those of the East; for the Greek Church was, at an early period, disturbed by heretical speculations and perversions, and had a greater talent and taste for metaphysical theology than the less learned but more sober, practical, and steady Church of the West. I have included here also some creeds of the fourth century, to facilitate the comparison with the Apostles' and the Nicæno-Constantinopolitan symbols. In addition to the valuable collections of Hahn (Bibliothek der Symbols und Glaubensregeln, 1842) and Heurtley (Harmonia Symbolica, 1858, and De Fide et Symbolo, 1869), I have examined the more recent works of Caspari (Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols and der Glaubensregel, 1866-75, 3 vols.), Lumby (History of the Creeds, 1873), Swainson (Literary History of the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, 1875), and Hort (Two Dissertations, etc., 1876).   


  Ignatius of Antioch. A.D. 107.

 Epistola ad Trallianos, cap. 9.

 The following passage is no creed nor part of a creed, but it shows what facts of the gospel history were most prominent in the mind of the famous bishop and martyr Ignatius, of Antioch, and the Church of his age, in opposition to the Gnostic heretics, who resolved the birth, death, and resurrection of Christ into an unreal and delusive show or phantom ( dokesis, hence Docetæ}. A similar passage of greater length occurs in the commencement of his letter to the Christians at Smyrna.

 The text is from the shorter Greek recension of the seven Epistles, with the chief interpolations of the longer Greek recension added in brackets. The latter mentions also Christ's lonely descent into Hades ( kathelthen eis haden monos ). In the short Syriac Ignatius there is no Epistle to the Trallians. On the Ignatian controversy and literature, see my Church History, Vol. I. § 119, pp. 463 sqq.

 Kophothete oun, hotan humin choris Iesou Christou lale tis

 Be deaf, therefore, when any would speak to you apart from (at variance with) Jesus Christ [tou huiou tou Theou] [the Son of God], tou ek genous [genomenou] Dabid who was descended from the family of David, tou ek Marias, born of Mary, hos alethos egennethe who truly was born [ kai ek theou kai ek parthenou ... [both of God and of the Virgin ... alethos anelabe soma; ho Logos truly took a body; for the Word

 gar sarx egeneto kai epoliteusato aneu hamartias ...],

 became flesh and dwelt among us without sin ...],

 ephagen te kai epien [alethos], ate and drank [truly],

 alethos ediochthe epi Pontiou Pilatou, truly suffered persecution under Pontius Pilate,

 alethos [de, kai ou dokesei] estaurothe kai apethanen ... was truly [and not in appearance] crucified and died ...

 hos kai alethos egerthe apo nekron [kai aneste dia trion hemeron],

 who was also truly raised from the dead [and rose after three days],

 egeirontos auton tou Patros autou ... his Father raising him up ...

 [kai tessarakonta hemeras sundiatripsas tois Apostolois, [and after having spent forty days with the Apostles,

 anelephthe pros ton Patera; was received up to the Father,

 kai ekathisen ek dexion autou, and sits on his right hand,

 perimenon heos an tethosin hoi echthroi autou hupo tous podas autou]. waiting till his enemies are put under his feet].



  Irenæus. A.D. 180.

 Irenæus was a native of Asia Minor, a pupil of Polycarp of Smyrna (Adv. Hær. Lib. III. cap. 3, § 4; Euseb. H. E. v. 20), and through him a grand-pupil of St. John the Apostle. He was bishop of the church at Lyons (Lugdunum), in the South of France, in 177, wrote his great work against the Gnostic heresies about 180, while Eleutherus (d. 185) was bishop of Rome (Adv. Hær. Lib. III. cap. 3, § 3), and died about 202.

 He was therefore a connecting link between the East and the West, as well as between post-apostolic and ante-Nicene Christianity, and altogether the most important witness of the doctrinal status of the Catholic Church at the close of the second century. The ancient Massilia (Marseilles) was a Greek colony, and the churches of Lyons and Vienne in Gaul were probably planted by Eastern missionaries, and retained a close connection with the Eastern churches, as appears from the letter of those churches to their brethren in Asia Minor after the fierce persecution under Marcus Aurelius, A.D. 177 (see Euseb. H. E. v. 1).

 Irenaeus refutes the heretics of his age by the Scriptures and the apostolic tradition. This tradition, though different in form from the New Testament, and perhaps older than the writings of the Apostles, agrees with them, being a summary of their teaching, and is handed down in all the churches through the hands of the presbyters. [5] The sum and substance of this tradition is the baptismal creed, called by him the kanon tes aletheias, apostolon didache, to archaion tes ekklesias sustema, gnosis alethe, traditio veritatis, vera fides, prædicatio ecclesiæ. He does not give the creed in full, but incorporates passages of it in several parts of his work. He gives most of the articles of the Apostles' Creed as it prevailed in the West, but has also several characteristic passages in common with the Nicene Creed ( hena ... sarkothenta huper tes emeteras soterias ... to dia propheton kekeruchos ). The ancient liturgies of Gaul likewise have a semi-Oriental character.

 First Form

 Contra Hæreses, Lib. I. cap. 10, § 1 (Opera, ed. Stieren, Tom. I. p. 119).

 He men gar ekklesia, kaiper kath' holes tes oikoumenes heos peraton tes ges diesparmene, para de ton Apostolon kai ton ekeinon matheton paralabousa ten [pistin]

 The Church, though scattered through the whole world to the ends of the earth, has received [6] from the Apostles and their disciples the faith

 eis hena Theon, Patera pantokratora,

 in one God, the Father Almighty,

 ton pepoiekota ton ouranon, kai ten gen,

 who made the heaven and the earth,

 kai tas thalassas, kai panta ta en autois, pistin;

 and the seas, and all that in them is;

 kai eis hena Christon Iesoun, ton Huion tou Theou,

 and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God,

 ton sarkothenta huper tes hemeteras soterias;

 who became flesh for our salvation;

 kai eis Pneuma hagion,

 and in the Holy Ghost,

 to dia ton propheton kekeruchos tas oikonomias kai tas eleuseis [ten eleusin, adventum ],

 who through the prophets preached the dispensations and the advents [advent],

 kai ten ek Parthenou gennesin,

 and the birth from the Virgin,

 kai to pathos,

 and the passion,

 kai ten egersin ek nekron,

 and the resurrection from the dead,

 kai ten ensarkon eis tous ouranous analepsin tou egapemenou Christou Iesou, tou Kuriou hemon,

 and the bodily assumption into heaven of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord,

 kai ten ek ton ouranon en te doxe tou Patros parousian autou,

 and his appearing from heaven in the glory of the Father,

 epi to anakephalaiosasthai ta panta, to comprehend all things under one head,

 kai anastesai pasan sarka pases anthropotetos,

 and to raise up all flesh of all mankind,

 hina Christo Iesou, to Kurio hemon, kai Theo, kai Soteri, kai basilei, kata ten eudokian tou Patros tou aoratou, pan gonu kampse epouranion kai epigeion kai katachthonion, kai pasa glossa exomologesetai auto, kai krisin dikaian en tois pasi poiesetai, ta men pneumatika tes ponerias, kai angelous parabebekotas, kai en apostasia gegonotas, kai tous asebeis, kai adikous kai anomous kai blasphemous ton anthropon eis to aionion pur pempse; tois de dikaiois, kai hosiois, kai tas entolas autou teterekosi kai en te agape autou diamemenekosi, tois ap' arches, tois de ek metanoias, zoen charisamenos, aphtharsian doresetai, kai doxan aionian peripoiese.

 that, according to the good pleasure of the Father invisible, every knee of those that are in heaven and on the earth and under the earth should bow before Christ Jesus, our Lord and God and Saviour and King, and that every tongue should confess to him, and that he may execute righteous judgment over all: sending into eternal fire the spiritual powers of wickedness, and the angels who transgressed and apostatized, and the godless and unrighteous and lawless and blasphemous among men, and granting life and immortality and eternal glory to the righteous and holy, who have both kept the commandments and continued in his love, some from the beginning, some after their conversion.

 Note.--Irenæus adds to this Creed: 'The Church, having received this preaching and this faith, as before said, though scattered throughout the whole world, zealously preserves it ( epimelos phulassei ) as one household, ... and unanimously preaches and teaches the same, and hands it down as by one mouth ( sumphonos tauta kerussei kai didaskei kai paradidosin, hos hen stoma kiktemene ); for although there are different dialects in the world, the power of the tradition is one and the same ( he dunamis tes paradoseos mia kai he aute ). And in no other manner have either the churches established in Germany believed and handed down, nor those in Spain, nor among the Celts, nor in the East, nor in Egypt, nor in Libya, nor those established in the middle of the world. But as the sun, God's creature, is one and the same in all the world, so, too, the preaching of the truth shines every where and enlightens all men who wish to come to the knowledge of the truth. And neither will he who is very mighty in language among those who preside over the churches say other than this (for the disciple is not above his Master), nor will he who is weak in the word impair the tradition. For as the faith is one and the same, neither he who is very able to speak on it adds thereto, nor does he who is less mighty diminish therefrom.'

 Second Form

 Adv. Hær., Lib. III. cap. 4, § 1, 2 (Opera, Tom. I. p. 437).

 Quid autem si neque Apostoli quidem Scripturas reliquissent nobis, nonne oportebat ordinem sequi traditionis, quam tradiderunt iis quibus committebant ecclesias? Cui ordinationi assentiunt multæ gentes barbarorum, eorum qui in Christum credunt, sine charta et atramento scriptam habentes per Spiritum in cordibus suis salutem, et veterem traditionem diligenter custodientes,

 If the Apostles had not left to us the Scriptures, would it not be necessary to follow the order of tradition, which those to whom they committed the churches handed down? To this order many nations of barbarians give assent, those who believe in Christ having salvation written in their hearts by the Spirit without paper and ink, and guarding diligently the ancient tradition, In unum Deum credentes, believing in one God, Fabricatorem cæli et terræ, Maker of heaven and earth, et omnium quæ in eis sunt, and all that in them is,

 Per Christum Jesum Dei Filium;

 Through Christ Jesus the Son of God;

 Qui, propter eminentissimam erga, figmentum suum dilectionem,

 Who, for his astounding love towards his creatures,

 eam quæ esset ex Virgine generationem sustinuit,

 sustained the birth of the Virgin,

 ipse per se hominem adunans Deo,

 himself uniting his manhood to God, et passus sub Pontio Pilato, and suffered under Pontius Pilate, et resurgens, and rose again, et in claritate receptus, and was received in glory, in gloria venturas, shall come in glory,

 Salvator eorum qui salvantur, et Judex eorum qui judicantur; et mittens in ignem æternum transfiguratores veritatis et

 the Saviour of those who are saved, and the Judge of those who are judged; and sending into eternal fire the perverters of the truth

 contemptores Patris sui et adventus ejus.

 and the despisers of his Father and his advent.

 Third Form

 Adv. Hær., Lib. IV. cap. 33, § 7 (Opera, Tom. I. p. 670).

 After remarking that the spiritual man shall judge all those who are beyond the pale of the truth--that is, outside of the Church--and shall be judged by no one, Irenæus goes on to say: 'For to him all things are consistent; he has a full faith ( pistis holokeros )--'

 Eis hena Theon pantokratora, In one God Almighty, ex hou ta panta, from whom are all things;

 kai eis ton Huion tou Theou, Iesoun Christon,

 and in the Son of God, Jesus Christ, ton Kurion hemon, our Lord,

 di hou ta panta, by whom are all things,

 kai tas oikonomias autou, and in his dispensations,

 di hon anthropos egeneto ho Huios tou Theou;

 through which the Son of God became man;

 Peismone bebaia kai eis to Pneuma tou Theou, [7]

 the firm persuasion also in the Spirit of God,

 ... to tas oikonomias Patros te kai Huiou skenobatoun kath' hekasten genean en tois anthropois, kathos bouletai ho Pater.

 who furnishes us with a knowledge of the truth, and has set forth the dispensations of the Father and the Son, in virtue of which he dwells in every generation of men, according to the will of the Father.



 [5] The essential identity of the Scriptures and the apostolic tradition is asserted by Irenæus (Adv. Hær. Lib. III. cap. 1, § 1): 'Non per alios dispositionem salutis nostræ cognovimus, quam per eos [apostolos], per quos evangelium pervenit ad nos; quod quidem tunc præconaverunt, postea vero per Dei voluntatem in Scripturis nobis tradiderunt, fundamentum et columnam fidei nostræ futuram.' Comp. the fragment of his letter to Florinus, preserved by Eusebius (H. E. v. 20), where he says that the presbyters and Polycarp handed down the teaching of the Lord as they received it from the eye-witnesses of the Word of Life--in entire accordance with, the Scriptures ( panta sumphona tais graphais ).

 [6] Lit. 'yet having received.' In the Greek the creed is part of one sentence, which is resumed in touto to kerugma pareilephuia kai tauten ten pistin ... he ekklesia ... epimelos phulassei.

 [7] The Greek original is here defective. The Latin translation reads as follows: ' Sententia firma quæ est in Spiritu Dei, qui pæstat agnitionem veritatis, qui dispositiones Patris et Filii exposuit, secundum quas aderat generi humano quemadmodum vult Pater. '   


  Tertullian. A.D. 200.

 Tertullian, originally a lawyer, in mature life converted to Christianity, and one of its ablest and most fearless advocates against infidels and heretics, flourished towards the close of the second and the beginning of the third century as presbyter in Northern Africa, till about A.D. 220. He was a rugged and eccentric genius, and joined the Montanist sect, which believed in the advent of the age of the Paraclete in the person of Montanus, the continuance of the gift of prophecy in woman as well as man, and the near approach of the millennium, and which maintained severe discipline and some peculiar customs, in opposition to the more tolerant practice of the Catholic Church. He placed truth ( veritas ) above authority and custom ( vetus consuetude ). But otherwise he was one of the strongest champions of catholic orthodoxy against the Gnostic heresies, and would allow no change in matters of fundamental doctrine. He alludes three times to the Creed, and quotes the chief articles with some variations and interwoven with his comments. In other places he mentions only one or two articles, as the occasion suggested. See Walch, pp. 7-10; Hahn, pp. 68-73; Heurtley, pp. 13-17; Swainson, pp. 35-40.

 First Form.

 De Virginibus Velandis, cap. 1.

 Regula quidem fidei una omnino est, sola, immobilis, et irreformabilis, credendi scilicet The Rule of Faith is altogether one, sole, immovable, and irreformable--namely, to believe In unicum Deum Omnipotentem, in one God Almighty, mundi conditorem; the Maker of the world; et Filium ejus, Jesum Christum, and his Son, Jesus Christ, natum ex Virgine Maria, born of the Virgin Mary, crucifixum sub Pontio Pilato, crucified under Pontius Pilate,

 tertia die resuscitatum a mortuis, on the third day raised again from the dead, receptum in cælis, received in the heavens,

 sedentem nunc ad dexteram Patris,

 sitting now at the right hand of the Father,

 venturum judicare vivos et mortuos,

 coming to judge the quick and the dead,

 per carnis etiam resurrectionem. [8]

 also through the resurrection of the flesh.

 Second Form.

 Adv. Praxeam (a Patripassian Unitarian), cap. 2.

 Nos vero et semper, et nunc magis, ut instructiores per Paracletum, Deductorem scilicet omnis veritatis,

 But we believe always, and now more, being better instructed by the Paraclete, the Leader into all truth,

 Unicum quidem Deum credimus:

 One God: [9]

 sub hac tamen dispensatione, quam oeconomiam dicimus,

 but under this dispensation which we call economy,

 ut unici Dei sit et Filius,

 and the Son of the one God,

 Sermo ipsius, qui ex ipso processerit,

 his Word [Logos] who proceeded from him,

 per quem omnia facta sunt,

 by whom all things were made,

 et sine quo factum est nihil. (John i. 3.)

 and without whom nothing was made.

 Hunc missum a Patre in Virginem,

 This was sent from the Father into the Virgin,

 et ex ea natum,

 and was born of her,

 hominem et Deum, Filium hominis et Filium Dei,

 both Man and God, the Son of Man and the Son of God,

 et cognominatum Jesum Christum:

 and called Jesus Christ:

 Hunc passum,

 He suffered,

 hunc mortuum et sepultum,

 he died and was buried, secundum Scripturas; according to the Scriptures; [10] et resuscitatum a Patre, and raised again by the Father, et in cælos resumptum, and taken up into the heavens,

 sedere ad dexteram Patris,

 and sitteth at the right hand of the Father,

 venturum judicare vivos et mortuos:

 he shall come to judge the quick and the dead:

 qui exinde miserit, secundum promissionem suam, a Patre,

 He thence did send, according to his promise, from the Father,

 Spiritum Sanctum, Paracletum,

 the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete,

 Sanctificatorem fidei eorum qui credunt in Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum. [11]

 the Sanctifier of the faith of those who believe in the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost.

 Third Form.

 De Præscript. Hæret. cap. 13.

 Regula est autem fidei, ... illa scilicet qua creditur,

 The Rule of Faith is, ... namely, that by which we believe

 Unum omnino Deum esse,

 That there is but one God,

 nec alium præter mundi conditorem,

 and no other besides the Maker of the world,

 qui universa de nihilo produxerit,

 who produced the universe out of nothing,

 per Verbum suum primo omnium demissum;

 by his Word sent forth first of all;

 id Verbum, Filium ejus appellatum,

 that this Word, called his Son,

 in nomine Dei varie visum a patriarchis,

 was seen in the name of God in various ways by the patriarchs,

 in prophetis semper auditum,

 was always heard in the prophets,

 postremo delatum, ex Spiritu Patris Dei et virtute, in Virginem Mariam,

 at last was sent down, from the Spirit and power of God the Father, into the Virgin Mary,

 carnem, factum in utero ejus, et ex ea natum,

 was made flesh in her womb, and born of her,

 egisse [12] Jesum Christum;

 lived (appeared) as Jesus Christ;

 exinde prædicasse novam legem

 that then he preached the new law

 et novam promissionem regni cælorum;

 and the new promise of the kingdom of heaven;

 virtutes fecisse;

 wrought miracles;

 fixum cruci;

 was nailed to the cross;

 tertia die resurrexisse;

 rose again on the third day;

 in cælos ereptum;

 was caught up to the heavens;

 sedisse [13] ad dexteram Patris;

 and sat down at the right hand of the Father;

 misisse vicariam vim Spiritus Sancti,

 sent in his place the power of the Holy Ghost,

 qui credentes agat;

 to guide the believers;

 venturum cum claritate

 he will come again with glory

 ad sumendos sanctos in vitæ æternæ et promissorum cælestium fructum,

 to take the saints into the enjoyment of eternal life and the celestial promises,

 et ad profanos adjudicandos igni perpetuo,

 and to judge the wicked with eternal fire,

 facta utriusque partis resuscitatione,

 after the resuscitation (resurrection) of both,

 cum carnis restitutione. [14]

 with the restitution (restoration) of the flesh.



 [8] That is: This also belongs to the unchangeable rule of faith, that the Lord will hold general judgment after the dead are raised to life again. Neander (Tertull. p. 303) transposes etiam before per: 'To judge the dead also through the resurrection.' To this Tertullian adds: ' Hac lege fidei manente, cætera jam disciplinæ et conversationis admittunt novitatem correctionis, operante scilicet et proficiente usque in finem gratia Dei ' (This law of faith remaining, all other matters of discipline and conversation admit of the novelty of correction, the grace of God, namely, working and advancing to the end). The article on the Holy Ghost is here omitted.

 [9] In the Latin the following sentences depend on credimus. The English idiom requires more freedom.

 [10] This important insertion (the only express recognition of the Scriptures in the Creed) is also found in the Nicene Creed ( kata tas graphas ), after the clause risen on the third day, but disappeared in the later forms of the Apostles' Creed.

 [11] To this Tertullian adds: ' Hanc regulam ab initio Evangelii decucurrisse, etiam ante priores quosque hæreticos, ne dum ante Praxean hesternum, probabit tam ipsa posteritas omnium hæreticorum, quam ipsa novellitas Praxeæ hesterni. ' i.e. 'That this rule has come down from the beginning of the gospel, even before the earlier heretics, and so of course before the Praxeas of yesterday, is proved both by the lateness of all heretics, and by the novelty of this Praxeas of yesterday.'

 [12] Al. exisse (Cod. Urs.).

 [13] Al. sedere, sitteth.

 [14] 'Hæc regula,' he adds here also, 'a Christo, ut probabitur, instituta nullas habet apud nos quæstiones, nisi quas hæreses inferunt et quæ hæreticos faciunt; cæterum manente forma ejus in suo ordine, quantum libet quæras et tractes et omnem libidinem curiositatis effundas.'   


  Cyprian, of Carthage. A.D. 250.

 Cyprian, the great bishop and martyr of Carthage, the chief champion of catholic unity; against heretics and schismatics, and at the same time of episcopal independence against Rome, during the middle of the third century (died 258), first applies the term Symbolum to the baptismal creed, but gives us only scanty fragments of it, in answer to the question whether baptized heretics and schismatics (like the Novatians) should be rebaptized when applying for admission into the Catholic Church. He answers the question in the affirmative, since out of the Catholic Church there is no truth, no sacraments, no salvation ( extra Ecclesiam nulla salus ); and hence if the Novatians used the same terms in their creed as the Catholics, they had not the thing, but a mere sham or empty counterfeit. This opinion on the validity of heretical baptism Cyprian maintained in opposition to Bishop Stephen of Rome.

 The first of these fragmentary creeds is contained in his Epistle to Magnus (Ep. 69, al. 76), the other in his synodical Epistle to Januarius and other Numidian bishops (Ep. 70). Both are in form interrogative, in answer to the question Credis? put to the baptismal candidate, and contain the following articles:

 Credo in Deum Patrem,

            I believe in God the Father,

 in Filium Christum,

            in his Son Christ,

 in Spiritum Sanctum.

            in the Holy Ghost.

 Credo remissionem peccatorum,

            I believe the forgiveness of sins,

 et vitam eternam

            and eternal life

 per sanctam Ecclesiam.

            through the holy Church.



  Novatian, of Rome. A.D. 250.

 Novatian, a presbyter and then a schismatical bishop of Rome, in opposition to Cornelius, from whom he dissented, in the middle of the third century, on a question of discipline concerning the readmission of the lapsed, explains, in his work De Trinitate s. De Regula Fidei (Bibl. PP. ed. Gallandi, Tom. III. pp. 287 sqq.), the 'rule of truth,' especially the divinity of Christ, in opposition to the heresies of his age, and states:

 Regula exigit veritatis, ut primo omnium

 The rule of truth demands that, first of all,

 credamus in Deum Patrem et Dominum omnipotentem,

 we believe in God the Father and Almighty Lord,

 id est, rerum omnium perfectissimum conditorem.

 that is, the most perfect Maker of all things....

 Eadem regula veritatis docet nos credere, post Patrem, etiam

 The same rule of truth teaches us to believe, after the Father, also

 in Filium Dei, Christum Jesum,

 in the Son of God, Christ Jesus,

 Dominum Deum nostrum, sed Dei Filium....

 our Lord God, but the Son of God....

 Sed enim ordo rationis et fidei auctoritas, digestis vocibus et literis Domini, admonet nos, post hæc credere etiam

 Moreover, the order of reason and the authority of faith, in due consideration of the words and Scriptures of the Lord, admonishes us, after this, to believe also

 in Spiritum Sanctum,

 in the Holy Ghost,

 olim Ecclesiæ repromissum, sed statutis temporum opportunitatibus redditum.

 promised of old to the Church, but granted in the appointed and fitting time.

 Note.--This rule is little more than the baptismal formula, and represents the Roman creed, which was shorter than the Eastern creeds, since Rome always loved power more than philosophy, and (as Rufinus remarks, De Symb. § 3) was less disturbed by heretical speculations than the Greek Church. Novatian, however, takes the knowledge of the whole creed for granted, and hence does not quote it literally and in full. He mentions also incidentally as articles of faith the holy Church, the remission of sins, and the resurrection. Comp. the notes in Hahn, pp. 74, 75.



  Origen, of Alexandria. About A.D. 250.

 De Principiis, Lib. I. Præf. § 4-6.

 Origen (185-254), teacher of the Catechetical School of Alexandria in Egypt, was the greatest divine and one of the noblest characters of his age, equally distinguished for genius, learning, industry, and enthusiasm for the knowledge of truth. His orthodoxy was questioned by some of his contemporaries, and he was even excommunicated by the Bishop of Alexandria, and condemned as a heretic long after his death by a council of Constantinople, 544. His curious speculations about the pre-existence of souls, the final salvation of all rational beings, etc., arose chiefly from his attempt to harmonize Christianity with Platonism.

 In the Introduction to his work, Peri archon, On the Principles (of the Christian Religion), written before 231 (some date it from 212-215), and preserved to us in the loose and inaccurate Latin translation of Rufinus, Origen gives some fragments of the creed which was used in his day and country. He first remarks that, while all believers in Christ accepted the books of the Old and New Testaments as a full revelation of the divine truth, the diversity of interpretations and opinions demanded a clear and certain rule ( certa linea, manifesta regula ), and that the apostles delivered such articles of faith as they deemed necessary for all, leaving the study of the reasons, the examination of the mode and origin, to the more gifted lovers of wisdom. He then proceeds to give a sketch of these dogmatic teachings of the apostles as follows:

 Species eorum, quæ per prædicationem Apostolicam manifeste traduntur, istæ sunt:

 The form of those things which are manifestly delivered by the preaching of the Apostles is this:

 Primo, quod unus Deus est, qui omnia creavit atque composuit quique cum nihil esset, esse fecit universa, Deus a prima creatura, et conditione mundi, omnium justorum Deus--Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Enoch, Noë, Sem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, duodecim Patriarcharum, Moysis et Prophetarum: et quod hic Deus in novissimis diebus, sicut per prophetas suos ante promiserat, misit Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, primo quidem vocaturum Israël, secundo vero etiam gentes post perfidiam populi Israël. Hic Deus justus et bonus, Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Legem et Prophetas et Evangelia ipse dedit, qui et Apostolorum Deus est et Veteris et Novi Testamenti.

 First, that there is one God, who created and framed every thing, and who, when nothing was, brought all things into being,--God from the first creation and forming of the world, the God of all the just--Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Enoch, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the twelve Patriarchs, Moses, and the Prophets: and that this God, in the last days, as he had before promised through his Prophets, sent our Lord Jesus Christ, to all Israel first, and then, after the unbelief of Israel, also to the Gentiles. This just and good God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, himself gave the Law and the Prophets and the Gospels, and he also is the God of the Apostles, and of the Old and New Testaments.

 Tum deinde, quia Jesus Christus ipse, qui venit, ante omnem creaturam natus ex Patre est. Qui cum in omnium conditione Patri ministrasset (per ipsum enim omnia facta sunt), novissimis temporibus se ipsum exinaniens homo factus incarnatus est, cum Deus esset, et homo factus mansit, quod erat, Deus. Corpus assumsit nostro corpori simile, eo solo differens, quod natum ex Virgine et Spiritu Sancto est. Et quoniam hic Jesus Christus natus et passus est in veritate et non per phantasiam communem hanc mortem sustinuit, vere mortuus; vere enim a mortuis resurrexit et post resurrectionem, conversatus cum discipulis suis, assumtus est.

 Then, secondly, that Jesus Christ himself, who came, was born of the Father before all creation. And when in the formation of all things he had served the Father (for by him all things were made), in these last times, emptying himself, he became man incarnate, while he was God, and though made man, remained God as he was before. He took a body like our body, differing in this point only, that it was born of the Virgin and the Holy Ghost. And since this Jesus Christ was born and suffered in truth, and not in appearance, he bore the death common to all men and truly died; for he truly rose from the dead, and after his resurrection, having conversed with his disciples, he was taken up.

 Tum deinde honore ac dignitate Patri ac Filio sociatum tradiderunt Spiritum Sanctum.

 They also delivered that the Holy Ghost was associated in honor and dignity with the Father and the Son.

 Origen then goes on to say that 'such questions, as to whether the Holy Spirit was born or unborn ( natus an innatus ), whether he was also to be regarded as a Son of God or not, are left for inquiry and investigation out of the holy Scriptures, according to the best of our ability; but it was most clearly preached in the churches that the Holy Spirit inspired every one of the saints and prophets and apostles, and that there was not one Spirit given to the ancients and another to the Christians.' Then he mentions (§ 5) as part of apostolic preaching ( ecclesiastica prædicatio ) the future resurrection and judgment, the freedom of will ( omnem animam rationabilem esse liberi arbitrii et voluntatis ), the struggle of the soul with the devil and his angels, the inspiration of the Scriptures, and their deeper meaning known only to those to whom the Holy Spirit gives wisdom and understanding.

 Throughout this passage Origen makes an important distinction between ecclesiastical preaching and theological science, and confines the former to fundamental facts, while to the latter belongs the investigation of the why and wherefore, and the deeper mysteries.



  Gregorius Thaumaturgus, of Neo-Cæsarea. About A.D. 270.

 Gregory, surnamed the Great or Thaumaturgus, i.e., the Wonderworker (from his supposed power of miracles), was a pupil and admirer of Origen (on whom he wrote an eloquent panegyric), and Bishop of Neo-Cæsarea in Pontus (from about 240 to 270), which he changed from a heathen into a Christian city. He took a prominent part in the Synod of Antioch (A.D. 269), which condemned the errors of Paul of Samosata, and issued a lengthy creed. [15] He was held in the highest esteem, as we learn from Basil the Great, his successor in office (De Spiritu Sancto, cap. 29, § 74, where he is compared to the apostles and prophets, and called a 'second Moses'), and from Gregory of Nyssa (Vita Gregorii). The following creed ( ekthesis pisteos kata apokalupsin Gregoriou episkopou Neokaisareias ) was, according to the legend related by Gregory of Nyssa a hundred years later, revealed to him by the Apostle John in a vision, at the request of the Virgin Mary. It is somewhat rhetorical, but more explicit on the doctrine of the Trinity than any other ante-Nicene creed, and approaches in this respect the Symbolum Quicunque. The Greek text in Gallandi, Vet. PP. Bibl. p. 385; in Mansi, Tom. I. p. 1030, and Hahn, p. 97. Hahn gives also two Latin versions, one by Rufinus. Two other creeds ascribed to him are not genuine. An English translation of his writings by S. D. F. Salmond, in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library, Vol. XX. (Edinb. 1871).

 Heis theos pater logou zontos, sophias huphestoses kai dunameos kai charakteros aidiou, teleios teleiou gennetor, pater huiou monogenous.

 There is one God, the Father of the living Word, who is the substantive wisdom and eternal power and image of God: the perfect origin (begetter) of the perfect (begotten): the Father of the only-begotten Son.

 Heis kurios monos ek monou, theos ek theou, charakter kai eikon tes theotetos, logos energos, sophia tes ton holon sustaseos periektike kai dunamis tes holes ktiseos poietike, huios alethinos alethinou patros, aoratos aoratou kai aphthartos, aphthartou kai athanatos athanatou kai aidios aidiou.

 There is one Lord, one of one (only of the only), God of God, the image and likeness of the Godhead, the mighty Word, the wisdom which comprehends the constitution of all things, and the power which produces all creation; the true Son of the true Father, Invisible of Invisible, and Incorruptible of Incorruptible, and Immortal of Immortal, and Everlasting of Everlasting.

 Kai hen pneuma hagion ek theou

 And there is one Holy Ghost,

 ten huparxin echon kai di autou pephenos delade tois anthropois, eikon tou huiou teleiou teleia, zoe zonton aitia [16] [ pege hagia ], [17] hagiotes hagiasmou choregos , [18] en ho phaneroutai theos ho pater ho epi panton kai en pasi, kai theos ho huios ho dia panton, trias teleia, doxe kai aidioteti kai basileia me merizomene mede apallotrioumene. having his existence from God, and being manifested by the Son, namely, to men, the perfect likeness of the perfect Son, Life, the cause of the living [19] [the sacred fount], [20] sanctity, the Leader of sanctification: [21] in whom is revealed God the Father, who is over all things and in all things, and God the Son, who is through all things: a perfect Trinity, not divided nor differing in glory and eternity and sovereignty.

 Oute oun ktiston ti e doulon en te triadi, oote epeisakton, [22] hos proteron men ouch huparchon, husteron de epeiselthon; oute oun enelipe pote huios patri, oute huio pneuma, alla atreptos kai analloiotos he aute trias aei.

 Neither, indeed, is there any thing created or subservient in the Trinity, nor introduced, [23] as though not there before but coming in afterwards; nor, indeed, has the Son ever been without the Father, nor the Spirit without the Son, but the Trinity is ever the same, unvarying and unchangeable.



 [15] See the Greek text of the creed of the Antiochean Synod in Hahn, pp. 91-96; an English translation in Swainson, pp. 52-55.

 [16] Variations: teleia zoe zonton, perfecta vita viventium; viventium causa. See Hahn, p. 99.

 [17] Omitted in some MSS., and by Hahn.

 [18] Rufinus: sanctitas sanctificationis præstatrix. Another Latin version: sanctitas et fons sanctitatis et ædificationis administrator.

 [19] Variations: teleia zoe zonton, perfecta vita viventium; viventium causa. See Hahn, p. 99.

 [20] Omitted in some MSS., and by Hahn.

 [21] Rufinus: sanctitas sanctificationis præstatrix. Another Latin version: sanctitas et fons sanctitatis et ædificationis administrator.

 [22] Latin version: subintroductum. Rufinus: superinductum.

 [23] Latin version: subintroductum. Rufinus: superinductum.   


  Lucian, of Antioch. A.D. 300.

 From Athanasius, Epist. de Synodis Arimini et Seleuciæ celebratis, § 23 (Opera ed. Montfauc. Tom. I. Pt. II. p. 735), and Socrates, Hist. Eccl. Lib. II. cap. 10.

 Lucianus was a learned presbyter of Antioch, who died a martyr, A.D. 311, under Maximinus, in Nicomedia. His creed was found after his death, and was, together with three similar creeds, laid before the Synod of Antioch, held A.D. 341, in the hope that it might be substituted for the obnoxious Creed of Nicæa. It is also called the second Antiochean Formula. It was translated into Latin by Hilarius Pictav. in his book De Synodis s. de Fide Orientalium, § 29. See Socrates, H. E. Lib. II. cap. 10 and 18; Sozomen, H. E. Lib. III. cap. 5; VI. 12; Mansi, Conc. Tom. II. pp. 1339-1342; Walch, l.c. p. 34; Hahn, l.c. p. 100.

 Pisteuomen akolouthos te euangelike kai apostolike paradosei eis hena theon patera pantokratora, ton ton holon demiourgon te kai poieten kai pronoeten.

 We believe, in accordance with evangelic and apostolic tradition, in one God the Father Almighty, the Maker and Provider of all things.

 Kai eis hena kurion Iesoun Christon, ton huion autou, ton monogene theon , [24] di hou ta panta (egeneto), ton gennethenta pro ton aionon ek ton patros, theon ek theou, holon ex holou [ totum ex toto ], monon ek monou [ unum ex uno ], teleion ek teleiou, basilea ek basileos, kurion apo [ek] kuriou, logon zonta, sophian, zoen, phos alethinon, hodon, aletheian, anastasin, poimena, thuran, atrepton te kai analloioton, tes theotetos, ousias te kai boules kai dunameos kai doxes tou patros aparallakton eikona, ton prototokon pases ktiseos, ton onta en arche pros ton theon, theon logon, kata to eiremenon en euangelio; kai theos en ho logos, di hou ta panta egeneto kai en ho ta panta sunesteke; ton ep' eschaton ton hemeron katelthonta anothen kai gennethenta ek parthenou, kata tas graphas, kai anthropon genomenon, mesiten theou kai anthropon, apostolon te tes pisteos hemon, kai archegon zoes, hos phesi; hoti katabebeka ek tou ouranou, ouch hina poio to thelema

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ his Son, the only-begotten God, through whom all things were made, who was begotten of the Father before all ages, God of God, Whole of Whole, One of One, Perfect of Perfect, King of King, Lord of Lord, the living Word, Wisdom, Life, True Light, Way, Truth, Resurrection, Shepherd, Door, unchangeble and unalterable, the immutable likeness of the Godhead, both of the substance and will and power and glory of the Father, the first-born of all creation, who was in the beginning with God, the Divine Logos, according to what is said in the gospel: 'And the Word was God,' [25] through whom all things were made, and in whom 'all things consist:' [26] who in the last days came down from above, and was born of a Virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man, the Mediator between God and man, and the Apostle of our Faith, [27] and the Prince of life; as he says, [28] 'I have come down from heaven, not to do

 to emon, alla to thelema tou pempsantos me; ton pathonta huper hemon kai anastanta te trite hemera, kai anelthonta eis ouranous kai kathesthenta en dexia tou patros, kai palin erchomenon meta doxes kai dunameos krinai zontas kai nekrous. mine own will, but the will of him that sent me:' who suffered for us, and rose for us the third day, and ascended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and again is coming with glory and power to judge the quick and the dead.

 Kai eis to pneuma to hagion, to eis paraklesin kai hagiasmon kai teleiosin tois pisteuousi didomenon, kathos kai ho kurios hemon Iesous Christos dietazato tois mathetais, legon; poreuthentes matheteusate panta ta ethne, baptizontes autous eis to onoma tou patros kai tou huiou kai tou hagiou pneumatos; delonoti patros alethos patros ontos, huiou de alethos huiou ontos, tou de hagiou pneumatos alethos hagiou pneumatos ontos, ton onomaton ouch haplos oude argos keimenon, alla semainonton akribos ten oikeian hekastou ton onomazomenon hupostasin kai taxin kai doxan; hos einai te men hupostasei tria, te de sumphonia hen.

 And in the Holy Ghost given for consolation and sanctification and perfection to those who believe; as also our Lord Jesus Christ commanded his disciples, saying, 'Go ye, teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost;' [29] clearly of the Father who is really a Father, and of a Son who is really a Son, and of the Holy Ghost who is really a Holy Ghost; these names being assigned not vaguely nor idly, but indicating accurately the special personality, order, and glory of those named, so that in Personality they are three, but in harmony one.

 Tauten oun echontes ten pistin (kai ex arches kai mechri telous echontes) enopion tou theou kai tou Christou pasan hairetiken kakodoxian anathematizomen. Kai ei tis para ten hugie ton graphon orthen pistin didaskei, legon, e chronon e kairon e aiona e einai e gegonenai pro tou gennethenai

 Having then this faith (from the beginning and holding it to the end) before God and Christ we anathematize all heretical false doctrine. And if any one, contrary to the right faith of the Scriptures, teaches and says that there has been a season or time or age before the

 ton huion, anathema esto. Kai ei tis legei ton nhion ktisma hos hen ton ktismaton, e gennema hos hen ton gennematon, e poiema hos hen ton poimaton, kai me hos hai theiai graphai paradedokan ton proeiremenon hekaston aph' hekastou, e ei tis allo didaskei e euangelizetai par ho parelabomen, anathema esto. Son of God was begotten, let him be accursed. And if any one says that the Son is a creature as one of the creatures, or generated as one of the things generated, or made as one of the things made, and not as the divine Scriptures have handed down each of the forenamed statements; or if a man teaches or preaches any thing else contrary to what we have received, let him be accursed.

 Hemeis gar pasi tois ek ton theion graphon paradedomenois hupo te ton propheton kai apstolon alethinos kai emphobos kai pisteuomen kai akolouthoumen.

 For we truly and clearly both believe and follow all things from the holy Scriptures that have been transmitted to us by the Prophets and Apostles.



 [24] I connect monogene with theon, which accords with the reading of some of the oldest MSS. (the Sinaitic and the Vatican), in John i. 18 ( monogenes theos instead of huios ). But according to the usual punctuation adopted by Hahn we must translate, 'his only-begotten Son, God.'

 [25] John i. 1.

 [26] Col. i. 17.

 [27] Heb. iii. 1.

 [28] John vi. 38.

 [29] Matt. xxviii. 19.   


  The Private Creed of Arius. A.D. 328.

 The preceding Creed of Lucian seems to have already in view the rising heresy of Arius, Presbyter of Alexandria (d. 336), which kindled one of the greatest theological controversies, and became the occasion of the Nicene Council and Creed. We insert it, therefore, in this place, between Lucian and Eusebius, to show how far Arius agreed with the Catholic faith of that age. His peculiar tenets, however, which were condemned at Nicæa in 325, are skillfully avoided in this private confession. It is heretical not by what it says, but by what it omits. It was to pave the way for his restoration. It was laid before the Emperor Constantine, at his request, and is reported by Socrates, Hist. Eccl. Lib. I. cap. 26, and Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. Lib. II. cap. 27; see also Mansi, Conc. Tom. II. p. 1157, and Hahn, pp. 192 sq.

 Pisteuomen eis hena Theon, We believe in one God, patera pantokratora; the Father Almighty;

 Kai eis kurion Iesoun Christon, ton huion autou, And in the Lord Jesus Christ, his Son,

 ton ex autou pro panton ton aionon gegennemenon, who was begotten of him before all ages, theon logon, the Divine Logos,

 di hou ta panta egeneto, ta te en tois ouranois kai ta epi tes ges,

 through whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on the earth;

 ton katelthonta kai sarkothenta,

 who came down and was made flesh;

 kai pathonta,

 and suffered;

 kai anastanta,

 and rose again;

 kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous,

 and ascended to the heavens;

 kai palin erchomenon krinai zontas kai nekrous.

 and shall come again to judge the quick and the dead.

 Kai eis to hagion pneuma.

 And in the Holy Ghost;

 kai eis sarkos anastasin,

 and in the resurrection of the flesh;

 kai eis zoen tou mellontos aionos,

 and in the life of the world to come;

 kai eis basileian ouranon,

 and in a kingdom of heaven;

 kai eis mian katholiken ekklesian tou theou, ten apo peraton heos peraton. [30]

 and in one Catholic Church of God which extends to the ends of the earth.



 [30] The Latin version in Mansi: 'quæ ab una orbis terrarum ora ad alteram usque porrigitur.'   


  Eusebius, of Cæsarea. A.D. 325.

 Socrates, Hist. Eccl. Lib. I. cap. 8.

 Eusebius, Bishop of Cæsarea, in Palestine (d. 340), the Church historian, the friend and eulogist of Constantine I., and a leading member of the Council of Nicæa (325), forms the connecting link between the ante-Nicene and the Nicene Church. In his account of that Council he mentions the following creed, which his church in Cæsarea had received from the bishops of former times in catechizing and at baptism, which he himself had learned from Scripture, believed, and taught, and which he had laid before the Emperor and the Council. It comes very near the Nicene Creed as adopted in 325, and was the basis of it, but the characteristic shibboleth of Nicene orthodoxy, the term homoousios or consubstantial, is wanting. See Eusebii Cæsareensis Episcopi de fide Nicænæ exposita, in Athanasius, Epistola de decretis Synodi Nicænæ (Opera, Tom. I. Pt. I. pp. 238 sqq., ed. Montfauc.); Socrates, Hist. Eccl. Lib. I. cap. 8; Theodoret, Hist. Eccl. Lib I. cap. 12.

 Pisteuomen eis hena theon patera pantokratora,

 We believe in one God the Father Almighty,

 ton ton apanton horaton te kai aoraton poieten;

 Maker of all things visible and invisible;

 Kai eis hena kurion Iesoun Christon,

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ,

 ton tou theou logon,

 the Word of God,

 theon ek theou,

 God of God,

 phos ek photos,

 Light of Light,

 zoen ek zoes,

 Life of Life,

 huion monogene,

 the only-begotten Son,

 prototokon pases ktiseos,

 the first-born of every creature,

 pro panton ton aionon ek tou theou patros gegennemenon,

 begotten of God the Father before all ages,

 di hou kai egeneto ta panta;

 by whom also all things were made;

 ton dia ten hemeteran soterian sarkothenta kai en anthropois politeusamenon,

 who for our salvation was made flesh and made his home among men;

 kai pathonta,

 and suffered;

 kai anastanta te trite hemera,

 and rose on the third day;

 kai anelthonta pros ton patera,

 and ascended to the Father;

 kai hexonta palin en doxe krinai zontas kai nekrous.

 and will come again in glory, to judge the quick and the dead.

 [Pisteuomen] kai eis hen pneuma hagion. [31]

 [We believe] also in one Holy Ghost. [32]

 Touton hekaston einai kai huparchein pisteuontes, patera alethos patera kai huion alethos huion kai pneuma hagion alethos pneuma hagion, kathos kai ho kurios hemon apostellon eis to kerugma tous heautou mathetas eipe; poreuthentes matheteusate panta ta ethne, baptizontes autous eis to onoma tou patros kai tou huiou kai tou agiou pneumatos.

 We believe that each of these is and exists, the Father truly Father, and the Son truly Son, and the Holy Ghost truly Holy Ghost; even as our Lord, when sending forth his disciples to preach, said: 'Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.'

 To this creed Eusebius adds: 'And concerning these things we affirm that we so hold and so think, and have of old so held, and will so hold till death, and stand steadfast in this faith, anathematizing all ungodly heresy. We testify before Almighty God and our Lord Jesus Christ that we have thought all this in heart and soul ever since we knew ourselves, and we now so think and speak in truth, being able to show by evidence and to convince you that we in past times so believed and preached accordingly.'



 [31] Here the Creed of Cæsarea stops. What follows is an explanatory summary or a personal confession of Eusebius. This difference Hahn seems to have overlooked (p. 47).

 [32] Here the Creed of Cæsarea stops. What follows is an explanatory summary or a personal confession of Eusebius. This difference Hahn seems to have overlooked (p. 47).   


  Cyril, of Jerusalem. About A.D. 350.

 From his Katecheseis .

 Cyril was elected Bishop of Jerusalem in 350; was expelled by the Arians in 360; reinstated in 361; attended the second oecumenical Council in 381 as an advocate of the Nicene orthodoxy (although for some time he had sided with the semi-Arians); he died in 386. He wrote in 348, while he was presbyter of the Church in Jerusalem, twenty-three Catechetical Lectures ( Katecheseis ) or Sermons on the baptismal Creed used in Jerusalem, which he asserts to be the faith of the universal Church (Cat.XVII. § 3), also 'the holy and apostolic faith' (Cat. XVIII. § 32), although Cyril knows nothing of a literal composition by the Apostles. The Lectures were delivered to those who hoped to be baptized on the ensuing Easter eve. The Creed thus explained is not given at length in the manuscripts, since it was not to be written on paper, but to be engraved on the memory, and to serve to the baptized Christian as a viaticum for his journey through life, by which he might test the doctrine of Cyril or any other teacher. He claims for it antiquity and agreement with the Scripture from which it was drawn (Cat. V. § 12).

 From these Lectures and ancient headings A. Aug. Touttée, the Benedictine editor of the Works of Cyril (Venet. 1763), has compiled the following creed. It closely resembles the Nicene Creed of 325, but, like that of Eusebius, it avoids the homoousion. At the same time, it contains most of the additional clauses of the Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

 Comp. the critical edition of Cyril's Lectures by Reischl and Rupp, Munich, 1848-1850; my Church History, Vol. III. pp. 924 sqq.; Swainson, l.c. pp. 16 sqq.; Hort, l.c. pp. 84 sqq. The fourth Catechetical Lecture of Cyril, in which he goes over the creed in a summary way, is printed in Heurtley's De Fide et Symbolo, pp. 42-60.

 Longer Formula.

 Pisteuomen eis hena Theon Patera pantokratora,

 We believe in one God the Father Almighty,

 poieten ouranou kai ges, horaton te panton kai aoraton;

 Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;

 Kai eis hena kurion Iesoun Christon,

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ,

 ton huion tou theou ton monogene,

 the only-begotten Son of God,

 ton ek huion tou patros gennethenta, pro panton aionon,

 begotten of the Father before all ages,

 theon alethinon,

 very God,

 di hou ta panta egeneto;

 by whom all things were made;

 en sarki paragenomenon, [33]

 who appeared in the flesh,

 kai enanthropesanta

 and became man

 [ek parthenou kai pneumatos agiou] [34]

 [of the Virgin and the Holy Ghost]; [35]

 staurothenta kai taphenta,

 was crucified and was buried;

 anastanta te trite hemera,

 rose on the third day;

 kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous

 and ascended into heaven,

 ai kathisanta ek dexion tou patros,

 and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;

 kai erchomenon en doxe,

 and will come again in glory,

 krinai zontas kai nekrous;

 to judge the quick and the dead;

 hou tes basleias ouk esai telos.

 of whose kingdom there shall be no end.

 Kai eis hen hagion pneuma,

 And in one Holy Ghost,

 ton parakleton,

 the Advocate,

 to lalesan en tois prophetais.

 who spake in the Prophets.

 Kai eis hen baptisma metanoias eis aphesin hamartion,

 And in one baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;

 kai eis mian hagian katholiken ekklesian,

 and in one holy Catholic Church;

 kai eis sarkos anastasin,

 and in the resurrection of the flesh,

 kai eis zoen aionion.

 and in life everlasting.

 Shorter Formula.

 In his Catechetical Lectures, XIX. § 9 (ed. Touttée, p. 309), where he gives an account of the baptismal service in the church of Jerusalem, Cyril mentions also a much briefer creed, as follows:

 Pisteuo eis ton Patera,   I believe in the Father, kai eis ton Huion,      and in the Son, kai eis to hagion Pneuma,   and in the Holy Ghost, kai eis hen bartisma metanoias. and in one baptism of repentance.

 Note.--This is regarded by Touttée, Walch, and Swainson as an independent formula, as the shorter baptismal creed of the church of Jerusalem. On the other hand, Hahn (p. 58) endeavors to show from the context that this form was not properly a baptismal confession, but a preparatory form of consecration ( he prhos ton Christon suntaxis ) following the formula of renunciation ( meta ten apotaxin tou Satana ). It resembles in brevity the creed of Cyprian (p. 20), and, judging from its simplicity, is much older than the longer form.



 [33] Ussher, Bull, and Hahn read sarkothenta, was made flesh.

 [34] The words in brackets are doubtful, and are so considered by Touttée, Hahn, and Swainson.

 [35] The words in brackets are doubtful, and are so considered by Touttée, Hahn, and Swainson.   


  Two Creeds of Epiphanius. A.D. 374.

 Ancoratus, cap. 119, 120.

 Epiphanius, the learned champion of a narrow and intolerant orthodoxy, was born in Palestine about 310, of Jewish parentage; Bishop of Salamis or Constantia, the capital of the island of Cyprus, 367; died at sea, 403. He has preserved to us two creeds at the close of his work Ancoratus ( ho ankurotos, secured as by an anchor, the Anchored One), which was written in 373 or 374, at the request of several presbyters in Pamphylia, as an exposition of the Nicene faith of the Holy Trinity, in opposition to the heresies of his age. The creeds are given as brief summaries of the preceding instruction. See Epiphanii 0pera, ed. Petavius, Tom. II. pp. 122 sqq.; ed. Migne, Patrol. Vol. XLIII. pp. 231 sqq.; also Hahn, l.c. pp. 56 sqq.; and Swainson, l.c. pp. 85 sqq. Comp. my Church History, Vol. III. pp. 926 sqq.

 First Formula.

 This is the shorter formula, and is chiefly interesting for its literal agreement with the fuller Nicene Creed as adopted, according to the current opinion, seven years afterwards by the second oecumenical Council (381). At the same time, it retains several clauses from the original Nicene Creed (325), especially 'Light of Light,' and the concluding anathema against the Arians. Epiphanius introduces this formula by the remark that 'this is the holy faith of the Catholic Church ( ten hagian pistin tes katholikes ekklesias ), as the holy and only Virgin of God [i.e., the pure Church] received it from the holy Apostles and the Lord to keep,' and that 'every person preparing for the holy laver of baptism must learn it as the common mother of us all confesses it, saying, We believe,' etc.

 Pisteuomen eis hena Theon Patera pantokratora,

 We believe in one God the Father Almighty,

 poieten ouranou te kai ges, horaton te panton kai aoraton;

 Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;

 Kai eis hena Kurion Iesoun Christon,

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ,

 ton Huion tou Theou ton monogene,

 the only-begotten Son of God,

 ton ek tou Patros gennethenta pro panton ton aionon,

 begotten of the Father before all worlds,

 toutestin ek tes ousias tou Patros,

 that is, of the substance of the Father,

 phos ek photos,

 Light of Light,

 Theon alethinon ek Theou halethinou,

 very God of very God,

 gennethenta, ou poiethenta,

 begotten, not made,

 homoousion to Patri;

 being of one substance (consubstantial) with the Father;

 di hou ta panta egeneto, ta te en tois ouranois kai ta en te ge;

 by whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on earth;

 ton di hemas tous anthropous kai dia ten hemeteran soterian katelthonta ek ton ouranon,

 who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven.

 kai sarkothenta ek Pneumatos Hagiou kai Marias tes Parthenon, kai enanthropesanta;

 and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, and was made man;

 staurothenta te huper hemon epi Pontiou Pilatou,

 He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate,

 kai pathonta, kai taphenta,

 and suffered, and was buried;

 kai anastanta te trite hemera,

 and the third day He rose again,

 kata tas graphas;

 according to the Scriptures;

 kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous,

 and ascended into heaven,

 kai kathezomenon ek dexion tou Patros,

 and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;

 kai palin erchomenon meta doxes

 and he shall come again, with glory,

 krinai zontas kai nekrous;

 to judge the quick and the dead;

 hou tes basileias ouk estai telos ;

 of whose kingdom shall be no end;

 Kai eis to Pneuma to Hagion,

 And in the Holy Ghost,

 kurion, kai zoopoion,

 the Lord, and Giver of life,

 to ek tou Patros ekporeuomenon,

 who proceedeth from the Father,

 to sun Patri kai Huio sumproskunoumenon kai sundoxazomenon,

 who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified,

 to lalesan dia ton propheton ;

 who spake by the Prophets;

 eis mian hagian katholiken kai apostoliken Ekklesian ;

 in one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church;

 homologoumen hen baptisma eis aphesin hamartion ;

 we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins;

 prosdokomen anastasin nekron,

 and we look for the resurrection of the dead;

 kai zoen tou mellontos aionos.

 and the life of the world to come.

 Tous de legontas, en pote hote ouk en, kai prin gennethenai ouk en, e hoti ex ouk onton egeneto, e ex heteras hupostaseos e ousias, phaskontas einai rheuston [36] e alloioton ton tou Theou Huion, toutous anathematizei he katholike kai apostolike Ekklesia.

 But those who say, 'There was a time when he was not,' and, 'He was not before he was begotten,' or, 'He was made of nothing [of things that are not],' or 'of another substance or essence,' saying that the Son of God is effluent [37] or variable, these the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes.

 Note.--Epiphanius adds: 'And this faith was delivered from the holy Apostles and in the Church, [in] the holy city, from all the holy bishops ( apo panton homou ton hagion episkopon ), together more than three hundred and ten in number.' This evidently refers to the Council of Nicæa (which consisted of three hundred and eighteen bishops), and corrects the preceding statement of the apostolic origin of the Nicene Creed, which is true only of the substance, not of the form. But the reference itself is incorrect; for the creed of Epiphanius does not agree with the original Nicene Creed of 325, but word for word with the Nicæno-Constantinopolitan Creed of 381, except that it retains from the former the clauses toutestin ek tes ousias tou Patros, theon ek theou, and the concluding anathema, which was wisely omitted by the Council of Constantinople. It is evident, therefore, that the important clauses which that council added to the original Nicene Creed, especially after the words 'in the Holy Ghost,' existed at least as early as 374, and in part much earlier, since some of them are found also in Cyril (348), and even in the heretical creed of Arius, as well as in the Western creeds of Tertullian and Irenæus. It is questionable whether the Council of Constantinople adopted a new creed differing from that of Nicæa. It appears, indeed, in the seventh canon of the Constantinopolitan Council (in Mansi's Collection, Tom. III. pp. 564 and 565), but it is wanting in the paraphrase from the Arabic (in Mansi), among the canons of Johannes Scholasticus (d. 578), and in the epitome of Symeon Magister, who both give only six canons; nor is it mentioned by the Church historians Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, or by any document before the fourth oecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 451, where the enlarged Nicene Creed was adopted, though not without objection from the Egyptian bishops. It seems, therefore, that the additions to the Nicene Creed, while they certainly existed several years before 381, and may have been put forward at the Council of Constantinople, were, nevertheless, not generally received till 451, See Vol. I. p. 25; Lumby, l.c. pp. 71-84; Swainson, p. 95; Hort, pp. 73 sqq.

 Second Formula.

 The second formula of Epiphanius is his own production, and is an enlargement or paraphrase of the first, i.e., the Nicene Creed, with several additional clauses against heretical opinions, especially against Apollinarianism (comp. Ancor. c. 75-81) and Pneumatomachianism (comp. Ancor. c. 65-74). He introduces it by the remark: 'Inasmuch as several other heresies, one after another, have appeared in this our generation, that is, in the tenth year of the reign of the Emperors Valentinianus and Valens, and the sixth of Gratianus [i.e., A.D. 374], ... you as well as we, and all the orthodox bishops--in one word, the whole Catholic Church, especially those who come to holy baptism--make the following confession, in agreement with the faith of those holy fathers above set forth,' etc. The formula was probably intended for converts from the Apollinarian, Pneumatomachian, and Origenistic heresies. As a general baptismal confession it is too long and minute.

 Pisteuomen eis hena Theon Patera pantokratora,

 We believe in one God the Father Almighty,

 panton aoraton te kai horaton poieten ;

 Maker of all things, invisible and visible;

 Kai eis hena Kurion Iesoun Christon,

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ,

 ton Huion tou Theou,

 the Son of God,

 gennethenta ek Theou Patros monogene,

 the only-begotten Son of God the Father,

 toutestin ek tes ousias tou Patros,

 that is, of the substance of the Father,

 Theon ek Theou,

 God of God,

 Phos ek Photos,

 Light of Light,

 Theon alethinon ek Theou alethinou,

 very God of very God,

 gennethenta ou poiethenta,

 begotten, not made,

 homoousion to Patri,

 being of one substance with the Father,

 di hou ta panta egeneto, ta te en tois ouranois kai ta en te ge, horata te kai aorata ;

 by whom all things were made, both those in the heavens and those on earth, things visible and invisible;

 ton di hemas tous anthropous kai dia ten hemeteran soterian katelthonta, kai sarkothenta,

 who for us men, and for our salvation, came down, and was made flesh,

 toutesti gennethenta teleios ek tes hagias Marias tes aeiparthenou dia pneumatos hagiou, enanthropesanta,

 that is, begotten perfectly of the holy ever-Virgin Mary by the Holy Ghost, who became man,

 toutesti teleion [38] anthropon labonta,

 that is, assumed a perfect man,

 psuchen kai soma kai noun kai panta, ei ti estin anthropos, choris hamartias,

 soul and body and mind (spirit), and all that belongs to man, without sin,

 ouk apo spermatos andros, oude en anthropo

 not of the seed of man, nor in a man,

 all' eis heauton sarka anaplasanta eis mian hagian henoteta,

 but forming for himself flesh into one holy unity,

 ou kathaper en prophetais enepneuse te kai elalese kai energesen,

 not, as in the Prophets, where he breathed and spoke and wrought,

 alla teleios enanthropesanta,

 but he became perfectly man,

 ho gar Logos sarx egeneto,

 for the Word became flesh,

 ou tropen hupostas,

 not undergoing any change,

 oude metabalon ten heautou theoteta eis anthropoteta,

 nor converting his Godhead into Manhood,

 eis mian sunenosanta eautou hagian teleioteta te kai theoteta

 [but] uniting into his own one holy perfection and Godhead,

 (ehis gar estin Kurios Iesous Christos kai ou duo,

 (for there is one Lord Jesus Christ and not two,

 ho autos Theos, ho autos Kureos, ho autos basileus);

 the same God, the same Lord, the same King);

 pathonta de ton auton en sarki,

 the same suffered in the flesh;

 kai anastanta,

 and rose again;

 kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous en auto to somati, [39]

 and went up into heaven in the same body,

 endoxos kathisanta en dexia tou Patros;

 sat down gloriously at the right hand of the Father;

 erchomenon en auto to somati en doxe

 is coming in the same body in glory,

 krinai zontas kai nekrous;

 to judge the quick and the dead;

 hou tes basileias ouk estai telos.

 of whose kingdom there shall be no end.

 Kai eis to Hagion Pneuma pisteuomen,

 And we believe in the Holy Ghost,

 to lalesan en nomo,

 who spake in the Law,

 kai keruxan en tois prophetais,

 and preached in the Prophets,

 kai kataban epi ton Hiordanen,

 and came down at the Jordan,

 laloun en hapostolois,

 who speaks in Apostles,

 oikoun en hagiois;

 dwells in saints;

 houtos de pisteuomen en auto,

 and thus we believe in Him,

 hoti esti Pneuma hagion,

 that there is a Holy Spirit,

 Pneuma Theou,

 a Spirit of God,

 Pneuma teleion,

 a perfect Spirit,

 Pneuma parakleton,

 a Paraclete Spirit,



 ek tou Patros ekporeuomenon,

 proceeding from the Father,

 kai ek tou Huiou lambanomenon [40] kai pisteuomenon.

 and received [receiving] from the Son, and believed.

 Pisteuomen eis mian katholiken kai apostoliken ekklesian,

 We believe in one Catholic and Apostolic Church;

 kai eis hen baptisma metanoias,

 and in one baptism of repentance;

 kai eis anastasin nekron,

 and in the resurrection of the dead;

 kai krisin dikaian psuchon kai somaton,

 and in a righteous judgment of the souls and bodies;

 kai eis basileian ouranon,

 and in the kingdom of heaven;

 kai eis zoen aionion.

 and in life everlasting.

 Tous de legontas, hoti en pote hote ouk en ho Huios e to Pneuma to Hagion, e hoti ex ouk onton egeneto, e ex heteras hupostaseos e ousias, phaskontas einai trepton e alloioton ton Huion tou Theou e to Hagion Pneuma, toutous anathematizei he katholike kai he apostolike ekklesia, he meter umon te kai hemon. Kai palin anathematizomen tous me homologountas anastasin nekron, kai pasas tas haireseis tas me ek tautes tes orthes pisteos ousas.

 But those who say, 'There was a time when the Son or the Holy Ghost was not,' or, 'He was made of nothing,' or 'of a different substance or essence,' saying 'the Son of God or the Holy Ghost is changeable or variable,' these the Catholic and Apostolic Church, your and our mother, anathematizes. And again we anathematize those who will not confess the resurrection of the dead, and all the heresies which are not of this, the right faith.

 Note.--This creed has a striking resemblance to the 'Interpretation of the [Nicene] Symbol' ( Hermeneia eis to sumbolon ), which is ascribed to St. Athanasius, and printed in the first volume of the Benedictine edition of his Works, pp. 1278 sq.; in Migne, Vol. XXVI. p. 1252; and in Caspari, Vol. I. pp. 2 sqq. Formerly overlooked by Walch and Hahn, it has been recently examined by Caspari (Vol. I. pp. 1-72), and conclusively proven to be an abridged modification of the formula of Epiphanius; for the original clauses of this formula agree in spirit and style with Epiphanius and with many passages of his Ancoratus and Panarium. Moreover, Athanasius died May 2, 373 (see Larsow, Die Festbriefe des heil. Athanasius, p. 46), i.e., about a year before the composition of the Ancoratus; and he was generally opposed to anti-heretical creeds beyond that of Nicæa, which he considered to be 'sufficient for the refutation of all impiety.' His Ekthesis pisteos (Hahn, pp. 175 sq.) is no proof to the contrary, for this is a subjective exposition of his personal faith, and was not intended to be a baptismal confession. Swainson (p. 89), without alluding to the lengthy discussion of Caspari, likewise denies the Athanasian authorship of the Ermeneia.

 The Cappadocian Creed, ascribed to St. Basil, stands between the two Epiphanian Creeds, and is likewise an enlargement of the Nicene Creed with reference to the Apollinarian heresy. See Hort, pp. 120 sqq.



 [36] Substituted for ktiston e trepton, made or changeable, in the Nicene Formula of 325.

 [37] Substituted for ktiston e trepton, made or changeable, in the Nicene Formula of 325.

 [38] teleion, as also the preceding teleios and the following noun , are evidently directed against the Apollinarian heresy, which taught only a partial incarnation, and made the divine Logos take the place of the reasonable soul.

 [39] Probably directed against Origen's view of the spiritual resurrection body.

 [40] The codices read lambanomenon and lambanonta. Caspari (Vol. I. p. 5) conjectures lambanon with reference to John xvi. 14, ek tou emou lempsetai, and Ancor. c. 7; Pan. hær. 74, c. 1, where Epiphanins uses lambanon .   


  The Creed of the Apostolical Constitutions. About A.D. 350.

 Lib. VII. cap. 41 (ed. Ueltzen, p. 183).

 Irenæus, Tertullian, and Novatian give us most of the clauses of the Western or Apostles' Creed in its old Roman form (see next section); while Eusebius, Cyril, and Epiphanius bring us to the very text of the Eastern or Nicene Creed.

 The following creed from the Constitutiones Apostolicæ (a compilation of several generations) belongs to the Eastern family, and resembles closely the longer formula of Cyril of Jerusalem (p. 31), with some original clauses on the Holy Spirit. It originated probably in Antioch about the middle of the fourth century, though some trace it as far back as 280. It was used as a baptismal confession; hence baptizomai after pisteuo, and again before 'The Holy Spirit, that is, the Paraclete, who wrought in all the saints from the beginning of the world, at last was sent to the Apostles from the Father, according to the promise of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and after the Apostles to all believers in the holy Catholic Church.'

 Pisteuo kai baptizomai eis hena agenneton monon alethinon Theon pantokratora, ton Patera tou Christou, ktisten kai demiourgon ton hapanton, ex hou ta panta;

 Kai eis ton Kurion Iesoun ton Christon, ton monogene autou Huion, ton prototokon pases ktiseos, ton pro aionon eudokia tou Patros gennethenta [ou ktisthenta], di hou ta panta egeneto ta en ouranois kai epi ges, horata te kai aorata; ton ep' eschaton hemeron katelthonta ex ouranon, kai sarka analabonta, kai ek tes hagias parthenou Marias gennethenta, kai politeusamenon hosios kata tous nomous tou Theou kai Patros autou, kai staurothenta epi Pontiou Pilatou, kai apothanonta huper hemon, kai anastanta ek nekron meta to pathein te trite hemera, kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kai kethesthenta en dexia tou Patros, kai palin erchomenon epi sunteleia tou aionos meta doxes, krinai zontas kai nekrous, hou tes basileias houk estai telos;

 Baptizomai kai eis to Pneuma to Hagion, toutesti ton Parakleton, to energesan en pasin tois ap' aionos hagiois, husteron de apostalen kai tois apostolois para tou Patros, kata ten epangelian tou Soteros hemon, Kuriou Iesou Christou, kai meta tous apostolous de pasi tois pisteuousin en te hagia katholike ekklesia; eis sarkos anastasin, kai eis aphesin hamartion, kai eis basileian ouranon, kai eis zoen tou mellontos aionos.   


 COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE ANTE-NICENE RULES OF FAITH, AS RELATED TO THE APOSTLES' CREED AND THE NICENE CREED. The Apostles' Creed. (Rome.) About A.D. 340. Later additions are in italics. Irenæus. (Gaul.) A.D. 170. Tertullian. (North Africa.) A.D. 200. Cyprian. (Carthage.) A.D. 250. Novatian.  (Rome.) A.D. 250. Origen. (Alexandria.) A.D. 230.

 I believe

 We believe

 We believe

 I believe

 We believe

 (We believe in)

 1. in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth;

 1. ... in one God the Father Almighty, who made heaven and earth, and the sea, and all all that in them is;

 1. ... in one God, the Creator of the world, who produced all out of nothing ...

 1. in God the Father;

 1. in God the Father and Almighty Lord;

 1. One God, who created and framed everything ... Who in the last days sent

 2. and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord;

 2. And in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God [our Lord];

 2. And in the Word, his Son, Jesus Christ;

 2. in his Son Christ;

 2. in the Son of God, Christ Jesus, our Lord God;

 2. Our Lord Jesus Christ ... born of the Father before all creation ...

 3. who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary;

 3. Who became flesh [of the Virgin] for our salvation;

 3. Who through the Spirit and power of God the Father descended into the Virgin Mary, was made flesh in her womb, and born of her;


 3. born of the Virgin and the Holy Ghost ... made incarnate while remaining God ...

 4. suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried;

 4. and his suffering [under Pontius Pilate];

 4. Was fixed on the cross [under Pontius Pilate], was dead and buried,


 4. suffered in truth, died;

 5. He descended into Hades; the third day he rose from the dead;

 5. and his rising from the dead;

 5. rose again the third day;


 5. rose from the dead;

 6. He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty;

 6. and his bodily assumption into heaven;

 6. was taken up into heaven and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father;


 6. was taken up ...

 7. from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 7. and his coming from heaven in the glory of the Father to comprehend all things under one head, ... and to execute righteous judgment over all.

 7. He will come to judge the quick and the dead.


 8. And I believe in the Holy Ghost;

 8. And in the Holy Ghost ...

 8. And in the Holy Ghost, the Paraclete, the Sanctifier, sent by Christ from the Father.

 8. in the Holy Ghost;

 8. in the Holy Ghost (promised of old to the Church, and granted in the appointed and fitting time).

 8. the Holy Ghost, ... united in honor and dignity with the Father and the Son.

 9. the holy Catholic Church; the communion of saints;



 10. the forgiveness of sins;


 10. I believe the forgiveness of sins,


 11. the resurrection of the body;

 11. And that Christ shall come from heaven to raise up all flesh, ... and to adjudge the impious and unjust ... to eternal fire,

 11. And that Christ will, after the restoration of the flesh, receive his saints


 12. and the life everlasting. [41]

 12. and to give to the just and holy immortality and eternal glory.

 12. into the enjoyment of eternal life and promises of heaven, and judge the wicked with eternal fire.

 12. and eternal life through the holy Church.


 The Apostles' Creed. Gregory. (Neo Cæsarea.) A.D. 270. Lucian. (Antioch.) A.D. 300. Eusebius. (Cæsarea, Pal.) A.D.325. Cyril. (Jerusalem.) A.D. 350. Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan Creed. A.D. 325 and 881. I believe [We believe in] [We believe in] We believe We believe We [I] believe

 1. in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth;

 1. one God the Father;

 1. One God the Father Almighty, Maker and Provider of all things;

 1. in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible;

 1. in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;

 1. in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible;

 2. And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord;

 2. one Lord, ... God of God, the image and likeness of the Godhead, ... the Wisdom and Power which produces all creation, the true Son of the true Father ...

 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ his Son, begotten of the Father before all ages, God of God, Wisdom, Life, Light ...

 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, the only-begotten Son, the first-born of every creature,  begotten of God the Father before all ages; by whom all things were made;

 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages, very God, by whom all things were made;

 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; [God of God], Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father ( omoousion to Patri ), by whom all things were made;

 3. who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary;

 3. who was born of a Virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man ...

 3. who for our salvation was made flesh and lived among men;

 3. who  was made flesh, and became man;

 3. who, for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost and [of, ex] the Virgin Mary, and was made man;

 4. suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified,  dead, and buried;

 4. who suffered for us;

 4. and suffered;

 4. was crucified, and was buried;

 4. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried;

 5. He descended into Hades; the third day he rose from the dead;

 5. and rose for us on the third day;

 5. and rose on the third day;

 5. rose on the third day;

 5. and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures;

 6. He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty;

 6. and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father;

 6. and ascended to the Father;

 6. and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;

 6. and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;

 7. from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 7. and again is coming with glory and power, to judge the quick and the dead;

 7. and will come again with glory, to judge the quick and the dead.

 7. and will come again in glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end;

 7. and he shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end;

 8. And I believe in the Holy Ghost;

 8. one Holy Ghost, ... the minister of sanctification, in whom is revealed God the Father, who is over all things and through all things, and God the Son, who is through all things-- a perfect Trinity, not divided nor differing in glory, eternity, and sovereignty ...

 8. And in the Holy Ghost, given for consolation and sanctification and perfection to those who believe ...

 8. We believe also in the Holy Ghost.

 8. And in one Holy Ghost, the Advocate, who spake in the Prophets.

 8. And [I believe] in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and Giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father [and the Son, Filioque], who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spake by the Prophets.

 9. the holy Catholic Church; the communion of saints;


 9. And in one baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;

 9. And [I believe] in one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church;

 10. the forgiveness of sins;


 10. and in one holy Catholic Church;

 10. we [I] acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins;

 11. the resurrection of the body;


 11. and in the resurrection of the flesh;

 11. and we [I] look for the resurrection of the dead;

 12. and the life everlasting.


 12. and in life everlasting ( zoen aionion ).

 12. and the life of the world to come ( zoen tou mellontos aionos ). The words in italics in the last column are additions of the second oecumenical Council (381); the words in brackets are Western changes.   


 [41] The Roman Creed according to Rufinus (380) ends with carnis resurrectionem but the Greek version of the Roman Creed by Marcellus (341) with zoen aionion.   








 Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem; Creatorem cæli et terræ.

 Pisteuo eis ThEON PATERA, pantokratora, poieten ouranou kai ges.

 Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum; qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria virgine; passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus; descendit ad inferna; [43] tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; ascendit ad cælos; sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis; inde venturus (est) judicare vivos et mortuos.

 Kai (eis) IESOUN ChRISTON, huion autou ton monogene, ton kurion hemon, ton sullephthenta ek pneumatos hagiou, gennethenta ek Marias tes parthenou, pathonta epi Pontiou Pilatou, staurothenta, thanonta, kai taphenta, katelthonta eis ta katotata , [44] te trite hemera anastanta apo ton nekron, anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kathezomenon en dexia theou patros pantodunamou, ekaithen erchomenon krinai zontas kai nekrous.

 Credo in Spiritum Sanctum; sanctam ecclesiam catholicam; sanctorum communionem; remissionem peccatorum; carnis resurrectionem; vitam æternam. Amen.

 Pisteuo eis to PNEUMA TO HaGION, hagian katholiken ekklesian, hagion koinonian, aphesin hamartion, sarkos anastasin, zoen aionion. Amen.


 I believe in God the Father Almighty; Maker of heaven and earth.

 And in Jesus Christ his only (begotten) Son our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; he descended into hell [Hades, spirit-world]; [45] the third day he rose from the dead; he ascended into heaven; and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic Church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body [flesh]; [46] and the life everlasting. Amen.



 [42] The Latin and Greek texts of the Apostles' Creed are taken from the Psalterium Græcum et Romanum, erroneously ascribed to Pope Gregory the Great, first published from a MS. preserved in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, by Archbishop Ussher: De Romanæ Ecclesiæ Symbolo Apostolico vetere, London, 1647. I used the Geneva edition, 1722, pp. 6, 7. The MS. is written in two parallel columns, the one Latin, the other Greek, but the Greek likewise in Latin characters. The same text is given by Hahn, Biblioth. der Symb. p. 10, and Heutley (in Greek), Harmonia Symb. pp. 81-83. The Latin text agrees with the creed of Pirminius (d. 758) in Heurtley, p. 71. Caspari discovered and published four other Greek translations from mediæval MSS. with slight variations, Vol. III. pp. 11 sqq.

 [43] See Footnote 45.

 [44] See Footnote 45.

 [45] Descendit ad inferna (other Latin copies: ad inferos , to the inhabitants of the spirit-world; so also in the Athanasian Symbol), katelthonta eis ta katotata (other Eastern creeds: eis hadou , viz., topon , or eis ton haden ), he descended into Hades. This clause was unknown in the older creeds, though believed in the Church, and was transferred into the Roman symbol after the fifth century, probably from that of Aquilcia, A.D. 390, where it first appears among Latin creeds, as we learn from Rufinus. In the East it is found before in Arian creeds (about 360). After this we meet it again in the Creed of Venantius Fortunatus, A.D. 590, who had the Creed of Rufinus before him. The words katotata and inferna, taken from Eph. iv. 9, correspond here to the Greek Haides , which occurs eleven times in the Greek Testament, viz., Matt. xi. 23; xvi. 18; Luke x. 15; xvi. 23; Acts ii. 27, 31; 1 Cor. xv. 55; Rev. i. 18; vi. 8; xx. 13, 14, and is always incorrectly translated hell in the English Version, except in 1 Cor. xv. 55. Hades signifies, like the Hebrew Sheol, the unseen spirit-world, the abode of all the departed, both the righteous and wicked; while hell (probably from the Saxon word helan, to cover, to conceal), at least in modern usage, is a much narrower conception, and signifies the state and place of eternal damnation, like the Hebrew gehenna, which occurs twelve times in the Greek Testament, and is so translated in the English Bible, viz., Matt. v. 22, 29, 30; x. 28; xviii. 9; xxiii. 15, 33; Mark ix. 43, 45, 47; Luke xii. 5; James iii. 6. The American editions of the Book of Common Prayer leave it optional with the minister to use, in the Creed, hell, or the place of departed spirits; but it would be much better to restore or popularize the Greek Hades. The current translation, hell, is apt to mislead, and excludes the important fact--the only one which we certainly know of the mysterious triduum --that Christ was in Paradise in the time between the crucifixion and the resurrection, according to his own declaration to the penitent thief, Luke xxiii. 43. Some connect the descent into Hades with the resurrection in one article; while others, on the contrary, connect it with the preceding article by placing a (,) after buried. It forms rather a separate article, and should be included in (;), as above. The clause has been explained in three different ways: 1. It is identical with sepultus (Rufinus), or means 'continued in the state of death and under the power of death' till the resurrection (Westminster divines). This makes it a useless repetition in figurative language. 2. It signifies the intensity of Christ's sufferings on the cross, where he tasted the pain of hell for sinners (Calvin and the Heidelberg Catechism). This is inconsistent with the order of the clause between death and resurrection. 3. An actual self-manifestation of Christ after the crucifixion to all the departed spirits, Luke xxiii. 43; Acts ii. 27, 31; 1 Pet. iii. 18, 19; iv.6; comp. Eph. iv. 8, 9; Col. ii. 15; Phil. ii. 10; Rev. i. 18. As such the descent is a part of the universality of the scheme of redemption, and forms the transition from the state of humiliation to the state of exaltation. This is the historical explanation, according to the belief of the ancient Church, but leaves much room for speculation concerning the object and effect of the descent.

 [46] 'Resurrection of the body.' The older English translations of the Creed had the literal rendering flesh ( caro , sarx ), by which the ancient Church protested against spiritualistic conceptions of the Gnostics. But this may be misunderstood in a grossly materialistic sense, while the resurrection of the body is unobjectionable; comp. 1 Cor. xv. 50. According to Heurtley, l.c. p. 147, the change of flesh into body was first made 1543, in 'The necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man,' set forth by Henry VIII.; but in the Interrogative Creed, used at Baptism and at the Visitation of the Sick, flesh is retained.   



 Forma Romana Vetus. Symbolum Augustini (354-430).

 Before A.D. 341. [47]

 Hippo Regius, Africa (Circ. 400). [48]

 Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

 Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

 Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum;

 Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unigenitum (unicum), Dominum nostrum;

 qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto et Maria virgine;

 qui natus est per Spiritum Sanctum ex virgine Maria;

 sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus, et sepultus;

 sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus est, et sepultus;

 tertia die resurrexit a mortuis;

 tertio die resurrexit a mortuis;

 ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dexteram Patris;

 ascendit in cælum, sedet ad dexteram Patris;

 inde venturus judicare vivos et mortuos.

 inde venturus est judicaturus (ad judicandos) vivos et mortuos.

 Et in Spiritum Sanctum;

 Credo et in Spiritum Sanctum;

 Sanctam, Ecclesiam;

 sanctam ecclesiam;

 remissionem peccatorum;

 remissionem peccatorum;

 carnis resurrectionem.

 carnis resurrectionem (? in vitam eternam).

 Professio Fidei Marcelli Ancyrani. Before A.D. 341. [49]

 The Roman Form Translated.

 Pisteuo eis ThEON [PATERA], pantokratora;

 I believe in God the Father Almighty.

 kai eis ChRISTON IESOUN, ton huion autou ton monogene, ton kurion hemon,

 And in Jesus Christ his only-begotten Son our Lord,

 ton gennethenta ek pneumatos hagiou kai Marias tes parthenou,

 who was born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary;

 ton epi Pontiou Pilatou, staurothenta, kai taphenta,

 crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried;

 kai te trite hemera anastanta ek ton nekron,

 the third day he rose from the dead;

 anabanta eis tous ouranous, kai kathemenon en dexia tou patros,

 he ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father;

 hothen erchetai krinein zontas kai nekrous;

 from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 kai eis to HaGION PNEUMA,

 And in the Holy Ghost;

 hagian ekklesian,

 the holy Church;

 aphesin hamartion,

 the forgiveness of sins;

 sarkos anastasin,

 the resurrection of the body;

 zoen aionion.

 (the life everlasting).



 [47] The Latin text of the old Roman Creed first appears in Rufinus, Espositio Symboli Apostolici, towards the end of the fourth century (compare the Appendix to the Opp. Cypriæni, ed. John Fell, Oxon. 1682, fol. pp. 17 sqq.), but it must be much older (see note 3 below). The faithful transmission of the Creed in the Church of the City of Rome is testified by Ambrose, Epistola ad Siricium Pap.: 'Credatur Symbolo Apostolorum, quod Ecclesia Romana intemeratum semper custodit et servat;' and by Vigilius of Thapsus, Contra Entych. 1. IV. c. I: 'Romæ . . . a temporibus Apostolorum usque ad nunc . . . ita fidelibus Symbolum traditur.' Compare Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole, pp. 3, 30, 42, 43. On the difference between the old Roman form and the enlarged received text, see Vol. I. pp. 21, 22.

 [48] With the early Roman form the Creed of the Church of Hippo Regius, as given in the second column from the genuine expositions of St. Augustine (De Fide et Symbolo; De Genesi ad literam; Enchiridion de Fide, Spe et Caritate), almost literally agrees; so also the Creed of Ambrose, as far as it is quoted in his Tractates in Symbolum Apostolorum (Hahn, p. 16). The close connection of Augustine with the Church of Rome and the Church of Milan (where he was baptized, 387) accounts for the agreement. In his genuine works, however, he never gives the Creed continuously, but, like Rufinus, mixed with the exposition in which it is imbedded, and at times it is difficult to separate it from the writer's own words. See Hahn, pp. 13-15, and especially Heurtley, pp. 32-47. The former adopts the reading de Spiritu S. et virg. Mar.; tertia die for tertio; and omits in vitam eternam.

 [49] The Greek text is to be found in Epiphanius, Hæres. LXXII. Opp. ed. Petav. Tom. I. p. 836; ed. Oehler in Corp. hæreseol. Tom. II. Pt. III. p. 52. It was inserted in a letter written by Marcellus of Ancyra to Julius I., Bishop of Rome, about 341 (or 337, as Hahn and Caspari assume), with a view to prove his orthodoxy against the Eusebians, who, under the impeachment of heresy, had previously deposed him. (As regards the chronology, see Zahn, Marcellus von Ancyra, Gotha, 1867, p. 68.) It occurs also, in Anglo-Saxon letters, in the Psaltery of King Athelstan (d. 941), to which Ussher first called attention. See a fac-simile in Heurtley, p. 80, and the copy and comments in Caspari, Vol. III. pp. 5 sqq. The Greek text of Marcellus differs from the Latin of Rufinus only by the omission of the predicate patera (Father) in the first article (which may be an error of the copyist), and by the addition of the last two words, zoen aionion (which occur also in the creed of Petrus Chrysologus of Ravenna). It was heretofore regarded as a translation of the Roman Creed, but Caspari, with a vast amount of learning (Vol. III. pp. 28 sqq.), has made it almost certain that it is the original Creed of the Roman Church, in which the Greek language prevailed during the first two centuries. It was probably transplanted to Rome from Asia Minor early in the second century. It is simpler and older than the rules of faith of Tertullian and Irenæus.   



 Ecclesia Aquilejensis. Venantius Fortunatus.

 Circ. A.D. 390. [50]

 Circ. A.D. 570. [51]

 Credo in Deo Patre omnipotente [invisibili et impassibili]. [52]

 Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem.

 Et in Jesu Christo, unico Filio ejus, Domino nostro;

 Et in Jesum Christum, unicum Filium;

 qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine;

 qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine;

 crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato, et sepultus;

 crucifixus sub Pontio Pilato;

 [descendit in inferna]; [53]

 descendit ad infernum;

 tertia die resurrexit a mortuis;

 tertia die resurrexit;

 ascendit in cælos;

 ascendit in cælum;

 sedet ad dexteram Patris;

 sedet ad dexteram Patris;

 inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos.

 judicaturus vivos et mortuos.

 Et in Spiritu Sancto;

 Credo in Sancto Spiritu ; [54]

 sanctam ecclesiam;

 sanctam ecclesiam;

 remissionem peccatorum;

 remissionem peccatorum;

 [hujus] [55] carnis resurrectionem.

 resurrectionem carnis.



 [50] Taken from Rufinus (d.410), Expos. Symboli Apost. (in Cyprian's Op., ed. Fell, Appendix, pp. 17 sqq.; also in Jerome's Works). Comp. Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole, etc., pp. 30 sqq.; Denzinger, Enchirid., p. 2; and Heurtley, Harmonia Symb., pp. 26 sqq. Hahn and Heurtley add the chief comments of Rufinus. He gives it as the Creed of the Church of Aquileja, where he was baptized (' illum ordinem sequimur, quem in Aquilejensi ecclesia per lavaori gratiam suscepimus '). There are, however, two other Creeds used in the churches of the province of Aquileja, of uncertain (possibly of earlier) date, which are more in harmony with the old Roman form, and omit invisibili et impassibili in the first article, hujus before carnis in the last article, and the clause descendit ad inferna. They were found and first published by De Rubeis (Venice, 1754), in his Dissertationes ... de Liturgicis Ritibus Ecclesiæ Forojuliensis, pp. 242, 243, 249; then by Walch. l.c. p. 54 sq.; Hahn, p. 39; and Heurtley, pp. 30 sqq.

 [51] From the Expositio Symboli of Venantius Honorius Clemens Fortunatus, an Italian presbyter, afterwards Bishop of Poitiers in France, d. about 600. He follows Rufinus very closely, and evidently made use of his Exposition. See Hahn, l.c. p. 33, and Heurtley, pp. 54-56. The Commentary on the Athanasian Creed, which Muratori and Waterland ascribe to the same author, is by an unknown Fortunatus of a later age. See Vol. I. pp. 34-37.

 [52] This is the oldest reading, as also in Jesu Christo, and in Spiritu Sancto. So Vallarsius (ed. of Jerome), Baluze (the Bened. editor of Cyprian), Walch, and Hahn. Other copies correct the ablative into the accusative: in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, invisibilem et impassibilem, in Jesum Christum. So the first printed ed. of 1468, the Bened. ed. of Jerome, Pamelius, Fell, Heurtley. On the article on the Holy Spirit, the majority of authorities agree in reading the ablative, which is confirmed by Fortunatus. The addition of the attributes invisible and impassible, which are not found in any other form, have a polemical reference to the heresy of the Patripassians and Sabellians, as Rufinus remarks (§ 5).

 [53] Rufinus (§ 18): 'Sciendum sane est quod in Ecclesiæ Romanæ Symbolo non habetur additum "Descendit ad inferna:" sed neque in Orientis Ecclesiis habetur hic sermo: vis tamen verbi eadem videtur esse in eo quod "sepultus" dicitur.'

 [54] Here Venantius adheres to the old Aquileian form, while in the first and second articles he uses the accusative. So also in his Commentaries: ' Ergo una divinitas in trinitate, quia dixit Symbolum; Credo in Deum Patrem, et in Jesum Christum, et in Spiritu Sancto. ' See Hahn, p. 36; Heurtley, p. 55.

 [55] The exceptional hujus is thus explained by Rufinus (§ 43): ' Ita fit ut unicuique animæ non confusum aut extremeum corpus, sed unum quod habuerat reparetur; ut consequenter possit pro agonibus præsentis vitæ cum anima sua caro vel pudica coronari, vel impudica puniri. '   


  (d) AN OLD ITALIAN (Pseudo-Ambrosian) FORM OF THE APOSTLES' CREED. About A.D.  350.

 Credimus in Deum Patrem omnipotentem,

 We believe in God the Father Almighty,

 sæculorum omnium et creaturarum regem et conditorem.

 Ruler and Creator of all ages and creatures.

 Et in Jesum Christum, Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum;

 And in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord;

 qui natus est de Spiritu Sancto et ex Maria Virgine;

 who was born of the Holy Ghost and from the Virgin Mary;

 qui sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus et sepultus;

 who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried;

 tertia die resurrexit a mortuis;

 on the third day he rose from the dead;

 ascendit in cælas;

 ascended into the heavens;

 sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris;

 sitteth on the right hand of God the Father;

 inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos.

 from thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 Et in Spiritum Sanctum;

 And in the Holy Ghost;

 et sanctam ecclesiam catholicam;

 and the holy Catholic Church;

 remissionem peccatorum;

 the remission of sins;

 carnis resurrectionem.

 the resurrection of the flesh.


 1. This baptismal creed was copied, together with an Exhortatio sancti Ambrosii ad neophytos de Symbolo, by Dr. Caspari from two MSS. in the Vienna Library, and published in the second volume of his Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols, Vol. II. (1869), pp. 128 sqq. It is inserted in this Exhortation, not in broken fragments, as is usual with ante-Nicene writers, but continuously, with a connecting itaque after credimus (p. 134). The Exhortation was directed against the heresy of Arianism, and borrows an expression ( Deus de Deo, lumen de lumine ) from the Nicene Creed, but makes no allusion to the Pneumatomachian controversy and its settlement in 381. It seems, therefore, to belong to the middle of the fourth century (350-370). Caspari denies the authorship of Ambrose (who was opposed to committing the creed to writing), and is inclined to assign it to Eusebius of Vercelli or Lucifer of Cagliari, in Sardinia, where the symbol may have been in use.

 2. The symbol resembles the older Italian forms of Rome, Milan, and Ravenna. With the Roman it omits the articles descendit ad inferna , communionem sanctorum , and vitam æternam; but, unlike the Roman, it has catholicam after ecclesiam , and the peculiar clause sæculorum omnium et creaturarum regem et conditorem. A similar addition occurs in the Symbol of Carthage ( universorum creatorem, regem sæculorum, invisibilem et immortalem ).

 3. Other Italian forms of the Western Creed, see in Hahn, pp. 6 sqq.




 This Table shows the date of the several Articles and the verbal variations of the Apostles' Creed, as far as they can be ascertained, from the earliest rules of faith to the eighth century, or from Irenæus to Pirminius. The first occurrence of any word or phrase of the Creed is marked by small capitals.

 Ultimate Text of the Western Creed. ------ Pirminius, A.D. 750. Credo (I believe): Art. I. Art. II. In Deum Patrem Omnipotentem Creatorem coeli et terræ Et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus Unicum Dominum nostrum In God the Father Almighty Maker of Heaven and Earth And in Jesus Christ His only Son Our Lord I. St. Irenæus, A.D. 200. [Pisteuo] eis hena Theon Patera pantokratora ton pepoiekota ton ouranon kai ten gen, kai tas thalassas kai panta ta en autois kai eis ena Christon Iesoun ton huion tou Theou (ton Kurion hemon, di hou ta panta) II. Tertullian, A.D. 220. In unicum Deum. Omnipotentem mundi conditoremm Jesum Christum Filium ejus III. St. Cyprian, A.D. 250. In Deum Patrem   in Christum Filium IV. Novatian, A.D. 260. In Deum Patrem Dominum omnipotentem in Christum Jesum Filium Dei Dominum Deum Nostrum V. Marcellus, A.D. 341. eis Theon pantokratora eis Christon Iesoun ton uion autou ton monogene ton Kurion hemon VI. Rufinus, A.D. 390. Aquileja. In Deum Patrem omnipotentem invisibilem et impassibilem et in Jesum Christum unicum Filium ejus Dominum nostrum VII. Rufinus, Rome, A.D. 390. In Deum Patrem omnipotentem et in Jesum Christum unicum Filium ejus Dominum nostrum VIII. St. Augustine, A.D. 400. In Deum Patrem omnipotentem et in Jesum Christum unicum Filium ejus also [unigenitum] Dominum nostrum IX. St. Nicetas, A.D. 450. In Deum Patrem omnipotentem et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus X. Eusebius Gallus, A.D. 550 (?). In Deum Patrem omnipotentem et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus Dominum nostrum XI. Sacramentarium Gallicanum, A.D. 650. In Deum Patrem omnipotentem creatorem coeli et terræ et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus unigenitum sempiternum Dominum nostrum


 A blank space indicates that the portion of the Article under which it occurs had not at that time come into general use. The Table is based on J. R. Lumby's History of the Creeds (Cambridge, 1873), p. 182, but contains several additions, especially the chief ante-Nicene rules of faith, viz., that of Irenæus, Adv. hær. I. 10 (Greek); III. 4 (Latin, in parentheses); and IV. 33 (Greek, in parentheses); and that of Tertullian, De virg. veland. c. 1; Adv. Prax. c. 2 (in parentheses); and De præscr. hær. c. 13 (in parentheses).

 Credo (I believe): Art. III. Art. IV. Qui Conceptus est De Spiritu Sancto Natus Ex Maria Virgine Passus Sub Pontio Pilato Crucifixus Mortuus Et Sepultus Who was Conceived By the Holy Ghost Born Of the Virgin Mary Suffered Under Pontius Pilate Was Crucified Dead And Buried ton sarkothenta huper tes hemteras soterias (anthropos egeneto) (Generationem) ten ek parthenou gennesin (ex Virgine) kai to pathos (sub pontio pilato) (missum a Patre in Virginem) (ex spiritu Patris Dei et virtute) Natum (carnem factum et ex ea natum) ex virgine maria crucifixum (passum) sub Pontio Pilato (mortuum) (et sepultum secundum Scripturas)

   ek pneumatos hagiou gennethenta kai Marias tes parthenou ton epi Pontiou Pilatou staurothenta kai taphenta qui de Spiritu Sancto natus est ex Maria Virgine sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus et sepultus qui de Spiritu Sancto natus est ex Maria Virgine sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus et sepultus qui  de Spiritu Sancto also [per Sp. Sanct.] natus est  ex Maria Virgine also [et] passus sub Pontio Pilato  crucifixus et sepultus qui  ex Spiritu Sancto natus est et Virgine Maria passus sub Pontio Pilato  qui conceptus est  de Spiritu Sancto natus est  ex Maria Virgine mortuus et sepultus qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto natus est ex Maria Virgine passus sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus mortuus et sepultus


 Ultimate Text of the Western Creed. ------ Pirminius, A.D. 750. Credo (I believe): Art. V. Art. VI. Descendit ad Inferna Tertia die Resurrexit A mortuis Ascendit ad coelos Sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris Omnipotentis He descended into Hell The third day He rose again From the Dead He ascended into Heaven And sitteth at the right hand Of God The Father Almighty I. St. Irenæus, A.D. 200.   kai ten egersin (et resurgens) ek nekron eis tous ouranous analepsin (et in claritate receptus) II. Tertullian, A.D. 220. tertia die resuscitatum (a Patre) (resurrexisse) e mortuis receptum in coelis (in coelis resumptum) (in coelos ereptum) sedentem nunc ad dexteram patris III. St. Cyprian, A.D. 250. IV. Novatian, A.D. 260. V. Marcellus, A.D. 341. kai te trite hemera anastanta ek ton nekron anabanta es tous ouranous kai kathemenon en dexia tou patros VI. Rufinus, A.D. 390. Aquileja. descendit in inferna tertia die resurrexit  a mortuis ascendit in coelos sedet ad dexteram  Patris VII. Rufinus, Rome, A.D. 390. tertia die resurrexit a mortuis ascendit in coelos sedet ad dexteram Patris VIII. St. Augustine, A.D. 400. tertio die resurrexit a mortuis ascendit in coelos sedet ad dexteram Patris IX. St. Nicetas, A.D. 450 tertio die resurrexit vivus a mortuis ascendit in coelos sedet ad dexteram Patris X. Eusebius Gallus, A.D. 550 (?).  tertia die resurrexit  a mortuis ascendit ad coelos sedet ad dexteram dei Patris omnipo-tentis XI. Sacramentarium Gallicanum, A.D. 650. Descendit ad Inferna tertia die  resurrexit a mortuis ascendit ad coelos sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis


 Credo (I believe): Art. VII. Art. VIII. Art. IX. Art. X. Art.XI. Art. XII. Inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos In Spiritum Sanctum Sanctum Ecclesiam Catholicam Sanctorum Communionem Remissionem peccatorum Carnis Resurrectionem Vitam Æternam From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead In the Holy Ghost The Holy Catholic Church The Communion of Saints The Forgiveness of Sins The Resurrection of the Body And the Life Everlasting ten ek ton ouranon en te doxe tou patros parousian autou epi to anakephailaio-sasthai ta panta (In gloria venturus) kai eis pneuma hagion     aphtharsian kai doxan aionian  venturum judicare vivos et mortuos (venturum cum claritate) (spiritum sanctum, Paracletum, Sanctificatorem fidei eorum qui credunt in Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum)   per carnis etiam resurrectionem (cum carnis restitutione)  (ad sumendos sanc. in vitæ æter. et promiss. coeles, fructum et ad profanos adjud. igni perpetuo)   in Spiritum Sanctum  per sanctam ecclesiam   remissionem peccatorum   vitam æternam   in Spiritum Sanctum hothen erchetai krinein zontas kai nekrous kai eis to agion Pneuma hagian ekklesian   aphesin amartion sarkos anastasin zoen aionion  inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritu Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam   remissionem peccatorum hujus carnis resurrectionem inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritu Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam   remissionem peccatorum carnis resurrectionem inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritum Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam   remissionem peccatorum carnis resurrectionem vitam æternam inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritum Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam catho-licam  remissionem peccatorum carnis hujus resurrectionem vitam æternam inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritum Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam sanctorum communionem  remissionem peccatorum carnis resurrectionem vitam æternam inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos et in Spiritum Sancto Sanctam Ecclesiam  Catholicam sanctorum communionem  remissionem peccatorum carnis resurrectionem vitam æternam







 (a) Forma Recepta Ecclesiæ Orientalis. A.D. 381.

 The Received Text of the Greek Church. [56]

 Latin Version of Dionysius Exiguus. [57]

 Pisteuomen eis hen ThEON PATERA pantokratora, poieten ouranou kai ges, horaton te panton kai aoraton.

 Credimus in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem; factorem coeli et terræ, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.

 Kai eis hena kurion IESOUN ChRISTON, ton huion tou theou ton monogene, ton ek tou patros gennethenta pro panton ton aionon, phos ek photos, theon alethinon ek theou alethenou, gennethenta, ou poiethenta, homoousion to patri; di hou ta panta egeneto; ton di hemas tous anthropous kai dia ten hemeteran soterian katelthonta ek ton ouranon kai sarkothenta ek pneumatos hagiou kai Marias tes parthenou kai enanthropesanta, staurothenta te huper hemon epi Pontiou Pilatou, kai pathonta kai taphenta, kai anastanta te trite hemera kata tas graphas, kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kai kathezomenon ek dexion tou patros, kai palin erchomenon meta doxes krinai zontas kai nekrous; hou tes basileias ouk estai telos.

 Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei [unigenitum], natum ex Patre ante omnia sæcula [Lumen de Lumine], Deum verum de Deo vero, natum [genitum], non factum, consubstantialem Patri; per quem omnia facta sunt; qui propter nos homines et [propter] salutem nostram descendit de cælis et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine et humanatus [homo factus] est; et crucifixus est pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato [passus] et sepultus est; et resurrexit tertia die [secundum scripturas]; ascendit in coelum [coelos], sedet ad dexteram Patris; iterum venturus, cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos; cujus regni non erit finis.

 Kai eis to PNEUMA TO HaGION, to kurion, (kai) to zoopoion , [58] to ek tou patros ekporeuomenon, to sun

 Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem [vivificatorem], ex Patre procedentem, cum Patre

 patri kai huio sun proskunoumenon kai sundoxazomenon, to lalesan dia ton propheton; eis mian, hagian, katholiken kai apostoliken ekklesian; homologoumen hen bartisma eis aphesin hamartion; prosdokomen anastasin nekron, kai zoen tou mellontos aionos. Amen. et Filio adorandum et conglorificandum, qui locutus est per sanctos prophetas. Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam. Confitemur unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Expectamus resurrectionem mortuorum et vitam futuri sæculi. Amen.



 [56] See the History, pp. 24 sqq. The Greek text is found in the Acts of the First Council of Constantinople in Mansi, Conc. Tom. III. p. 565, and twice in the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Act. II. Tom. VI. p. 957, and Act. V. Tom. VII. p. 111; also in the Acts of the Third Constantinop. Counc., Act. XVIII. Tom. XI. p. 633. See Hahn, p. 111, and Hort, pp.73 sqq.

 [57] The Latin text is chiefly from the Canones Concilii Constantinop. ex interpr. Dionysii Exig. in Mansi, Tom. III. p. 567 sq. For the different readings, see Walch, pp. 94-103, and Hahn, pp. 112-116, who compared with it the translations in the Codex Canonum et Constitutorum Eccl. Rom. in Opp. Leonis Magni, ed. Quesnel, Tom. II. p. 56; in the Sacramentarium Gelasianum, as given by Muratori, Liturg. Rom. vet. Tom. I. p. 541, and Assemani, Codex liturg. univ. Tom. I. p. 11; the old transl. of the Canones Conc. Const. by Isidorus Mercator in Mansi, Tom. III. p. 574; Acta Conc. Toletani, of the year 589, given by Mansi, Tom. IX. pp. 977 sqq.; Etherii et Beati Adv. Elipandum, Lib. I. in Bibl. P. P. Lugd. Tom. XIII. p. 363; Acta Concilii Chalced. Act. II. in Mansi, Tom. VI. p. 958, and Act. V. in Mansi, Tom. VII. p. 111; Codex Reg. Armamentarii Paris., published by Ferd. Flor. Fleck, in his Anecdota (Leipz. 1837), pp. 347 sqq. All the early and authentic Latin editions omit the Filioque, like the Greek, except Assemani's (a convert to Romanism), who inserts, on his own authority, kai tou huiou . A Syriac version is given by Caspari, l.c. Vol. I. p. 103.

 [58] Mansi gives three readings: to kur. to zoop. , to kur. kai zoop. , and to kur. kai to zoop . See the critical note of Dr. Hort, p. 81.   


 (b) Forma Recepta, Ecclesiæ Occidentalis.

 The Received Text of the Roman Catholic Church. [59]

 The Received Text of the Protestant Churches. [60]

 Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem; factorem coeli et terræ, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.

 I believe in one God the Father Almighty; Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

 Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Padre natum ante omnia sæcula [Deum de Deo], Lumen de Lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri; per quem

 And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds [God of God], Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance [essence] with the Father;

 omnia facta sunt; qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis, et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine, et homo factus est; crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est; et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturus; et ascendit in coelum, sedet ad dexteram Patris; et iterum venturus est, cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos; cujus regni non erit finis. by whom all things were made; who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried; and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem, qui ex Patre [Filioque] procedit; qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur; qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum; et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi seculi. Amen. And [I believe] in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceedeth from the Father [and the Son]; who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified; who spake by the Prophets. And [I believe] one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

 [The Western additions, of which the Filioque is the most important, are inclosed in brackets. Compare Vol. I. pp. 26-28.]



 [59] The Latin text is from the Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, third session, held Feb. 4, 1546, when the Nicene Creed was solemnly professed by this Synod as the ' symbolum fidei, quo sancta Romana ecclesia utitur, tanquam principium illud, in quo omnes, qui fidem Christi profitentur, necessario conveniunt, ac fundamentum firmum et unicum, contra quod portæ inferi nunquam prævalebunt. ' The same text is incorporated in the Profession of the Tridentine Faith. The punctuation varies in different editions.

 [60] From the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, with which the text in other Protestant liturgies agrees, with slight variations. The Lutheran symbols substitute, in the article on the Church, the term christliche (Christian) for Catholic. Luther did the same in his German version of the Apostles' Creed; unwisely leaving the Romanists to monopolize the name Catholic.   


 (c) Symbolum Nicænum. A.D. 325.

 The Original Form of the Nicene Creed, as adopted at Nicæa, 325. [61] The Latin Version of Hilarius Pictaviensis, between 356 and 361. [62] Pisteuomen eis hena ThEON PATERA pantokratora, panton horaton te kai aoraton poieten. Credimus in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem, omnium visibilium et invisibilium factorem. Kai eis hena kurion IESOUN ChRISTON, ton huion tou theou, gennethenta ek tou patros monogene, toutestin ek tes ousias tou patros, theon ek theou, phos ek photos, theon alethinon ek theou alethinou, gennethenta, ou poiethenta, homoousion to patri; di hou ta panta egeneto, ta te en to ourano kai ta epi tes ges; ton di hemas tous anthropous kai dia ten hemeteran soterian katelthonta kai sarkothenta kai enanthropesanta, pathonta, kai anastanta te trite hemera, kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kai erchomenon krinai zontas kai nekrous. Et in unum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei, natum ex Patre unigenitum, hoc est, de substantia Patris, Deum ex Deo, Lumen ex Lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, natum, non factum, unius substantiæ cum Patre, quod Græci dicunt homoousion; per quem, omnia facta, sunt, quæ in coelo et in terra; qui [propter nos homines et] propter nostram salutem descendit, incarnatus est et homo factus est, et passus est; et resurrexit tertia die, et ascendit in coelos; venturus judicare vivos et mortuos. Kai eis to HaGION PNEUMA. Et in Spiritum Sanctum. Tous de legontas, hoti en pote hote ouk en, kai prin gennethenai ouk en, kai hoti ex ouk onton egeneto, e ex heteras hupostaseos e ousias phaskontas einai, [e ktiston,] trepton e alloioton ton huion tou theou, [toutous] anathematizei he katholike [kai apostolike] ekklesia. [63] Eos autem qui dicunt: 'erat, quando non erat,' et 'antequam nasceretur, non erat,' et 'quod de non exstantibus factus est,' vel 'ex alia, substantia' aut 'essentia,' dicentes ['creatum,' aut] 'convertibilem et demutabilem Filium Dei,' hos anathematizat catholica [et apostolica] ecclesia. [64]

 [See the English version both of the original and the enlarged Creed in Vol. I. pp. 28, 29.]


 Other Oriental Creeds of the Nicene Age.

 With the Nicene Creed should be compared several similar Greek forms of the fourth century (see above, pp. 24-40, and Hahn, pp. 42-59), especially the following:

 (1.) The Creed of Cæsarea, which Eusebius read at Nicæa, 325, as his own baptismal creed. It omits theon alethinon and homoousion , but otherwise agrees nearly with the first Nicene Creed till pneuma hagion , and is the basis of it.

 (2.) The Creed of Jerusalem, which Cyril of Jerusalem taught in his Catechetical Lectures before 350. It likewise omits homoousion , but has after hagion pneuma the articles: 'In ( eis repeated) one baptism for the remission of sins, and in one holy catholic Church, and in the resurrection of the flesh, and in the life everlasting;' resembling in this conclusion more the later Constantinopolitan Creed, of which it seems to be the chief basis.

 (3.) Two Creeds of Epiphanius, a longer and a shorter one, recorded in his Ancoratus about 374. Both contain the whole Nicene Creed, with the concluding anathema (enlarged in one formula), and at the same time almost literally the additional articles after 'the Holy Ghost,' which were incorporated in the Nicene Creed by the Synod of Constantinople; showing that these were current in the Churches before 381.

 (4.) The Creed of Arius, which he delivered to the Emperor Constantine (328), and which is recorded by Socrates and Sozomenus (also in Mansi, Tom. II. p. 1157; Walch, p. 47; Hahn, p. 192; and Denzinger, p. 8). It shrewdly omits the obnoxious words condemned by the Council of Nicæa, confesses Christ as theon logon, di hou ta panta egento , and adds after hagion pneuma the articles: kai eis sarkos anastasin, kai eis zoen tou mellontos aionos, kai eis basileian ouranon, kai eis mian katholiken ekklesian tou theou, ten apo peraton heos peraton.   


 [61] The Greek text after Eusebius, in his Epist. ad Cæsareenses (as preserved by Athanasius), and the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, which indorsed both the original and the enlarged form of the Nicene Creed. See Vol. I. p. 28, note 3. The variations are carefully given by Walch, pp. 87 sqq., and Hahn, pp. 105-107. For a Syriac version, see Caspari, Vol. I. p. 100. Dr. Hort (Dissertations, p. 54) ingeniously but artificially connects monogene with theon ( tout' estin ek tes ousias tou patros being parenthetical), and thus derives from the Nicene Creed a traditional support for the famous reading monogenes theos , instead of the received text monogenes huios , John i. 18.

 [62] The Latin form from Hilarius (Bishop of Poitiers, called the Athanasius of the West; died 368): De Synodis sive de fide Orientalium, § 84, Opp. ed. Constant. Veron. Tom. II. p. 510, and Fragm. II. ex opere historico, § 27, l.c. p. 643. Walch (pp. 80-92) gives also other Latin versions from Lucifer, Rufinus, Leo M., Marius Mercator, etc., and Hahn (pp. 108--110) notes the principal variations.

 [63] The received text, as sanctioned by the Fourth, or previously by the Second OEcumenical Council, omits the words tout' estin ek tes ousias tou patros and theon ek theou , and the concluding anathema, but adds the important clauses after the Holy Spirit.

 [64] The received text, as sanctioned by the Fourth, or previously by the Second OEcumenical Council, omits the words tout' estin ek tes ousias tou patros and theon ek theou , and the concluding anathema, but adds the important clauses after the Holy Spirit.   




 Oct. 22d, 451.

 Hepomenoi toinun tois hagiois patrasin hena kai ton auton homologein huion ton kurion hemon Iesoun Christon sumphonos hapantes ekdidaskomen, teleion ton auton en theoteti kai teleion ton auton en anthropoteti, theon alethos kai anthropon alethos ton auton, ek psuches logikes [65] kai somatos, homoousion [66] to patri kata ten theoteta, kai homoousion [67] ton auton hemin kata ten anthropoteta, kata panta homoion hemin choris hamartias; pro aionon men ek tou patros gennethenta kata ten theoteta, ep' eschaton de ton hemeron ton auton di hemas kai dia ten hemeteran soterian ek Marias tes parthenou tes theotokou kata ten anthropoteta , [68] hena kai ton auton Christon, huion, kurion, monogene, ek duo phuseon [en duo phusesin] , [69] asunchutos, atreptos , [70] adiairetos, achoristos [71] gnorizomenon; oudamou tes ton phuseon diaphoras aneremenes dia ten henosin, sozomenes de mallon tes idiotetos hekateras phuseos kai eis hen prosopon kai mian hupostasin suntrechouses, ouk eis duo prosopa merizomenon e diairoumenon, all' hena kai ton auton huion kai monogene, theon logon, kurion Iesoun

 We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul [72] and body; consubstantial [coessential] [73] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; [74] one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, [75] inconfusedly, unchangeably, [76] indivisibly, inseparably; [77] the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as

 Christon; kathaper anothen hoi prophetai peri autou kai autos hemas ho kurios Iesous Christos exepaideuse kai to ton pateron hemin karadedoke sumbolon. the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.


 Sequentes igitur sanctos patres, unum eundemque confiteri Filium et Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum consonanter omnes docemus, eundem perfectum in deitate et eundem perfectum in humanitate; Deum verum et hominem verum eundem ex anima rationali et corpore; consubstantialem Patri secundum deitatem, consubstantialem nobis eundem secundum humanitatem; 'per omnia nobis similem, absque peccato' (Heb. iv.): ante secula quidem de Patre genitum secundum deitatem; in novissimis autem diebus eundem propter nos et propter nostram salutem ex Maria virgine, Dei genitrice secundum humanitatem; unum eundemque Christum, filium, Dominum, unigenitum, in duabus naturis inconfuse, immutabiliter, indivise, inseperabiliter agnoscendum: nusquam sublata differentia naturarum propter unitionem, magisque salva proprietate utriusque naturæ, et in unam personam atque subsistentiam concurrente: non in duos personas partitum aut divisum, sed unum eundemque Filium et unigenitum, Deum verbum, Dominum Jesum Christum; sicut ante prophetæ de eo et ipse nos Jesus Christus erudivit et patrum nobis symbolum tradidit.


 The Greek text, together with the Latin version, is taken from the horos tes en Chalkedoni tetartes Sunodou , Act. V. in Mansi, Conc. Tom. VII. p. 115. We have inserted en duo phusesin (see note 4). There are several other Latin versions which Mansi gives, Tom. VII. pp. 115 and 751-758, with the various readings. See also Hahn, l.c. pp. 117 sqq.

 The Creed is preceded in the acts of the Council by an express confirmation of the Nicene Creed in both forms, 'the Creed of the three hundred and eighteen holy Fathers of Nicæa,' and 'the Creed of the hundred and fifty holy Fathers who were assembled at Constantinople.' The Fathers of Chalcedon declare that 'this wise and saving Creed [of Nicæa] would be sufficient for the full acknowledgment and confirmation of the true religion; for it teaches completely the perfect doctrine concerning the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and fully explains the Incarnation of the Lord to those who receive it faithfully.' The addition of a new Creed is justified by the subsequent Christological heresies (Apollinarianism, Nestorianism, and Eutychianism). After stating it, the Synod solemnly prohibits, on pain of deposisition and excommunication, the setting forth of any other Creed for those 'who are desirous of turning to the acknowledgment of the truth from Heathenism and Judaism.'   


 [65] Against Apollinaris, who denied that Christ had a psuche logike , anima rationalis , or nous, pneuma , and who reduced the Incarnation to the assumption of a human body ( soma ) with an animal soul ( psuche alogos ), inhabited by the Divine Logos. But the rational spirit of man requires salvation as much as the body.

 [66] Homoousios , consubstantialis (al. coessentialis ), is used in both clauses, though with a shade of difference. Christ's homoousia with the Father implies numerical unity, or identity of essence (God being one in being, or monoousios); Christ's homoousia with men means only generic unity, or equality of nature.

 [67] Homoousios , consubstantialis (al. coessentialis ), is used in both clauses, though with a shade of difference. Christ's homoousia with the Father implies numerical unity, or identity of essence (God being one in being, or monoousios); Christ's homoousia with men means only generic unity, or equality of nature.

 [68] The predicate theotokos , the Bringer-forth of God, Dei genitrix (al. quæ Deum peperit , or even divini numinis creatrix ), is directed against Nestorius, and was meant originally not so much to exalt the Virgin Mary, as to assert the true divinity of Christ and the realness of the Incarnation. Basil of Seleucia: Theon sarkothenta tekousa theotokos onomazetai. It is immediately after qualified by the phrase kata ten anthropoteta ( secundum humanitatem ), in distinction from kata ten theoteta ( secundum deitatem ). This is a very important limitation, and necessary to guard against Mariolatry, and the heathenish, blasphemous, and contradictory notion that the uncreated, eternal God can be born in time. Mary was the mother not merely of the human nature of Jesus of Nazareth, but of the theanthropic person of Jesus Christ; yet not of his eternal Godhead (the logos asarkos ), but of his incarnate person, or the Logos united to humanity (the logos ensarkos ). In like manner, the subject of the Passion was the theanthropic person; yet not according to his divine nature, which in itself is incapable of suffering, but according to his human nature, which was the organ of suffering. There is no doubt, however, that the unscriptural terms theotokos , Dei genitrix , Deipara , mater Dei , which remind one of the heathen mothers of gods, have greatly promoted Mariolatry, which aided in the defeat of Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus, 431. It is safer to adhere to the New Testament designation of Mary as meter Iesou , or meter tou Kuriou (Luke i. 43).

 [69] En duo phusesin , and all the Latin translations, in duabus naturis (only the Roman editors in the margin read ex d. n.), are directed against Eutyches. The present Greek text reads, it is true, ek duo phuseon , from two natures; but this signifies, and, according to the connection, can only signify, essentially the same thing; though, separately taken, it admits also of an Eutychian and Monophysite interpretation, namely, that Christ has arisen from the confluence of two natures, and since the act of the Incarnation, or unition of both, has only one nature. Understood in that sense, Dioscurus at the Council was very willing to accept the formula ek duo phuseon . But for this very reason the Orientals, and also the Roman delegates, protested with one voice against ek , and insisted upon another formula with en , which was adopted. Baur (Gesch. der Lehre v. d. Dreieinigkeit, I. p. 820 sq.) and Dorner (Gesch. d. Lehre v. d. Person Christi, II. p. 129) assert that ek is the accurate and original expression, and is a concession to Monophysitism; that it also agrees better (?) with the verb gnorizein (to recognize by certain tokens); but that it was from the very beginning changed by the Occidentals into en . But, with Gieseler, Neander (iv. 988), Hefele (Conciliengesch. II. 451 sq.), Beck (Dogmengeschichte, p. 251), and Hahn (l.c. p. 118, note 6), we prefer the view that en duo phusesin was the original reading of the symbol, and that it was afterwards altered in the interest of Monophysitism. This is proved by the whole course of the proceedings at the fifth session of the Council of Chalcedon, where the expression ek duo phusesin was protested against, and is confirmed by the testimony of the Abbot Euthymius, a contemporary, and by that of Severus, Evagrius, and Leontius of Byzantium, as well as by the Latin translations. Severus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch since 513, charges the Fathers of Chalcedon with the inexcusable crime of having taught en duo phusesin adiairetois gnorizesthai ton christon (see Mansi, Conc. VII. p. 839). Evagrius (H. E. II. c. 5) maintains that both formulas amount to essentially the same thing, and reciprocally condition each other. Dorner also affirms the same. His words are: 'The Latin formula has "to acknowledge Christ as Son in two natures;" the Greek has "to recognize Christ as Son from two natures," which is plainly the same thought. The Latin formula is only a free but essentially faithful translation, only that its coloring expresses somewhat more definitely still Christ's subsisting in two natures, and is therefore more literally conformable to the Roman type of doctrine' (l.c. II. 129). From my Church History, Vol. III. p. 745 sq.

 [70] asunchutos , inconfuse , and atreptos , immutabiliter (without confusion, without conversion or change), are directed against Eutychianism, which mixes and confounds the human and the divine natures in Christ ( sunchusis ), and teaches an absorption of the former into the latter; hence the phrases 'God is born; God suffered; God was crucified; God died.' The Monophysites (so called after the Council of Chalcedon) rejected the Eutychian theory of an absorption, but nevertheless taught only one composite nature of Christ ( mia phusis sunthetos ), making his humanity a mere accident of the immutable divine substance, and using the liturgical shibboleth 'God has been crucified' (without a qualifying 'according to the human nature,' or 'the flesh,' as the ( theotokos is qualified in the Symbol of Chalcedon). Hence they were also called Theopaschites. They divided into several sects and parties on subtle and idle questions, especially the question whether Christ's body before the resurrection was corruptible or incorruptible (hence the Phthartolaters, from phthartos and latres , and Aphthartodocetæ).

 [71] adiairetos , indivise , achoristos , inseparabiliter (without division, without separation), both in opposition to Nestorianism, which so emphasized the duality of natures, and the continued distinction between the human and the divine in Christ, as to lose sight of the unity of person, and to substitute for a real Incarnation a mere conjunction ( sunapheia ), a moral union or intimate friendship between the Divine Logos and the man Jesus. Hence, also, the opposition to the term theotokos , with which the Nestorian controversy began. With the Symbol of Chalcedon should be compared the semi-symbolical Epistola dogmatica of Pope Leo, I. to the Patriarch Flavian of Constantinople, which contains a lengthy and masterly exposition of the orthodox Christology against the heresy of Eutyches, and was read and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, as the voice of Peter speaking through 'the Archbishop of old Rome.' It is dated June 13, 449, and is found in the works of Leo M. (Ep. 24 in Quesnel's ed., Ep. 28 in the ed. Ballerini), in Mansi, Conc. Tom. V. pp. 1366-90 (Latin and Greek, with the different readings), Hardouin, Conc. Tom. II. pp. 290-300 (also Latin and Greek, but without the variations), Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, Vol. II. pp. 335-346 (German and Latin), partly also in Denzinger, Enchir. p. 43.

 [72] Against Apollinaris, who denied that Christ had a psuche logike , anima rationalis , or nous, pneuma , and who reduced the Incarnation to the assumption of a human body ( soma ) with an animal soul ( psuche alogos ), inhabited by the Divine Logos. But the rational spirit of man requires salvation as much as the body.

 [73] Homoousios , consubstantialis (al. coessentialis ), is used in both clauses, though with a shade of difference. Christ's homoousia with the Father implies numerical unity, or identity of essence (God being one in being, or monoousios); Christ's homoousia with men means only generic unity, or equality of nature.

 [74] The predicate theotokos , the Bringer-forth of God, Dei genitrix (al. quæ Deum peperit , or even divini numinis creatrix ), is directed against Nestorius, and was meant originally not so much to exalt the Virgin Mary, as to assert the true divinity of Christ and the realness of the Incarnation. Basil of Seleucia: Theon sarkothenta tekousa theotokos onomazetai. It is immediately after qualified by the phrase kata ten anthropoteta ( secundum humanitatem ), in distinction from kata ten theoteta ( secundum deitatem ). This is a very important limitation, and necessary to guard against Mariolatry, and the heathenish, blasphemous, and contradictory notion that the uncreated, eternal God can be born in time. Mary was the mother not merely of the human nature of Jesus of Nazareth, but of the theanthropic person of Jesus Christ; yet not of his eternal Godhead (the logos asarkos ), but of his incarnate person, or the Logos united to humanity (the logos ensarkos ). In like manner, the subject of the Passion was the theanthropic person; yet not according to his divine nature, which in itself is incapable of suffering, but according to his human nature, which was the organ of suffering. There is no doubt, however, that the unscriptural terms theotokos , Dei genitrix , Deipara , mater Dei , which remind one of the heathen mothers of gods, have greatly promoted Mariolatry, which aided in the defeat of Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus, 431. It is safer to adhere to the New Testament designation of Mary as meter Iesou , or meter tou Kuriou (Luke i. 43).

 [75] En duo phusesin , and all the Latin translations, in duabus naturis (only the Roman editors in the margin read ex d. n.), are directed against Eutyches. The present Greek text reads, it is true, ek duo phuseon , from two natures; but this signifies, and, according to the connection, can only signify, essentially the same thing; though, separately taken, it admits also of an Eutychian and Monophysite interpretation, namely, that Christ has arisen from the confluence of two natures, and since the act of the Incarnation, or unition of both, has only one nature. Understood in that sense, Dioscurus at the Council was very willing to accept the formula ek duo phuseon . But for this very reason the Orientals, and also the Roman delegates, protested with one voice against ek , and insisted upon another formula with en , which was adopted. Baur (Gesch. der Lehre v. d. Dreieinigkeit, I. p. 820 sq.) and Dorner (Gesch. d. Lehre v. d. Person Christi, II. p. 129) assert that ek is the accurate and original expression, and is a concession to Monophysitism; that it also agrees better (?) with the verb gnorizein (to recognize by certain tokens); but that it was from the very beginning changed by the Occidentals into en . But, with Gieseler, Neander (iv. 988), Hefele (Conciliengesch. II. 451 sq.), Beck (Dogmengeschichte, p. 251), and Hahn (l.c. p. 118, note 6), we prefer the view that en duo phusesin was the original reading of the symbol, and that it was afterwards altered in the interest of Monophysitism. This is proved by the whole course of the proceedings at the fifth session of the Council of Chalcedon, where the expression ek duo phusesin was protested against, and is confirmed by the testimony of the Abbot Euthymius, a contemporary, and by that of Severus, Evagrius, and Leontius of Byzantium, as well as by the Latin translations. Severus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch since 513, charges the Fathers of Chalcedon with the inexcusable crime of having taught en duo phusesin adiairetois gnorizesthai ton christon (see Mansi, Conc. VII. p. 839). Evagrius (H. E. II. c. 5) maintains that both formulas amount to essentially the same thing, and reciprocally condition each other. Dorner also affirms the same. His words are: 'The Latin formula has "to acknowledge Christ as Son in two natures;" the Greek has "to recognize Christ as Son from two natures," which is plainly the same thought. The Latin formula is only a free but essentially faithful translation, only that its coloring expresses somewhat more definitely still Christ's subsisting in two natures, and is therefore more literally conformable to the Roman type of doctrine' (l.c. II. 129). From my Church History, Vol. III. p. 745 sq.

 [76] asunchutos , inconfuse , and atreptos , immutabiliter (without confusion, without conversion or change), are directed against Eutychianism, which mixes and confounds the human and the divine natures in Christ ( sunchusis ), and teaches an absorption of the former into the latter; hence the phrases 'God is born; God suffered; God was crucified; God died.' The Monophysites (so called after the Council of Chalcedon) rejected the Eutychian theory of an absorption, but nevertheless taught only one composite nature of Christ ( mia phusis sunthetos ), making his humanity a mere accident of the immutable divine substance, and using the liturgical shibboleth 'God has been crucified' (without a qualifying 'according to the human nature,' or 'the flesh,' as the ( theotokos is qualified in the Symbol of Chalcedon). Hence they were also called Theopaschites. They divided into several sects and parties on subtle and idle questions, especially the question whether Christ's body before the resurrection was corruptible or incorruptible (hence the Phthartolaters, from phthartos and latres , and Aphthartodocetæ).

 [77] adiairetos , indivise , achoristos , inseparabiliter (without division, without separation), both in opposition to Nestorianism, which so emphasized the duality of natures, and the continued distinction between the human and the divine in Christ, as to lose sight of the unity of person, and to substitute for a real Incarnation a mere conjunction ( sunapheia ), a moral union or intimate friendship between the Divine Logos and the man Jesus. Hence, also, the opposition to the term theotokos , with which the Nestorian controversy began. With the Symbol of Chalcedon should be compared the semi-symbolical Epistola dogmatica of Pope Leo, I. to the Patriarch Flavian of Constantinople, which contains a lengthy and masterly exposition of the orthodox Christology against the heresy of Eutyches, and was read and approved by the Council of Chalcedon, as the voice of Peter speaking through 'the Archbishop of old Rome.' It is dated June 13, 449, and is found in the works of Leo M. (Ep. 24 in Quesnel's ed., Ep. 28 in the ed. Ballerini), in Mansi, Conc. Tom. V. pp. 1366-90 (Latin and Greek, with the different readings), Hardouin, Conc. Tom. II. pp. 290-300 (also Latin and Greek, but without the variations), Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, Vol. II. pp. 335-346 (German and Latin), partly also in Denzinger, Enchir. p. 43.   



 The Athanasian Creed.

 The Latin Original. Old Translation Revised.

 1. Quicunque vult salvus esse: ante omnia opus est, ut teneat catholicam fidem.

 1. Whosoever will be saved: before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith:

 2. Quam nisi quisque integram inviolatamque servaverit: absque dubio in æternum peribit.

 2. Which Faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled: without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.

 3. Fides autem catholica hæc est: ut unum Deum in Trinitate, et Trinitatem in Unitate veneremur;

 3. And the Catholic Faith is this: That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity;

 4. Neque confundentes personas: neque substantiam separantes.

 4. Neither confounding the Persons: nor dividing the Substance [Essence].

 5. Alia est enim persona Patris: alia Filii: alia Spiritus Sancti.

 5. For there is one Person of the Father: another of the Son: and another of the Holy Ghost.

 6. Sed Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti una est divinitas: æqualis gloria, coæterna majestas.

 6. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one: the Glory equal, the Majesty coeternal.

 7. Qualis Pater: talis Filius: talis [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 7. Such as the Father is: such is the Son: and such is the Holy Ghost.

 8. Increatus Pater: increatus Filius: increatus [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 8. The Father uncreate [uncreated]: the Son uncreate [uncreated]: and the Holy Ghost uncreate [uncreated].

 9. Immensus Pater: immensus filius: immensus [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 9. The Father incomprehensible [unlimited]: the Son incomprehensible [unlimited]: and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible [unlimited, or infinite].

 10. Æternus Pater: æternus Filius: æternus [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 10. The Father eternal: the Son eternal: and the Holy Ghost eternal.

 11. Et tamen non tres æterni: sed unus æternus.

 11. And yet they are not three eternals: but one eternal.

 12. Sicut non tres increati: nec tres immensi: sed unus increatus: et unus immensus.

 12. As also there are not three uncreated: nor three incomprehensibles [infinites], but one uncreated: and one incomprehensible [infinite].

 13. Similiter omnipotens Pater: omnipotens Filius: omnipotens [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 13. So likewise the Father is Almighty: the Son Almighty: and the Holy Ghost Almighty.

 14. Et tamen non tres omnipotentes: sed unus omnipotens.

 14. And yet they are not three Almighties: but one Almighty.

 15. Ita deus Pater: deus Filius: deus [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 15. So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God.

 16. Et tamen non tres dii: sed unus est Deus.

 16. And yet they are not three Gods: but one God.

 17. Ita dominus Pater: dominus Filius: dominus [et] Spiritus Sanctus.

 17. So likewise the Father is Lord: the Son Lord: and the Holy Ghost Lord.

 18. Et tamen non tres domini: sed unus [est] Dominus.

 18. And yet not three Lords: but one Lord.

 19. Quia sicut singulatim unamquamque personam Deum ac Dominum confiteri, Christiana veritate compellimur:

 19. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity: to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord:

 20. Ita tres deos, aut [tres] dominos dicere, catholica religione prohibemur.

 20. So are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion: to say, There be [are] three Gods, or three Lords.

 21. Pater a nullo est factus: nec creatus, nec genitus.

 21. The Father is made of none: neither created, nor begotten.

 22. Filius a Patre solo est: non factus, nec creatus: sed genitus.

 22. The Son is of the Father alone: not made, nor created: but begotten.

 23. Spiritus Sanctus a Patre et filio: non factus, nec creatus, nec genitus: sed procedens.

 23. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son: neither made, nor created, nor begotten: but proceeding.

 24. Unus ergo Pater, non tres patres: unus Filius, non tres filii: unus Spiritus Sanctus, non tres spiritus sancti.

 24. So there is one Father, not three Fathers: one Son, not three Sons: one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts.

 25. Et in hac Trinitate nihil prius, aut posterius: nihil majus, aut minus.

 25. And in this Trinity none is afore, or after another: none is greater, or less than another [there is nothing before, or after: nothing greater or less].

 26. Sed totæ tres personæ coæternæ sibi sunt, et coæquales.

 26. But the whole three Persons are coeternal, and coequal.

 27. Ita, ut per omnia, sicut jam supra dictum est: et Unitas in Trinitate, et Trinitas in Unitate, venerenda sit.

 27. So that in all things, as aforesaid: the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshiped.

 28. Qui vult ergo salvus esse, ita de Trinitate sentiat.

 28. He therefore that will be saved, must [let him] thus think of the Trinity. -------- --------

 29. Sed necessarium est ad æternam salutem: ut incarnationem quoque Domini nostri Jesu Christi fideliter credat.

 29. Furthermore it is necessary to everlasting salvation: that he also believe rightly [faithfully] the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

 30. Est ergo fides recta, ut credamus et confiteamur: quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus Dei Filius, Deus [pariter] et homo est;

 30. For the right Faith is, that we believe and confess: that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man;

 31. Deus [est] ex substantia Patris, ante secula genitus: et homo ex substantia matris, in seculo natus.

 31. God, of the Substance [Essence] of the Father; begotten before the worlds: and Man, of the Substance [Essence] of his Mother, born in the world.

 32. Perfectus Deus: perfectus homo, ex anima rationali et humana carne subsistens.

 32. Perfect God: and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting.

 33. Aequalis Patri secundum divinitatem: minor Patre secundum humanitatem.

 33. Equal to the Father, as touching his Godhead: and inferior to the Father as touching his Manhood.

 34. Qui licet Deus sit et homo; non duo tamen, sed unus est Christus.

 34. Who although he be [is] God and Man; yet he is not two, but one Christ.

 35. Unus autem, non conversione divinitatis in carnem: sed assumptione humanitatis in Deum.

 35. One; not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh: but by taking [assumption] of the Manhood into God.

 36. Unus omnino; non confusione substantiæ: sed unitate personæ.

 36. One altogether; not by confusion of Substance [Essence]: but by unity of Person.

 37. Nam sicut anima rationalis et caro unus est homo: ita Deus et homo unus est Christus.

 37. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man: so God and Man is one Christ;

 38. Qui passus est pro nostra salute: descendit ad inferos: tertia die resurrexit a mortuis.

 38. Who suffered for our salvation: descended into hell [Hades, spirit-world]: rose again the third day from the dead.

 39. Ascendit ad [in] coelos: sedet ad dexteram [Dei] Patris [omnipotentis].

 39. He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of the Father God [God the Father] Almighty.

 40. Inde venturus [est] judicare vivos et mortuos.

 40. From whence [thence] he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

 41. Ad cujus adventum omnes homines resurgere habent cum corporibus suis;

 41. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies;

 42. Et reddituri sunt de factis propriis rationem.

 42. And shall give account for their own works.

 43. Et qui bona egerunt, ibunt in vitam æternam: qui vero mala, in ignem æternum.

 43. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting: and they that have done evil, into everlasting fire.

 44. Hæc est fides catholicæ: quam nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque crediderit, salvus esse non poterit.

 44. This is the Catholic Faith: which except a man believe faithfully [truly and firmly], he can not be saved.


 ^1 The Latin text of the oldest known MS. in the Utrecht Psalter has been reproduced by Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy in his Report (London, 1873), and in the fac-simile ed. of the Utrecht Psalter (1875). It agrees nearly altogether with the text given above, but has a number of inaccuracies. I have compared also the texts of Waterland (Works, Vol. III. pp. 221 sqq,), Usher (De Romanæ Eccles. Symbolo Apost. vetere, 1647, Genev. ed. 1722, pp. 13-15), Montfaucon (in his ed. of Athanasius, Tom. II. pp. 719 sqq.), Hahn (pp. 122-125), Lumby (p. 259), and Swainson (p. 204). The numbering of verses differs: Waterland, Montfaucon, and the English Book of Common Prayer have only 40 verses by combining 19 and 20, 25 and 26, 39 and 40, 41 and 42; Walch and others make 44, the Roman Breviary 42. In my Church Hist. Vol. III. pp. 690-695, I have given the parallel passages from the fathers.

 ^2 There is no authorized Greek text of the Athanasian Creed, since it was never adopted in the Oriental Church. There are several translations, which differ considerably. Usher gives a Greek version with many interpolations. Caspari (Vol. III. pp. 263-267) published for the first time two other Greek versions from MSS. in the Venetian Library of St. Mark and the Ambrosian Library of Milan.

 ^3The English translation is that of the sixteenth century (1548), as found in the English editions of the Book of Common Prayer, and still in use in the public service of the Church of England. My emendations are inclosed in brackets. The punctuation is adjusted to the liturgical use of this Creed.

 Ver. 1.--Some copies read opus habet for opus est . Usher: ten orthodoxon pistin , orthodoxam fidem. The MS. in the Utrecht Psalter begins with a grammatical blunder: 'Incipit fides catholicam.'

 Ver. 2.--On the damnatory clause, which is twice repeated, ver. 28 and ver. 44, see the Introduction, pp. 39, 41. Some MSS. read inviolabilemque; some omit absque dubio.

 Ver. 3.--Usher: Orthodoxa for catholica. Compare on this verse Gregory Naz., Orat. xxiii.: monada en triadi, kai triada en monadi proskunoumenen .

 Ver. 4.--Person in the sense of persona , prosopon (also hupostasis in the post-Nicene use of the term), i.e., character, face, manifestation, subsistence. It must not be confounded with essence or being ( essentia , substantia , natura , ousia , phusis ). God is one in essence, three in persons ( Deus est trinus, h. e. in essentia unus, tres habet subsistendi modos ). In modern philosophical usage the term person means a separate and distinct rational individual. But the tri-personality of God is not a numerical or essential trinity of three beings (like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob), for this would be tritheism; nor is it, on the other hand, merely a threefold aspect and mode of manifestation, in the Sabellian or Swedenborgian sense; [78] but it is a real, objective, and eternal, though ineffable, distinction in the one Divine being, with a corresponding threefold revelation of this being in the works of creation, redemption, and sanctification. Hence the distinction between the immanent, intrinsic (or ontological) trinity and the extrinsic or oeconomical) trinity; in other words, between the trinity of essence and the trinity of manifestation.

 Ver. 4.--The Latin substantia (that which stands under) and essentia correspond to the Greek ousia , as distinct from prosopon . But in modern English, substance is used mostly in the sense of matter, body, or the most important part, summary. Hence essence or being is preferable. Hypostasis ( hupostasis , foundation, groundwork, substratum , substantia ) was originally used in the same sense as ousia , but afterwards it became identical with prosopon , persona.

 Ver. 6.--Usher reads after divinitas: ' Unum robur, una potestas, unum regnum ' (an interpolation of the Greeks).

 Ver. 9.--Incomprehensible is a false translation, unless it be taken in the unusual sense, 'not to be comprehended within any bounds.' The Anglican translator of 1548 perhaps followed a Greek copy (of 1533) which renders immensus by akataleptos . But other Greek copies read apeiros or ametros instead. Usher's Greek text has pantokrator , omnipotent. The Latin immensus means, what can not be circumscribed or limited by any boundaries, what is illocal, omnipresent. Fortunatus explains the word: ' Non est mensurabilis in sua natura, quia illocalis est, incircumscriptus, ubique totus, ubique præsens, ubique potens. ' The author of the Athanasian Creed glories in the clear revelation and statement of the mystery of the Trinity rather than in the mystery itself. The Utrecht Psalter reads inmensus.

 Ver. 20.--Waterland omits tres before Dominos. Usher reads for prohibemur: ' Non comprobamus, sed omnino prohibemus. '

 Ver. 21.--Usher: sed ingenitus for nec genitus.

 Ver. 23.--The Greek translation and the Latin text in Usher omit et Filio , which is contrary to the Greek doctrine of the single procession. Most Greek copies read only apo tou patros .

 Ver. 25.--Usher: nullus primus aut postremus, nullus major aut minor , oudeis protos e eschatos, oudeis megas e mikros .

 Ver. 29.-- Fideliter is variously rendered in the Greek copies by orthos , pistos , bebaios .

 Ver. 30.--Utrecht Psalter reads quia for quod , and omits pariter.

 Ver. 31.--Usher's Greek text inserts here a long interpolation, which is not at all in keeping with the sententious character of the symbol.

 Ver. 32.--Another long interpolation in Usher.

 Ver. 38.--After passus est a Greek version adds the anti-patripassian clause: apathous tes theotetos menouses , impassibili manente divinitate.

 Ver. 38.--Some MSS. read ad infernos or ad inferna. Usher's enlarged Greek copy omits the clause, and reads tapheis kai anastas . The Utrecht Psalter reads et qui for qui vero.

 Ver. 43.--Usher: eis aionious kolaseis , ad cruciatus eternos.

 Ver. 44.--The Greek copies read either pistos alone, or pistos te kai bebaios , or ek pisteos bebaios pisteuse .



 [78] Swedenborg was willing to adopt the Athanasian Creed if a trinity of (the one Divine) person was substituted for a trinity of persons. According to him, the Father is the Essential Divinity, the Son the Divine Humanity, the Holy Spirit the Divine Proceeding or Operation.   



 The Creed of the Sixth OEcumenical Council, against the Monothelites.

 Review of the Dogmatic Legislation of the Seven OEcumenical Councils.

 The Nicæno-Constantinopolitan Creed, and the Creed of Chalcedon, both of which we have given in full, embrace the sum and substance of the dogmatic legislation of the oecumenical Councils of the undivided ancient or Græco-Latin Church. All the rest is merely explanatory and supplementary, or disputed.

 The Sixth OEcumenical (or Third Constantinopolitan) Council (also called Conc. Trullanum I.), held A.D. 680, in consequence of the Monothelite or One-Will Controversy (683-680), enlarged the Creed of Chalcedon, notwithstanding the solemn prohibition of the Council of Chalcedon (see p. 16), by adding a horos , or dogmatic definition to the effect that Jesus Christ had two distinct and inseparable wills ( thelemata ), as well as two natures, a human will and a divine will, working in harmony, the human in subordination to the divine; the will being regarded as an attribute of nature rather than person. See Actio XVIII. in Mansi, Conc., Tom.XI. pp.637 sqq. After quoting the Symbol of Chalcedon down to the words paradedoke sumbolon (see p. 15), the Synod goes on, without interruption, as follows:

 Kai duo phusikas theleseis etoi thelemata en auto [Ies. Christo] kai duo phusikas energeias adiairetos, atreptos, ameristos, asunchutos, kata ten ton hagion pateron didaskalian hosautos keruttomen; kai duo men phusika thelemata ouch' hupenantia, me genoito, kathos hoi asebeis ephesan hairetikoi, all' hepomenon to anthropinon autou thelema, kai me antipipton e antipailaion, mallon men oun kai hupotassomenon to theio autou kai pansthenei thelemati; edei gar to tes sarkos thelema kinethenai, hupotagenai de to thelemati to theiko kata ton pansophon Athanasion. Et duas naturales voluntates in eo [Jesu Christo], et duas naturales operationes indivise, inconvertibiliter, inseparabiliter, inconfuse secundum sanctorum patrum doctrinam adæque prædicamus; et duas naturales voluntates non contrarias, absit, juxta quod impii asseruerunt hæretici, sed sequentem ejus humanam voluntatem, et non resistentem vel reluctantem, sed potius et subjectam divinæ ejus atque omnipotenti voluntati. Oportebat enim carnis voluntatem moveri, subjici vero voluntati divinæ, juxta sapientissimum Athanasium.

 Then follow quotations from John vi. 38, Gregory Nazianzen, Pope Leo (Ep. ad Flavianum, c. 4), Cyril of Alexandria, and a repetition of the Ephesian and Chalcedonian prohibition to set forth any new symbol of faith on pain of excommunication. Pope Agatho, by a dogmatic epistle, exercised a controlling influence over this Council similar to the one of Pope Leo I. over the Council of Chalcedon. On the other hand, the Council emphatically condemned Pope Honorius as a Monothelite heretic. Monothelitism continued among the Maronites on Mount Lebanon.

 The Third OEcumenical Council, held at Ephesus, A.D. 431, and the Fifth OEcumenical Council, held at Constantinople, A.D. 553 (hence also called the Second Constantinopolitan C.), issued no new Creed, but simply reaffirmed the previous Creeds and condemned certain heresies.

 The Council of Ephesus condemned 'the impious and profane doctrines' of Nestorius in two of its six canons (can. 1 and 4), and indorsed the twelve anathemas of Cyril of Alexandria hurled against Nestorius, which are purely negative, and need not be inserted here. [79] The same Synod sanctioned also the letters of Cyril and of Coelestinus of Rome to Nestorius, and incidentally (in can. 1 and 4) condemned Pelagianism in the person of Coelestius, the chief pupil of Pelagius, on the supposition that he sympathized with Nestorius; but the Pelagian doctrines are not stated.

 The Fifth OEcumenical Council, of 164 Bishops, occasioned by the protracted and tedious Monophysite controversies (which grew out of the Council of Chalcedon), confessed the Nicene Creed as explained and enlarged by the Councils of Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, indorsed the dogmatic edicts of Emperor Justinian, and condemned the three Chapters ( tria kephaleia ), that is, some writings of three departed divines of the Antiochian school, Theodore of Mopsuestia (the teacher of Nestorius), Theodoret of Cyros, and Ibas of Edessa (friends of Nestorius). The last two, however, had been declared orthodox by the Council of Chalcedon. The Fifth OEcumenical Council had a leaning towards Monophysitism, but the Sixth OEcumenical Council reacted again in favor of the dyophysitism of the Council of Chalcedon, and supplemented it by teaching the dyotheletism of Christ. [80]

 The Seventh (and last strictly) OEcumenical Council, held, under the Empress Irene, at Nicæa, A.D. 787, and hence also called the Second Nicene Council, condemned the Iconoclasts, and sanctioned the ecclesiastical use and limited worship of sacred images. [81] But this decision is recognized only by Greeks and Romans, while Protestants regard it as a relapse into a refined form of idolatry, condemned by the Second Commandment and the primitive Christian Church. It became a fruitful source of superstition, but stimulated also the development of Christian art.   


 [79] See the Anathematismi Cyrilli in Mansi, Conc. Tom. IV. p. 1082 and Tom. V. pp. 85 sqq. (Greek and Latin, with the anatrope of Theodoret, and the apologia of Cyril), also in Denzinger's Enchiridion, pp. 27-31, and Gieseler's Church History, Vol. I. pp. 349 sqq. (Am. ed., only the Greek text). The ambitious, violent, and overbearing Cyril, who controlled the Synod, misrepresented his rival Patriarch of Constantinople, and leaned towards the opposite heresy of Eutychianism. Compare the refutation of Theodoret in Mansi, Tom. V. pp. 87 sqq., and my Church History, Vol. III. pp. 722-729. The OEcumenical Council of 431 was saved by its orthodoxy, otherwise it would have shared the disgrace of the infamous Robber Synod ( sunodos lestrike , latrocinium Ephesinum ), held at Ephesus a few years later (449) under the lead of Dioscurus (Cyril's successor), where passion, intrigue, and uncharitableness ruled supreme. Gregory of Nazianzum, who himself presided over the Second OEcumenical Council, drew a sad picture of the unchristian spirit which disgraced the synodical assemblies of his day. But the Third OEcumenical Council stands morally as well as doctrinally far below its two predecessors.

 [80] The Greek Acts of the Fifth Council, with the exception of the fourteen anathemas on the three Chapters, are lost; but a Latin translation, concerning whose genuineness and completeness there has been much controversy, is preserved. See Mansi, Conc. Tom. IX. pp. 163 sqq., especially pp. 538-582. Denzinger gives the Canones XIV. de tribus capitulis (Enchir. pp. 58-73), and also the fifteen Canons against the errors of Origen (pp. 73-80), but the latter belong to an earlier Constantinopolitan Synod, held A.D. 544. On the Three Chapter Controversy, see my Church History, Vol. III. pp. 768 sqq., and more fully, Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, Vol. II. pp. 775-899.

 [81] The aspasmos kai timetike proskunesis , osculum et honoraria adoratio , but not alethine latreia he prepei mone te theia phusei , vera latria, quæ solam divinam naturam decet. See the decree in Mansi, Conc. Tom. XIII. p. 378 sq. Also in Denzinger, Enchir. pp. 104, 105.   







 A.D. 1563.

 [The Latin text after the editions of Le Plat, Richter, Streitwolf and Klener, and Smets, compared. It is also incorporated in Theiner's Acta genuina SS. oecum. Concilii Tridentini, 1874, 2 Tom. The English translation by the Rev. J. Waterworth (R. C.): The Canons and Decrees of the Sacred and OEcumenical Council of Trent, London, 1848. The Scripture quotations are conformed to the Vulgate, and are printed in italics. The decrees of the Council on the reformation of discipline are foreign to this collection, and have been omitted also in Denzinger's Enchiridion. On the Council of Trent, see Vol. I. § 24, pp. 90-96.]   


 Sessio Tertia, Third Session, celebrata die IV. Februarii 1546. held February 4, 1546. DECRETUM DE SYMBOLO FIDEI. DECREE TOUCHING THE SYMBOL OF FAITH. In nomine sanctæ et individuæ Trinitatis, Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus sancti. In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost. Hæc sacrosancta, oecumenica, et generalis tridentina synodus, in Spiritu sancto legitime congregata, in ea præsidentibus eisdem tribus apostolicæ sedis legatis, magnitudinem rerum tractandarum considerans, præsertim earum, quæ duobus illis capitibus, de extirpandis hæresibus, et moribus reformandis, continentur, quorum causa præcipue est congregata; agnoscens autem cum apostolo, non esse sibi colluctationem adversus carnem et sanguimem, sed adversus spirituales neguitias in coelestibus, cum eodem omnes et singulos in primis This sacred and holy, oecumenical, and general Synod of Trent,--lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, the same three legates of the Apostolic See presiding therein,--considering the magnitude of the matters to be treated of, especially of those comprised under the two heads, of the extirpating of heresies, and the reforming of manners, for the sake of which chiefly it is assembled, and recognizing with the apostles, that its wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the spirits of wickedness in the high places, [82] exhorts, with the same apostle, all and each, above all

 hortatur, ut confortentur in Domino, et in potential, virtutis eius, in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, in quo possint omnia tela nequissimi ignea extinguere, atque galeam spei salutis accipiant cum gladio spiritus quod est verbum Dei. Itaque, ut hæc pia eius sollicitudo principium et progressum suum per Dei gratiam habeat, ante omnia statuit et decernit præmittendam esse confessionem fidei, patrum exempla in hoc secuta, qui sacratioribus conciliis hoc scutum contra omnes hæreses in principio suarum actionum apponere consuevere: quo solo aliquando et infideles ad fidem traxerunt, hæreticos expugnarunt, et fideles confirmarunt. Quare symbolum fidei, quo sancta romana ecclesia utitur, tanquam principium illud, in quo omnes, qui fidem Christi profitentur, necessario conveniunt, ac fundamentum firmum et unicum, contra quod portæ inferi nunquam prævalebunt, totidem verbis, quibus in omnibus ecclesiis legitur, experimendum esse censuit; quod quidem eiusmodi est: things, to be strengthened in the Lord, and in the might of his power, in all things taking the shield of faith, wherewith they may be able to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one, and to take the helmet of salvation, with the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God? [83] Wherefore, that this its pious solicitude may begin and proceed by the grace of God, it ordains and decrees that, before all other things, a confession of faith is to be set forth; following herein the examples of the Fathers, who have been wont, in the most sacred councils, at the beginning of the Actions thereof, to oppose this shield against heresies; and with this alone, at times, have they drawn the unbelieving to the faith, overthrown heretics, and confirmed the faithful. For which cause, this Council has thought good, that the Symbol of faith which the holy Roman Church makes use of,--as being that principle wherein all who profess the faith of Christ necessarily agree, and that firm and alone foundation against which the gates of hell shall never prevail? [84] --be expressed in the very same words in which it is read in all the churches. Which Symbol is as follows:

 Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terra, visibilium omnium et invisibilium; et in unum Dominum Iesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula; Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero; genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt: qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis, et incarnatas est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine, et homo factus est: crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus, et sepultus est: et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas, et ascendit in coelum, sedet ad dexteram Patris, et iterum venturus est cum gloria iudicare vivos et mortuos; cuius regni non erit finis: et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem, qui ex Patre Filioque procedit; qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur; qui locutus est per prophetas: et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum: et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum et vitam venturi sæculi. Amen. I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, and born of the Father before all ages; God of God, light of light, true God of true God; begotten, not made, consubstantial with the Father, by whom all things were made: who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from the heavens, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man: crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, he suffered and was buried; and he rose again on the third day, according to the Scriptures; and he ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of the Father; and again he will come with glory to judge the living and the dead; of whose kingdom there shall be no end: and in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, and the giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is adored and glorified; who spoke by the prophets: and one holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.   


 [82] Ephes. vi. 12.

 [83] Ephes. vi. 16, 17.

 [84] Matt. xvi. 18.   


 Sessio Quarta, Fourth Session, celebrata die VIII. Aprilis, 1546. held April 8, 1546. DECRETUM DE CONONICIS SCRIPTURIS. DECREE CONCERNING THE CANONICAL SCRIPTURES. Sacrosancta, oecumenica, et generalis tridentina synodus, in Spiritu Sancto legitime congregata, præsidentibus in ea eisdem tribus apostolicæ sedis legatis, hoc sibi perpetuo ante oculos proponens, ut, sublatis erroribus, puritas ipsa evangelii in ecclesia conservetur; quod promissum The sacred and holy, oecumenical, and general Synod of Trent,--lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, the same three legates of the Apostolic See presiding therein,--keeping this always in view, that, errors being removed, the purity itself of the Gospel be preserved in the Church; which (Gospel), before

 ante per prophetas in Scripturis sanctis, Dominus noster Iesus Christus, Dei Filius, proprio ore primum promulgavit, deinde per suos apostolos, tanquam fontem omnis et salutaris veritatis et morum disciplinæ, omni creaturæ prædicari iussit; perspiciensque hanc veritatem et disciplinam contineri in libris scriptis et sine scripto traditionibus, quæ ab ipsius Christi ore ab apostolis acceptæ, aut ab ipsis apostolis, Spiritu Sancto dictante, quasi per manus traditæ, ad nos usque pervenerunt: orthodoxorum patrum exempla secuta, omnes libros tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti, cum utriusque unus Deus sit auctor, necnon traditiones ipsas, tum ad fidem, tum ad mores pertinentes, tanquam vel oretenus a Christo vel a Spiritu Sancto dictatas, et continua successione in ecclesia catholica conservatas, pari pietatis affectu ac reverentia suscipit et veneratur. promised through the prophets in the holy Scriptures, our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, first promulgated with His own mouth, and then commanded to be preached by His Apostles to every creature, as the fountain of all, both saving truth, and moral discipline; and seeing clearly that this truth and discipline are contained in the written books, and the unwritten traditions which, received by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ himself, or from the Apostles themselves, the Holy Ghost dictating, have come down even unto us, transmitted as it were from hand to hand: [the Synod] following the examples of the orthodox Fathers, receives and venerates with an equal affection of piety and reverence, all the books both of the Old and of the New Testament--seeing that one God is the author of both--as also the said traditions, as well those appertaining to faith as to morals, as having been dictated, either by Christ's own word of mouth, or by the Holy Ghost, and preserved in the Catholic Church by a continuous succession. Sacrorum vero librorum indicem huic decreto adscribendum censuit, ne cui dubitatio suboriri possit, quinam sint, qui ab ipsa synodo suscipiuntur. Sunt vero And it has thought it meet that a list of the sacred books be inserted in this decree, lest a doubt may arise in any one's mind, which are the books that are received by this

 infrascripti. Testamenti veteris, quinque Moysis, id est, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium; Iosuæ, Iudicum, Ruth, quatuor Regum, duo Paralipomenon, Esdræ primus et secundus, qui dicitur Nehemias, Tobias, Iudith, Esther, Iob, Psalterium davidicum centum quinquaginta psalmorum, Parabolæ, Ecclesiastes, Canticum canticorum, Sapientia, Ecclesiasticus, Isaias, Ieremias cum Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel, duodecim prophetæ minores, id est: Osea, Ioel, Amos, Abdias, Ionas, Michæas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggæus, Zacharias, Malachias, duo Machabæorum, primus et secundus. Testamenti novi: quatuor evangelia, secundum Mathæum, Marcum, Lucam, et Ioannem; actus apostolorum a Luca evangelista conscripti; quatuordecim epistolæ Pauli apostoli, ad Romanos, duæ ad Corinthios, ad Galatas, ad Ephesios, ad Philippenses, ad Colossenses, duæ ad Thessalonicenses, duæ ad Timotheum, ad Titum, ad Philemonem, ad Hebræos; Petri apostoli duæ, Ioannis apostoli tres, Iacobi apostoli una, Iudæ apostoli una, et apocalypsis Ioannis apostoli. Synod. They are as set down here below: of the Old Testament: the five books of Moses, to wit, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Josue, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two of Paralipomenon, the first book of Esdras, and the second which is entitled Nehemias; Tobias, Judith, Esther, Job, the Davidical Psalter, consisting of a hundred and fifty psalms; the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Canticle of Canticles, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaias, Jeremias, with Baruch; Ezechiel, Daniel; the twelve minor prophets, to wit, Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggæus, Zacharias, Malachias; two books of the Machabees, the first and the second. Of the New Testament: the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; the Acts of the Apostles written by Luke the Evangelist; fourteen epistles of Paul the apostle, (one) to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, (one) to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, two to Timothy, (one) to Titus, to Philemon, to the Hebrews; two of Peter the apostle, three of John the apostle, one of the apostle James, one of Jude the apostle, and the Apocalypse of John the apostle.

 Si quis autem libros ipsos integros cum omnibus suis partibus, prout in ecclesia catholica legi consueverunt, et in veteri Vulgata Latina editione habentur, pro sacris, et canonicis non susceperit, et traditiones prædictas sciens et prudens contempserit, anathema sit. Omnes itaque intelligant, quo ordine et via ipsa synodus, post jactum fidei confessionis fundamentum, sit progressura, et quibus potissimum testimoniis ac præsidiis in confirmandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus sit usura. But if any one receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition; and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema. Let all, therefore, understand, in what order, and in what manner, the said Synod, after having laid the foundation of the Confession of faith, will proceed, and what testimonies and authorities it will mainly use in confirming dogmas, and in restoring morals in the Church. DECRETUM DE EDITIONE, ET USU SACRORUM LIBRORUM. DECREE CONCERNING THE EDITION, AND THE USE, OF THE SACRED BOOKS. Insuper eadem sacrosancta synodus considerans, non parum utilitatis accedere posse ecclesiæ Dei, si ex omnibus Latinis editionibus, quæ circumferuntur, sacrorum librorum, quænam pro authentica habenda sit, innotescat; statuit et declarat, ut hæc ipsa vetus et vulgata editio, quæ longo tot sæculorum usu in ipsa ecclesia probata est, in publicis lectionibus, disputationibus, prædicationibus et expositionibus pro authentica habeatur; et ut nemo illam rejicere quovis prætextu audeat vel præsumat. Moreover, the same sacred and holy Synod,--considering that no small utility may accrue to the Church of God, if it be made known which out of all the Latin editions, now in circulation, of the sacred books, is to be held as authentic,--ordains and declares, that the said old and vulgate edition, which, by the lengthened usage of so many ages, has been approved of in the Church, be, in public lectures, disputations, sermons, and expositions, held as authentic; and that no one is to dare, or presume to reject it under any pretext whatever.

 Præterea, ad coercenda petulantia ingenia, decernit, ut nemo, suæ prudentiæ innixus, in rebus fidei, et morum ad ædificationem doctrinæ christianæ pertinentium, sacram scripturam ad suos sensus contorquens, contra eum sensum, quem tenuit et tenet sancta mater ecclesia, cuius est judicare de vero sensu, et interpretatione scripturarum sanctarum, aut etiam contra unanimem consensum patrum ipsam scripturam sacram interpretari audeat, etiamsi hujusmodi interpretationes nullo unquam tempore in lucem edendæ forent. Qui contravenerint, per ordinarios declarentur, et poenis a jure statutis puniantur. Furthermore, in order to restrain petulant spirits, it decrees, that no one, relying on his own skill, shall,--in matters of faith, and of morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine,--wresting the sacred Scripture to his own senses, presume to interpret the said sacred Scripture contrary to that sense which holy mother Church,--whose it is to judge of the true sense and intrepretation of the holy Scriptures,--hath held and doth hold; or even contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers; even though such interpretations were never [intended] to be at any time published. Contraveners shall be made known by their Ordinaries, and be punished with the penalties by law established.   


 Sessio Quinta, Fifth Session, celebrata die XVII. Junii, 1546. held June 17, 1546. DECRETUM DE PECCATO ORIGINALI. DECREE CONCERNING ORIGINAL SIN. Ut fides nostra catholica, sine qua impossibile est placere Deo, purgatis erroribus, in sua sinceritate integra et illibata permaneat; et ne populus christianus omni vento doctrinæ circumferatur; cum serpens ille antiquus, humani generis perpetuus hostis, That our Catholic faith, without which it is impossible to please God, [85] may, errors being purged away, continue in its own perfect and spotless integrity, and that the Christian people may not be carried about with every wind of doctrine; [86] whereas that old serpent, the perpetual

 inter plurima mala, quibus ecclesia Dei his nostris temporibus perturbatur, etiam de peccato originali ejusque remedio non solum nova, sed vetera etiam dissidia excitaverit: sacrosancta oecumenica et generalis Tridentina synodus, in Spiritu Sancto legitime congregata, præsidentibus in ea eisdem tribus apostolicæ sedis legatis, jam ad revocandos errantes et nutantes confirmandos accedere volens, sacrarum scripturarum et sanctorum patrum ac probatissimorum conciliorum testimonia et ipsius ecclesiæ judicium et consensum secuta, hæc de ipso peccato originali statuit, fatetur ac declarat. enemy of mankind, amongst the very many evils with which the Church of God is in these our times troubled, has also stirred up not only new, but even old, dissensions touching original sin, and the remedy thereof; the sacred and holy, oecumenical and general Synod of Trent,--lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, the three same legates of the Apostolic See presiding therein,--wishing now to come to the reclaiming of the erring, and the confirming of the wavering,--following the testimonies of the sacred Scriptures, of the holy Fathers, of the most approved councils, and the judgment and consent of the Church itself, ordains, confesses, and declares these things touching the said original sin: 1. Si quis non confitetur, primum hominem Adam, cum mandatum Dei in paradiso fuisset transgressus, statim sanctitatem et justitiam, in qua constitutus fuerat, amisisse incurrisseque per offensam prævaricationis hujusmodi iram et indignationem Dei, atque ideo mortem, quam antea illi comminatus fuerat Deus, et cum morte captivitatem sub ejus potestate, qui mortis deinde habuit imperium, hoc est, diaboli, totumque Adam, per illam 1. If any one does not confess that the first man, Adam, when he had transgressed the commandment of God in Paradise, immediately lost the holiness and justice wherein he had been constituted; and that he incurred, through the offense of that prevarication, the wrath and indignation of God, and consequently death, with which God had previously threatened him, and, together with death, captivity under his power who thenceforth had the empire of death, that is to say, the devil, [87]

 prævaricationis offensam, secundum corpus et animam in deterius commutatum fuisse; anathema sit. and that the entire Adam, through that offense of prevarication was changed, in body and soul, for the worse; let him be anathema. 2. Si quis Adæ prævaricationem sibi soli, et non eius propagini asserit nocuisse; et acceptam a Deo sanctitatem et justitiam, quam perdidit, sibi soli et non nobis etiam eum perdidisse; aut inquinatum illum per inobedientiæ peccatum, mortem et poenas corporis tantum in omne genus humanum transfudisse, non autem et peccatum, quod mors est animæ; anathema sit: cum contradicat apostolo dicenti: Per unum hominem peccatum intravit in mundum et per peccatum mors, et ita in omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt. 2. If any one asserts, that the prevarication of Adam injured himself alone, and not his posterity; and that the holiness and justice, received of God, which he lost, he lost for himself alone, and not for us also; or that he, being defiled by the sin of disobedience, has only transfused death and pains of the body into the whole human race, but not sin also, which is the death of the soul; let him be anathema:--whereas he contradicts the apostle who says: By one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned. [88] 3. Si quis hoc Adæ peccatum, quod origine unum est et propagatione, non imitatione transfusum omnibus, inest unicuique proprium, vel per humanæ naturæ vires, vel per aliud remedium asserit tolli, quam per meritum unius mediatoris Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui nos Deo reconciliavit in sanguine suo, factus nobis justitia, sanctificatio et redemptio; aut negat 3. If any one asserts, that this sin of Adam,--which in its origin is one, and being transfused into all by propagation, not by imitation, is in each one as his own,--is taken away either by the powers of human nature, or by any other remedy than the merit of the one mediator, our Lord Jesus Christ, [89] who hath reconciled us to God in his own blood, being made unto us justice, sanctification, and redemption; [90]

 ipsum Christi Iesu meritum per baptismi sacramentum in forma ecclesiæ rite collatum, tam adultis quam parvulis applicari; anathema sit: quia non est aliud nomen sub coelo datum hominibus, in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri. Unde illa vox: Ecce agnus Dei; ecce qui tollit peccata mundi; et illa: Quicumque baptizati estis, Christum induistis. or if he denies that the said merit of Jesus Christ is applied, both to adults and to infants, by the sacrament of baptism rightly administered in the form of the Church; let him be anathema: For there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved. [91] Whence that voice: Behold the lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sins of the world; [92] and that other: As many as have been baptized, have put on Christ. [93] 4. Si quis parvulos recentes ab uteris matrum baptizandos negat, etiam si fuerint a baptizatis parentibus orti; aut dicit in remissionem quidem peccatorum eos baptizari, sed nihil ex Adam trahere originalis peccati, quod regenerationis lavacro necesse sit expiari ad vitam æternam consequendam; unde fit consequens, ut in eis forma baptismatis in remissionem peccatorum non vera, sed falsa intelligatur; anathema sit; quoniam non aliter intelligendum est id, quod dixit apostolus: Per unum hominem peccatum intravit in mundum, et per peccatum mors, et ita in omnes homines mors pertransiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt, nisi quemadmodum ecclesia 4. If any one denies, that infants, newly born from their mothers' wombs, even though they be sprung from baptized parents, are to be baptized; or says that they are baptized indeed for the remission of sins, [94] but that they derive nothing of original sin from Adam, which has need of being expiated by the laver of regeneration for obtaining life everlasting,--whence it follows as a consequence, that in them the form of baptism, for the remission of sins, is understood to be not true, but false,--let him be anathema. For that which the apostle has said, By one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned, [95] is not to be understood otherwise

 catholica ubique diffusa semper intellexit. Propter hanc enim regulam fidei ex traditione apostolorum etiam parvuli, qui nihil peccatorum in semetipsis adhuc committere potuerunt, ideo in remissionem peccatorum veraciter baptizantur, ut in eis regeneratione mundetur, quod generatione contraxerunt. Nisi enim quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, non potest introire in regnum Dei. than as the Catholic Church spread every where hath always understood it. For, by reason of this rule of faith, from a tradition of the apostles, even infants, who could not as yet commit any sin of themselves, are for this cause truly baptized for the remission of sins, that in them that may be cleansed away by regeneration, which they have contracted by generation. For, unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the kingdom of God. [96] 5. Si quis per Iesu Christi Domini nostri gratiam, quæ in baptismate confertur, reatum originalis peccati remitti negat; aut etiam asserit non tolli totum id quod veram et propriam peccati rationem habet; sed illud dicit tantum radi, aut non imputari; anathema sit. In renatis enim nihil odit Deus; quia nihil est damnationis iis, qui vere consepulti sunt cum Christo per baptisma in mortem; qui non secundum carnem ambulant, sed veterem hominem exuentes, et novum, qui secundum Deum creatus est, induentes, innocentes, immaculati, puri, innoxii, ac Deo dilecti effecti sunt, heredes quidem Dei, coheredes autem 5. If any one denies, that, by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is conferred in baptism, the guilt of original sin is remitted; or even asserts that the whole of that which has the true and proper nature of sin is not taken away; but says that it is only rased, or not imputed; let him be anathema. For, in those who are born again, there is nothing that God hates; because, There is no condemnation to those who are truly buried together with Christ by baptism into death; [97] who walk not according to the flesh, but, putting off the old man, and putting on the new who is created according to God, [98] are made innocent, immaculate, pure, harmless, and beloved of God, heirs

 Christi; ita ut nihil prorsus eos ab ingressu coeli remoretur. Manere autem in baptizatis concupiscentiam vel fomitem, hæc sancta synodus fatetur et sentit: quæ cum ad agonem relicta sit, nocere non consentientibus, sed viriliter per Christi Iesu gratiam repugnantibus non valet: quinimmo qui legitime certaverit, coronabitur. Hanc concupiscentiam, quam aliquando apostolus peccatum appellat, sancta synodus declarat, ecclesiam catholicam nunquam intellexisse peccatum appellari, quod vere et proprie in renatis peccatum sit, sed quia ex peccato est et ad peccatum inclinat. Si quis autem contrarium senserit, anathema sit. indeed of God, but joint heirs with Christ; [99] so that there is nothing whatever to retard their entrance into heaven. But this holy synod confesses and is sensible, that in the baptized there remains concupiscence, or an incentive (to sin); which, whereas it is left for our exercise, can not injure those who consent not, but resist manfully by the grace of Jesus Christ; yea, he who shall have striven lawfully shall be crowned. [100] This concupiscence, which the apostle sometimes calls sin, [101] the holy Synod declares that the Catholic Church has never understood it to be called sin, as being truly and properly sin in those born again, but because it is of sin, and inclines to sin. And if any one is of a contrary sentiment, let him be anathema. Declarat tamen hæc ipsa sancta synodus, non esse suæ intentionis comprehendere in hoc decreto, ubi de peccato originali agitur, beatam et immaculatam virginem Mariam, Dei genitricem; sed observandas esse constitutiones felicis recordationis Sixti papæ IV. sub pænis in eis constitutionibus contentis, quas innovat. [102] This same holy Synod doth nevertheless declare, that it is not its intention to include in this decree, where original sin is treated of, the blessed and immaculate Virgin Mary, the mother of God; but that the constitutions of Pope Sixtus IV., of happy memory, are to be observed, under the pains contained in the said constitutions, which it renews.   


 [85] Heb. xi. 6.

 [86] Ephes. iv. 14.

 [87] Heb. ii. 14.

 [88] Rom. v. 12.

 [89] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

 [90] 1 Cor. i. 30.

 [91] Acts iv. 2.

 [92] John i. 29.

 [93] Gal. iii. 27.

 [94] Acts ii. 38.

 [95] Rom. v. 12.

 [96] John iii. 5.

 [97] Rom. viii. 1; vi. 4

 [98] Ephes. iv. 22, 24.

 [99] Rom. viii.17.

 [100] 2 Tim. ii. 5.

 [101] Rom. vi. 12; vii. 8.

 [102] [This indirect exemption of the immaculata Virgo Maria from original sin is a very near approach to the positive definition of the immaculata conceptio Virginis Mariæ in 1854.--P. S.]   


 Sessio Sexta, Sixth Session, celebrata die XIII. Januarii 1547. held January 13, 1547. DECRETUM DE JUSTIFICATIONE. DECREE ON JUSTIFICATION. Caput I. Chapter I. De naturæ et legis ad justificandos homines imbecillitate. On the Inability of Nature and of the Law to justify Man. Primum declarat sancta synodus, ad justificationis doctrinam probe et sincere intelligendam oportere, ut unusquisque agnoscat et fateatur, quod cum omnes homines in prævaricatione Adæ innocentiam perdidissent; facti immundi et ut apostolus inquit, natura filii iræ, quemadmodum in decreto de peccato originali exposuit, usque adeo servi erant peccati et sub potestate diaboli ac mortis, ut non modo gentes per vim naturæ, sed ne Iudæi quidem per ipsam etiam litteram legis Moysi, inde liberari aut surgere possent; tametsi in eis liberum arbitrium minime extinctum esset, viribus licet attenuatum et inclinatum. The holy Synod declares first, that, for the correct and sound understanding of the doctrine of Justification, it is necessary that each one recognize and confess, that, whereas all men had lost their innocence in the prevarication of Adam,--having become unclean, [103] and as the apostle says, by nature children of wrath, [104] as (this Synod) has set forth in the decree on original sin,--they were so far the servants of sin, [105] and under the power of the devil and of death, that not the Gentiles only by the force of nature, but not even the Jews by the very letter itself of the law of Moses, were able to be liberated, or to arise, therefrom; although freewill, attenuated as it was in its powers, and bent down,was by no means extinguished in them. Caput II. Chapter II. De dispensatione et mysterio Adventus Christi. On the Dispensation and Mystery of Christ's Advent. Quo factum est, ut coelestis Pater, Pater misericordiarum, et Deus totius consolationis, Whence it came to pass, that the heavenly Father, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort, [106]

 Christum Iesum, Filium suum, et ante legem et legis tempore multis sanctis patribus declaratum ac promissum, cum venit beata illa plenitudo temporis, ad homines miserit, ut et Iudæos, qui sub lege erant, redimeret, et gentes, quæ non sectabantur justitiam, justitiam apprehenderent, atque omnes adoptionem filiorum reciperent. Hunc proposuit Deus propitiatorem per fidem in sanguine ipsius pro peccatis nostris, non solum autem pro nostris, sed etiam pro totius mundi. when that blessed fullness of the time was come, [107] sent unto men, Jesus Christ, his own Son--who had been, both before the Law, and during the time of the Law, to many of the holy fathers announced and promised--that he might both redeem the Jews who were under the Law, [108] and that the Gentiles, who followed not after justice, might attain to justice, [109] and that all men might receive the adoption of sons. Him God hath proposed as a propitiator, through faith in his blood, [110] for our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for those of the whole world. [111] Caput III. Chapter III. Qui per Christum justificantur. Who are justified through Christ. Verum, etsi ille pro omnibus mortuus est, non omnes tamen mortis ejus beneficium recipiunt; sed ii dumtaxat, quibus meritum passionis ejus communicatur. Nam, sicut re vera homines, nisi ex semine Adæ propagati nascerentur, non nascerentur injusti; cum ea propagatione, per ipsum dum concipiuntur, propriam injustitiam contrahant: ita, nisi in Christo renascerentur, nunquam justificarentur; cum ea renascentia per meritum passionis ejus gratia, But, though He died for all, [112] yet do not all receive the benefit of his death, but those only unto whom the merit of his passion is communicated. For as in truth men, if they were not born propagated of the seed of Adam, would not be born unjust,--seeing that, by that propagation, they contract through him, when they are conceived, injustice as their own,--so, if they were not born again in Christ, they never would be justified; seeing that, in that new birth, there is bestowed upon them, through the

 qua justi fiunt, illis tribuatur. Pro hoc beneficio apostolus gratias nos semper agere hortatur Patri, qui dignos nos fecit in partem sortis sanctorum in lumine, et eripuit de potestate tenebrarum, transtulitque in regnum Filii dilectionis suæ, in quo habemus redemptionem et remissionem peccatorum. merit of his passion, the grace whereby they are made just. For this benefit, the apostle exhorts us, evermore to give thanks to the Father, who hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light, and hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love, in whom we have redemption, and remission of sins. [113] Caput IV. Chapter IV. Insinuatur descriptio justifactionis impii, et modus ejus in statu gratiæ. A description is introduced of the Justification of the impious, and of the manner thereof in the state of grace. Quibus verbis justifications impii descriptio insinuatur, ut sit translatio ab eo statu, in quo homo nascitur filius primi Adæ, in statum gratiæ, et adoptionis filiorum Dei per secundum Adam Iesum Christum, salvatorem nostrum: quæ quidem translatio post evangelium promulgatum, sine lavacro regenerationis, aut ejus voto, fieri non potest; sicut scriptum est: Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, non potest introire in regnum Dei. By which words, a description of the Justification of the impious is indicated,--as being a translation, from that state wherein man is born a child of the first Adam, to the state of grace, and of the adoption of the sons of God, [114] through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Saviour. And this translation, since the promulgation of the Gospel, can not be effected, without the laver of regeneration, or the desire thereof, as it is written: unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can not enter into the Kingdom of God. [115]

 Caput V. Chapter V. De necessitate præparationis ad justificationem in adultis, et unde sit. On the necessity, in adults, of preparation for Justification, and whence it proceeds. Declarat præterea, ipsius justificationis exordium in adultis a Dei per Christum Iesum præveniente gratia sumendum esse, hoc est, ab ejus vocatione, qua, nullis eorum existentibus meritis, vocantur; ut, qui per peccata a Deo aversi erant, per ejus excitantem atque adjuvantem gratiam ad convertendum se ad suam ipsorum justiftcationem, eidem gratiæ libere assentiendo et cooperando, disponantur: ita ut, tangente Deo cor hominis per Spiritus Sancti illuminationem, neque homo ipse nihil omnino agat, inspirationem illam recipiens, quippe qui illam et abjicere potest, neque tamen sine gratia Dei movere se ad justitiam coram illo libera sua voluntate possit. Unde in sacris litteris cum dicitur: Convertimini ad me, et ego convertar ad vos: libertatis nostræ admonemur. Cum respondemus: Converte nos, Domine, ad te, et convertemur: Dei nos gratia præveniri confitemur. The Synod furthermore declares, that, in adults, the beginning of the said Justification is to be derived from the prevenient grace of God, through Jesus Christ, that is to say, from his vocation, whereby, without any merits existing on their parts, they are called; that so they, who by sins were alienated from God, may be disposed through his quickening and assisting grace, to convert themselves to their own justification, by freely assenting to and co-operating with that said grace: in such sort that, while God touches the heart of man by the illumination of the Holy Ghost, neither is man himself utterly inactive while he receives that inspiration, forasmuch as he is also able to reject it; yet is he not able, by his own free will, without the grace of God, to move himself unto justice in his sight. Whence, when it is said in the sacred writings: Turn ye to me, and I will turn to you, [116] we are admonished of our liberty; and when we answer: Convert us, O Lord, to thee, and we shall be converted, [117] we confess that we are prevented (anticipated) by the grace of God.

 Caput VI. Chapter VI. Modus præparationis. The manner of Preparation. Disponuntur autem ad ipsam justitiam, dum excitati divina gratia et adjuti, fidem ex auditu concipientes, libere moventur in Deum, credentes vera esse, quæ divinitus revelata et promissa sunt; atque illud in primis, a Deo justificari impium per gratiam ejus), per redemptionem, quæ est in Christo Iesu: et, dum peccatores se esse intelligentes, a divinæ justitiæ timore, quo utiliter concutiuntur, ad considerandam Dei misericordiam se convertendo, in spem eriguntur, fidentes Deum sibi propter Christum propitium fore; illumque, tamquam omnis justitiæ fontem diligere incipiunt; ac propterea moventur adversus peccata per odium aliquod et detestationem, hoc est, per eam poenitentiam, quam ante baptismum agi oportet: denique dum proponunt suscipere baptismum inchoare novam vitam, et servare divina mandata. De hac dispositione scriptum est: Accedentem ad Deum oportet credere, quia est, et quod inquirentibus se remunerator sit: et, Confide, fili, remittuntur tibi peccata tua; et: Timor Now they [adults] are disposed unto the said justice, when, excited and assisted by divine grace, conceiving faith by hearing, [118] they are freely moved towards God, believing those things to be true which God has revealed and promised--and this especially, that God justifies the impious by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; [119] and when, understanding themselves to be sinners, they, by turning themselves, from the fear of divine justice whereby they are profitably agitated, to consider the mercy of God, are raised unto hope, confiding that God will be propitious to them for Christ's sake; and they begin to love him as the fountain of all justice; and are therefore moved against sins by a certain hatred and detestation, to wit, by that penitence which must be performed before baptism: lastly, when they purpose to receive baptism, to begin a new life, and to keep the commandments of God. Concerning this disposition it is written: He that cometh to God, must believe that he is, and is a rewarder to them that seek him; [120] and, Be of good faith, son, thy sins

 Domini expellit peccatum; et: Poenitentiam agite, et baptizetur unusquisque vestrum in nomine Iesu Christi, in remissionem peccatorum vestrorum, et accipietis donum Spiritus Sancti; et: Euntes ergo docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, docentes eos servare quæcumque mandavi vobis; denique: Præparate corda vestra Domino. are forgiven thee; [121] and, The fear of the Lord driveth out sin; [122] and, Do penance, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost; [123] and, Going, therefore, teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; [124] finally, Prepare your hearts unto the Lord. [125] Caput VII. Chapter VII. Quid sit justificatio impii, et quæ ejus causæ. What the Justification of the impious is, and what the causes thereof. Hanc dispositionem, seu præparationem justificatio ipsa consequitur, quæ non est sola peccatorum remissio, sed et sanctificatio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam susceptionem gratiæ et donorum, unde homo ex injusto fit justus, et ex inimico amicus, ut sit heres secundum spem vitæ, æternæ. This disposition, or preparation, is followed by Justification itself, which is not remission of sins merely, but also the sanctification and renewal of the inward man, through the voluntary reception of the grace, and of the gifts, whereby man of unjust becomes just, and of an enemy a friend, that so he may be an heir according to hope of life everlasting. [126] Hujus justificationis causæ sunt, finalis quidem: gloria Dei et Christi, ac vita æterna; efficiens vero; misericors Deus, qui gratuito abluit, et sanctificat signans, et ungens Spiritu promissionis Sancto, qui est pignus Of this Justification the causes are these: the final cause indeed is the glory of God and of Jesus Christ, and life everlasting; while the efficient cause is a merciful God who washes and sanctifies [127] gratuitously, signing, and anointing with the

 hereditatis nostræ; meritoria autem: dilectissimus unigenitus suus, Dominus noster Iesus Christus, qui cum essemus inimici, propter nimiam caritatem, qua dilexit nos, sua sanctissima passione in ligno crucis nobis justificationem meruit, et pro nobis Deo Patri satisfecit; instrumentalis item: sacramentum baptismi, quod est sacramentum fidei, sine qua nulli umquam contigit justificatio; demum unica formalis causa est justitia Dei; non qua ipse justus est, sed qua nos justos facit; qua videlicet ab eo donati, renovamur spiritu mentis nostræ, et non modo reputamur, sed vere justi nominamur et sumus, justitiam in nobis recipientes, unusquisque suam secundum mensuram, quam Spiritus Sanctus partitur singulis prout vult et secundum propriam cujusque dispositionem et cooperationem. Quamquam enim nemo possit esse justus, nisi cui merita passionis Domini nostri Iesu Christi communicantur: id tamen in hac impii justificatione fit, dum ejusdem sanctissimæ passionis merito per Spiritum Sanctum caritas Dei diffunditur in cordibus holy Spirit of promise, who is the pledge of our inheritance; [128] but the meritorious cause is his most beloved only-begotten, our Lord Jesus Christ, who, when we were enemies, for the exceeding charity wherewith he loved us, [129] merited Justification for us by his most holy Passion on the wood of the cross, and made satisfaction for us unto God the Father; the instrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism, which is the sacrament of faith, without which [faith] no man was ever justified; [130] lastly, the alone formal cause is the justice of God, not that whereby he himself is just, but that whereby he maketh us just, that, to wit, with which we, being endowed by him, are renewed in the spirit of our mind, [131] and we are not only reputed, but are truly called, and are just, receiving justice within us, each one according to his own measure, which the Holy Ghost distributes to every one as he wills, [132] and according to each one's proper disposition and co-operation. For, although no one can be just, but he to whom the merits of the Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ are communicated, yet is this done in the said justification of the impious, when by the merit of that same

 eorum, qui justificantur, atque ipsis inhæret: unde in ipsa justificatione cum remissione peccatorum hæc omnia simul infusa accipit homo per Iesum Christum, cui inseritur, fidem, spem et caritatem: nam fides, nisi ad eam spes accedat, et caritas, neque unit perfecte cum Christo, neque corporis ejus vivum membrum efficit: qua ratione verissime dicitur, fidem sine operibus mortuam, et otiosam esse: et in Christo Iesu neque circumcisionem aliquid valere neque præputium, sed fidem, quæ per caritatem operatur. Hanc fidem ante baptismi sacramentum ex apostolorum traditione catechumeni ab ecclesia petunt, cum petunt fidem, vitam æternam præstantem: quam sine spe et caritate præstare fides non potest: unde et statim verbum Christi audiunt: Si vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata. most holy Passion, the charity of God is poured forth, by the Holy Spirit, in the hearts [133] of those that are justified, and is inherent therein: whence, man, through Jesus Christ, in whom he is ingrafted, receives, in the said justification, together with the remission of sins, all these [gifts] infused at once, faith, hope, and charity. For faith, unless hope and charity be added thereto, neither unites man perfectly with Christ, nor makes him a living member of his body. For which reason it is most truly said, that Faith without works is dead and profitless; [134] and, In Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing nor uncircumcision, but faith which worketh by charity. [135] This faith, Catechumens beg of the Church--agreeably to a tradition of the apostles--previously to the sacrament of Baptism; when they beg for the faith which bestows life everlasting, which, without hope and charity, faith can not bestow: whence also do they immediately hear that word of Christ: If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. [136] Itaque veram et Christianam justitiam accipientes, eam ceu primam stolam pro illa, quam Adam sua inobedienta sibi et nobis perdidit, Wherefore, when receiving true and Christian justice, they are bidden, immediately on being born again, to preserve it pure and spotless,

 per Christum Iesum illis donatam, candidam et immaculatam jubentur statim renati conservare, ut eam perferant ante tribunal Domini nostri Iesu Christi, et habeant vitam æternam. as the first robe [137] given them through Jesus Christ in lieu of that which Adam, by his disobedience, lost for himself and for us, that so they may bear it before the judgment-seat of our Lord Jesus Christ, and may have life eternal. Caput VIII. Chapter VIII. Quomodo intelligatur, impium per fidem et gratis justificari. In what manner it is to be understood, that the impious is justified by faith, and gratuitously. Cum vero Apostolus dicit, justificari hominem per fidem et gratis, ea verba in eo sensu intelligenda sunt, quem perpetuus ecclesiæ catholicæ consensus tenuit et expressit: ut scilicet per fidem ideo justificari dicamur, quia fides est humanæ salutis initium, fundamentum et radix omnis justificationis, sine qua impossibile est placere Deo et ad filiorum ejus consortium pervenire: gratis autem justificari ideo dicamur, quia nihil eorum, quæ, justificationem præcedunt, sive fides sive opera, ipsam justificationis gratiam promeretur: si enim gratia est, jam non ex operibus: alioquin, ut idem apostolus inquit, gratia jam non est gratia. And whereas the Apostle saith, that man is justified by faith and freely, [138] those words are to be understood in that sense which the perpetual consent of the Catholic Church hath held and expressed; to wit, that we are therefore said to be justified by faith, because faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation, and the root of all Justification; without which it is impossible to please God, [139] and to come unto the fellowship of his sons: but we are therefore said to be justified freely, because that none of those things which precede justification--whether faith or works--merit the grace itself of justification. For, if it be a grace, it is not now by works, otherwise, as the same Apostle says, grace is no more grace. [140]

 Caput IX. Chapter IX. Contra inanem hæreticorum fiduciam. Against the vain confidence of heretics. Quamvis autem necessarium sit credere, neque remitti, neque remissa unquam fuisse peccata, nisi gratis divina misericordia propter Christum: nemini tamen fiduciam, et certitudinem remissionis peccatorum suorum jactanti, et in ea sola quiescenti, peccata dimitti, vel dimissa esse dicendum est, cum apud hæreticos et schismaticos possit esse, imo nostra tempestate sit, et magna contra ecclesiam catholicam contentione prædicetur vana hæc et ab omni pietate remota fiducia. Sed neque illud asserendum est, oportere eos, qui vere justificati sunt, absque ulla omnino dubitatione apud semetipsos statuere, se esse justificatos, neminemque a peccatis absolvi ac justificari, nisi eum, qui certo credat se absolutum et justificatum esse; atque hac sola fide absolutionem et justificationem perfici, quasi qui hoc non credit, de Dei promissis, deque mortis et resurrectionis Christi efficacia dubitet. Nam, sicut nemo pius de Dei misericordia, de Christi merito deque sacramentorum virtute et efficacia dubitare debet: sic quilibet, dum se ipsum suamque propriam infirmitatem et But, although it is necessary to believe that sins neither are remitted, nor ever were remitted save gratuitously by the mercy of God for Christ's sake; yet is it not to be said, that sins are forgiven, or have been forgiven, to any one who boasts of his confidence and certainty of the remission of his sins, and rests on that alone; seeing that it may exist, yea does in our day exist, amongst heretics and schismatics; and with great vehemence is this vain confidence, and one alien from all godliness, preached up in opposition to the Catholic Church. But neither is this to be asserted--that they who are truly justified must needs, without any doubting whatever, settle within themselves that they are justified, and that no one is absolved from sins and justified, but he that believes for certain that he is absolved and justified; and that absolution and justification are effected by this faith alone: as though whoso has not this belief, doubts of the promises of God, and of the efficacy of the death and resurrection of Christ. For even as no pious person ought to doubt of the mercy of God, of the merit of Christ, and of the virtue and efficacy of the sacraments, even so

 indispositionem respicit, de sua gratia formidare et timere potest; cum nullus scire valeat certitudine fidei, cui non potest subesse falsum, se gratiam Dei esse consecutum. each one, when he regards himself, and his own weakness and indisposition, may have fear and apprehension touching his own grace; seeing that no one can know with a certainty of faith, which can not be subject to error, that he has obtained the grace of God. Caput X. Chapter X. De acceptæ justificationis incremento. On the increase of Justification received. Sic ergo justificati, et amici Dei ac domestici facti, euntes de virtute in virtutem, renovantur, ut apostolus inquit, de die in diem, hoc est, mortificando membra carnis suæ, et exhibendo ea arma justitiæ in sanctificationem; per observationem mandatorum Dei et ecclesiæ, in ipsa justitia per Christi gratiam accepta, cooperante fide bonis operibus, crescunt atque magis justificantur, sicut scriptum est: Qui justus est, justificetur adhuc; et iterum: Ne verearis usque ad mortem justificari; et rursus: Videtis, quoniam ex operibus justificatur homo, et non ex fide tantum. Hoc vero justitiæ incrementum petit sancta ecclesia, cum orat: Da Having, therefore, been thus justified, and made the friends and domestics of God, [141] advancing from virtue to virtue, [142] they are renewed, as the Apostle says, day by day; [143] that is, by mortifying the members of their own flesh, [144] and by presenting them as instruments of justice unto sanctification, [145] they, through the observance of the commandments of God and of the Church, faith co-operating with good works, increase in that justice which they have received through the grace of Christ, and are still further justified, as it is written: He that is just, let him be justified still; [146] and again, Be not afraid to be justified even to death; [147] and also, Do you see that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only. [148] And this increase

 nobis Domine fidei, spei, et caritatis augmentum. of justification holy Church begs, when she prays, 'Give unto us, O Lord, increase of faith, hope, and charity.' Caput XI. Chapter XI. De observatione mandatorum, deque illius necessitate et possibilitate. On keeping the Commandments, and on the necessity and possibility thereof. Nemo autem, quantumvis justificatus, liberum se esse ab observatione mandatorum putare debet; nemo temeraria illa et a patribus sub anathemate prohibita voce uti, Dei præcepta homini justificato ad observandum esse impossibilia. Nam Deus impossibilia non jubet, sed jubendo monet et facere quod possis, et petere quod non possis, et adjuvat, ut possis. Cujus mandata gravia non sunt, cujus jugum suave est et onus leve. Qui enim sunt filii Dei, Christum diligunt; qui autem diligunt eum, ut ipsemet testatur, servant sermones ejus, quod utique cum divino auxilio præstare possunt. Licet enim in hac mortali vita quantumvis sancti et justi in levia saltem et quotidiana, quæ etiam venialia dicuntur, peccata quandoque cadant, non propterea desinunt esse justi; nam justorum illa vox est et humilis et verax: Dimitte But no one, how much soever justified, ought to think himself exempt from the observance of the commandments; no one ought to make use of that rash saying, one prohibited by the Fathers under an anathema,--that the observance of the commandments of God is impossible for one that is justified. For God commands not impossibilities, but, by commanding, both admonishes thee to do what thon art able, and to pray for what thou art not able (to do), and aids thee that thou mayest be able; whose commandments are not heavy; [149] whose yoke is sweet and whose burthen light. [150] For, whoso are the sons of God, love Christ; but they who love him, keep his commandments, [151] as himself testifies; which, assuredly, with the divine help, they can do. For, although, during this mortal life, men, how holy and just soever, at times fall into at least light and daily sins, which are also called venial, not therefore do they cease to

 nobis debita nostra. Quo fit, ut justi ipsi eo magis se obligatos ad ambulandum in via justitiæ sentire debeant, quo liberati jam a peccato, servi autem facti Deo, sobrie, juste et pie viventes proficere possint per Christum Iesum, per quem accessum habuerunt in gratiam istam. Deus namque sua gratia semel justificatos non deserit, nisi ab eis prius deseratur. Itaque nemo sibi in sola fide blandiri debet, putans fide sola se heredem esse constitutum, hereditatemque consecuturum, etiam si Christo non compatiatur, ut et conglorificetur. Nam et Christus ipse, ut inquit apostolus, cum esset filius Dei, didicit ex iis, quæ passus est, obedientiam, et consummatus factus est omnibus obtemperantibus sibi causa salutis æternæ. Propterea apostolus ipse monet justificatos, dicens: Nescitis, quod ii, qui in stadio currunt, omnes quidem currunt, sed unus accipit bravium? Sic currite, ut comprehendatis. Ego igitur sic curro, non quasi in incertum, sic pugno, non quasi aërem verberans, sed castigo corpus meum, et in servitutem redigo, ne forte, be just. For that cry of the just, Forgive us our trespasses, is both humble and true. And for this cause, the just themselves ought to feel themselves the more obliged to walk in the way of justice, in that, being already freed from sins, but made servants of God, [152] they are able, living soberly, justly, and godly, [153] to proceed onwards through Jesus Christ, by whom they have had access unto this grace. [154] For God forsakes not those who have been once justified by his grace, unless he be first forsaken by them. Wherefore, no one ought to flatter himself up with faith alone, fancying that by faith alone he is made an heir, and will obtain the inheritance, even though he suffer not with Christ, that so he may be also glorified with him. [155] For even Christ himself, as the Apostle saith, Whereas he was the son of God, learned obedience by the things which he suffered, and being consummated, he became, to all who obey him, the cause of eternal salvation. [156] For which cause the same Apostle admonishes the justified, saying: Know you not that they that run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveth the prize? So run that you may obtain. I therefore so

 cum aliis prædicaverim, ipse reprobus efficiar. Item princeps apostolorum Petrus: Satagite, ut per bona opera certam vestram vocationem et electionem faciatis. Hæc enim facientes, non peccabitis aliquando. Unde constat eos orthodoxæ religionis doctrinæ adversari, qui dicunt, justum in omni bono opere saltem venialiter peccare, aut, quod intolerabilius est, poenas æternas mereri, atque etiam eos, qui statuunt, in omnibus operibus justos peccare, si in illis suam ipsorum socordiam excitando, et sese ad currendum in stadio cohortando, cum hoc, ut in primis glorificetur Deus, mercedem quoque intuentur æternam; cum scriptum sit: Inclinavi cor meum ad faciendas justificationes tuas propter retributionem; et de Mose dicat apostolus, quod respiciebat in remunerationem. run, not as at an uncertainty: I so fight, not as one beating the air, but I chastise my body, and bring it into subjection; lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I myself should become a cast-away. [157] So also the prince of the Apostles, Peter: Labor the more that by good works you may make sure your calling and election. For doing those things, you shall not sin at any time. [158] From which it is plain, that those are opposed to the orthodox doctrine of religion, who assert that the just man sins, venially at least, in every good work; or, which is yet more insupportable, that he merits eternal punishments; as also those who state, that the just sin in all their works, if, in those works, they, together with this aim principally that God may be glorified, have in view also the eternal reward, in order to excite their sloth, and to encourage themselves to run in the course: whereas it is writen, I have inclined my heart to do all thy justifications for the reward: [159] and, concerning Moses, the Apostle saith, that he looked unto the reward. [160]

 Caput XII. Chapter XII. Prædestinationis temerariam præsumptionem cavendam esse. That a rash presumptuousness in the matter of Predestination is to be avoided. Nemo quoque, quamdiu in hoc mortalitate vivitur, de arcano divinæ prædestinationis mysterio usque adeo præsumere debet, ut certo statuat, se omnino esse in numero prædestinatorum, quasi verum esset, quod justificatus aut amplius peccare non possit, aut, si peccaverit, certam sibi resipiscentiam promittere debeat. Nam, nisi ex speciali revelatione, sciri non potest, quos Deus sibi elegerit. No one, moreover, so long as he is in this mortal life, ought so far to presume as regards the secret mystery of divine predestination, as to determine for certain that he is assuredly in the number of the predestinate; as if it were true, that he that is justified, either can not sin any more, or, if he do sin, that he ought to promise himself an assured repentance; for except by special revelation, it can not be known whom God hath chosen unto himself. Caput XIII. Chapter XIII. De perseverantiæ munere. On the gift of Perseverance. Similiter de perseverantiæ munere, de quo scriptum est: Qui perseveraverit usque in finem, hic salvus erit; quod quidem aliunde haberi non potest, nisi ab eo, qui potens est eum, qui stat, statuere, ut perseveranter stet, et eum, qui cadit, restituere: nemo sibi certi aliquid absoluta certitudine polliceatur, tametsi in Dei auxilio firmissimam spem collocare et reponere omnes debent. Deus enim, nisi ipsi illius gratiæ defuerint, sicut coepit opus bonum, ita perficiet, operans So also as regards the gift of perseverance, of which it is written, He that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved; [161] --which gift can not be derived from any other but Him, who is able to establish him who standeth [162] that he stand perseveringly, and to restore him who falleth:--let no one herein promise himself any thing as certain with an absolute certainty; though all ought to place and repose a most firm hope in God's help. For God, unless men be themselves wanting in his grace, as he has begun the

 velle et perficere. Verumtamen, qui se existimant stare, videant ne cadant et cum timore, ac tremore salutem suam operentur in laboribus, in vigiliis, in eleemosynis, in orationibus et oblationibus, in jejuniis et castitate; formidare enim debent, scientes quod in spem gloriæ, et nondum in gloriam renati sunt, de pugna, quæ superest cum carne, cum mundo, cum diabolo; in qua victores esse non possunt, nisi cum Dei gratia apostolo obtemperent, dicenti: Debitores sumus non carni, ut secundum carnem vivamus; si enim secundum carnem vixeritis, moriemini; si autem spiritu facta carnis mortificaveritis, vivetis. good work, so will he perfect it, working (in them) to will and to accomplish. [163] Nevertheless, let those who think themselves to stand, take heed lest they fall, [164] and, with fear and trembling work out their salvation, [165] in labors, in watchings, in almsdeeds, in prayers and oblations, in fastings and chastity: for, knowing that they are born again unto a hope of glory, [166] but not as yet unto glory, they ought to fear for the combat which yet remains with the flesh, with the world, with the devil, wherein they can not be victorious, unless they be with God's grace, obedient to the Apostle, who says: We are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh; for if you live according to the flesh, you shall die; but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you shall live. [167] Caput XIV. Chapter XIV. De lapsis, et eorum reparatione. On the fallen, and their restoration. Qui vero ab accepta justificationis gratia per peccatum exciderunt, rursus justificari poterunt, cum, excitante Deo, per poenitentiæ sacramentum merito Christi amissam gratiam recuperare procuraverint; hic enim justificationis modus est lapsi As regards those who, by sin, have fallen from the received grace of Justification, they may be again justified, when, God exciting them, through the sacrament of Penance they shall have attained to the recovery, by the merit of Christ, of the grace lost: for this manner of

 reparatio, quam secundam post naufragium deperditæ gratiæ tabulam sancti patres apte nucuparunt; etenim pro iis, qui post baptismum in peccata labuntur, Christus Iesus sacramentum instituit poenitentiæ, cum dixit: Accipite Spiritum Sanctum: quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis; et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt. Unde docendum est, Christiani hominis poenitentiam post lapsum multo aliam esse a baptismali, eaque contineri non modo cessationem a peccatis, et eorum detestationem, aut cor contritum et humiliatum, verum etiam eorundem sacramentalem confessionem saltem in voto et suo tempore faciendam, et sacerdotalem absolutionem; itemque satisfactionem per jejunia, eleemosynas, orationes et alia pia spiritualis vitæ exercitia; non quidem pro poena æterna, quæ vel sacramento, vel sacramenti voto una cum culpa remittitur; sed pro poena temporali, quæ, ut sacræ litteræ docent, non tota semper, ut in baptismo fit, dimittitur illis, qui gratiæ Dei, quam acceperunt, ingrati, Spiritum Sanctum, contristaverunt, et templum Dei violare non sunt veriti. De qua Justification is of the fallen the reparation: which the holy Fathers have aptly called a second plank after the shipwreck of grace lost. For, on behalf of those who fall into sins after baptism, Christ Jesus instituted the sacrament of Penance, when he said, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. [168] Whence it is to be taught, that the penitence of a Christian, after his fall, is very different from that at (his) baptism; and that therein are included not only a cessation from sins, and a detestation thereof, or, a contrite and humble heart, [169] but also the sacramental confession of the said sins,--at least in desire, and to be made in its season,--and sacerdotal absolution; and likewise satisfaction by fasts, alms, prayers, and the other pious exercises of a spiritual life; not indeed for the eternal punishment,--which is, together with the guilt, remitted, either by the sacrament, or by the desire of the sacrament,--but for the temporal punishment, which, as the sacred writings teach, is not always wholly remitted, as is done in baptism, to those who, ungrateful to the grace of God which they have received,

 poenitentia scriptum est: Memor esto, unde excideris, age poenitentiam, et prima opera fac. Et iterum: quæ secundum Deum tristitia est, poenitentiam in salutem stabilem operatur. Et rursus: Poenitentiam agite, et facite fructus dignos poenitentiæ. have grieved the Holy Spirit, [170] and have not feared to violate the temple of God. [171] Concerning which penitence it is written: Be mindful whence thou art fallen; do penance, and do the first works. [172] And again: The sorrow that is according to God worketh penance steadfast unto salvation. [173] And again: Do penance, and bring forth fruits worthy of penance. [174] Caput XV. Chapter XV. Quolibet mortali peccato amitti gratiam sed non fidem. That, by every mortal sin, grace is lost, but not faith. Adversus etiam hominum quorundam callida ingenia, qui per dulces sermones et benedictiones seducunt corda innocentium, asserendum est, non modo infidelitate, per quam et ipsa fides amittitur, sed etiam quocumque alio mortali peccato, quamvis non amittatur fides, acceptam justificationis gratiam amitti; divinæ legis doctrinam defendendo, quæ a regno Dei non solum infideles excludit, sed et fideles quoque, fornicarios, adulteros, molles, masculorum concubitores, fures, avaros, ebriosos, maledicos, rapaces, ceterosque omnes, qui letalia committunt peccata, a quibus cum divinæ gratiæ In opposition also to the subtle wits of certain men, who, by pleasing speeches and good words, seduce the hearts, of the innocent, [175] it is to be maintained, that the received grace of Justification is lost, not only by infidelity whereby even faith itself is lost, but also by any other mortal sin whatever, though faith be not lost; thus defending the doctrine of the divine law, which excludes from the kingdom of God not only the unbelieving, but the faithful also [who are] fornicators, adulterers, effeminate, liers with mankind, thieves, covetous, drunkards, railers, extortioners, [176] and all others who commit deadly sins; from which, with the

 adiumento abstinere possunt, et pro quibus a Christi gratia separantur. help of divine grace, they can refrain, and on account of which they are separated from the grace of Christ. Caput XVI. Chapter XVI. De fructu justificationis, hoc est, de merito bonorum operum, deque ipsius meriti ratione. On the fruit of Justification, that is, on the merit of good works, and on the nature of that merit. Hac igitur ratione justificatis hominibus, sive acceptam gratiam perpetuo conservaverint, sive amissam recuperaverint, proponenda sunt apostoli verba: Abundate in omni opere bono, scientes, quod labor vester non est inanis in Domino; non enim injustus est Deus, ut obliviscatur operis vestri et dilectionis, quam ostendistis in nomine ipsius; et: Nolite amittere confidentiam vestram, quæ magnam habet remunerationem. Atque ideo bene operantibus usque in finem, et in Deo sperantibus proponenda est vita æterna, et tanquam gratia filiis Dei per Christum Iesum misericorditer promissa, et tanquam merces ex ipsius Dei promissione bonis ipsorum operibus et mentis fideliter reddenda. Hæc est enim illa corona justitiæ, quam post suum certamen et cursum repositam sibi esse aiebat apostolus, a justo Before men, therefore, who have been justified in this manner,--whether they have preserved uninterruptedly the grace received, or whether they have recovered it when lost,--are to be set the words of the Apostle: Abound in every good work, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord; [177] for God is not unjust, that he should forget your work, and the love which you have shown in his name; [178] and, do not lose your confidence, which hath, a great reward. [179] And, for this cause, life eternal is to be proposed to those working well unto the end, [180] and hoping in God, both as a grace mercifully promised to the sons of God through Jesus Christ, and as a reward which is according to the promise of God himself, to be faithfully rendered to their good works and merits. For this is that crown of justice which the Apostle declared was, after his fight and course, laid up

 judice sibi reddendam; non solum autem sibi, sed et omnibus, qui diligunt adventum ejus: cum enim ille ipse Christus Iesus, tanquam caput in membra et tanquam vitis in palmites, in ipsos justificatos jugiter virtutem influat, quæ virtus bona eorum opera semper antecedit et comitatur et subsequitur, et sine qua nullo pacto Deo grata, et meritoria esse possent: nihil ipsis justificatis amplius deesse credendum est, quo minus plene illis quidem operibus, quæ in Deo sunt facta, divinæ legi pro hujus vitæ statu satisfecisse, et vitam æternam suo etiam tempore (si tamen in gratia decesserint), consequendam, vere promeruisse censeantur, cum Christus, Salvator noster, dicat: Si (quis biberit ex aqua, quam ego dabo ei, non sitiet in æternum, sed fiet in eo fons aquæ salientis in vitam æternam for him, to be rendered to him by the just Judge, and not only to him, but also to all that love his coming. [181] For, whereas Jesus Christ himself continually infuses his virtue into the said justified,--as the head into the members, and the vine into the branches,--and this virtue always precedes and accompanies and follows their good works, which without it could not in any wise be pleasing and meritorious before God,--we must believe that nothing further is wanting to the justified, to prevent their being accounted to have, by those very works which have been done in God, fully satisfied the divine law according to the state of this life, and to have truly merited eternal life, to be obtained also in its (due) time, if so be, however, that they depart in grace: seeing that Christ, our Saviour, saith: If any one shall drink of the water that I will give him, he shall not thirst forever; but it shall become in him, a fountain of water springing up unto life everlasting. [182] Ita neque propria nostra justitia, tanquam ex nobis propria statuitur, neque ignoratur aut repudiatur justitia Dei; quæ enim justitia nostra dicitur, quia per eam nobis inhærentem justificamur, illa eadem Thus, neither is our own justice established as our own as from ourselves; [183] nor is the justice of God ignored or repudiated: for that justice which is called ours, because that we are justified from its being inherent in us, that same is (the justice) of

 Dei est, quia a Deo nobis infunditur per Christi meritum. Neque vero illud omittendum est, quod licet bonis operibus in sacris litteris usque adeo tribuatur, ut etiam qui uni ex minimis suis potum aquæ frigidæ dederit, promittat Christus eum non esse sua mercede cariturum, et apostolus testetur, id quod in præsenti est momentaneum et leve tribulationis nostræ, supra modum in sublimitate æternum glorias pondus operari in nobis: absit tamen, ut Christianus homo in se ipso vel confidat vel glorietur, et non in Domino, cujus tanta est erga omnes homines bonitas, ut eorum velit esse merita, quæ sunt ipsius dona. Et quia in multis offendimus omnes, unusquisque, sicut misericordiam et bonitatem, ita severitatem et judicium ante oculos habere debet, neque se ipsum aliquis, etiam si nihil sibi conscius fuerit, judicare; quoniam omnis hominum vita non humano judido examinanda et judicanda est, sed Dei, qui illuminabit abscondita tenebrarum, et manifestabit consilia cordium: et tunc laus erit unicuique a Deo, qui, ut scriptum God, because that it is infused into us of God, through the merit of Christ. Neither is this to be omitted,--that although, in the sacred writings, so much is attributed to good works, that Christ promises, that even he that shall give a drink of cold water to one of his least ones, shall not lose his reward; [184] and the Apostle testifies that, That which is at present momentary and light of our tribulation, worketh for us above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory; [185] nevertheless God forbid that a Christian should either trust or glory in himself, and not in the Lord, whose bounty towards all men is so great, that he will have the things which are his own gifts be their merits. And forasmuch as in many things we all offend, [186] each one ought to have before his eyes, as well the severity and judgment, as the mercy and goodness (of God); neither ought any one to judge himself, even though he be not conscious to himself of any thing; [187] because the whole life of man is to be examined and judged, not by the judgment of man, but of God, who will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts, and then shall every man

 est, reddet unicuique opera sua. have praise from God, [188] who, as it is written, will render to every man according to his works. [189] Post hanc catholicam de justificatione doctrinam, quam nisi quisque fideliter firmiterque receperit, justificari non poterit, placuit sanctæ synodo hos canones subjungere, ut omnes sciant, non solum quid tenere et sequi, sed etiam quid vitare et fugere debeant. After this Catholic doctrine on Justification, which whoso receiveth not faithfully and firmly can not be justified, it hath seemed good to the holy Synod to subjoin these canons, that all may know not only what they ought to hold and follow, but also what to avoid and shun. DE JUSTIFICATIONE. ON JUSTIFICATION. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, hominem suis operibus, quæ vel per humanæ naturæ vires, vel per legis doctrinam fiant, absque divina per Iesum Christum gratia posse justificari coram Deo: anathema sit. CANON I.--If any one saith, that man may be justified before God by his own works, whether done through the teaching of human nature, or that of the law, without the grace of God through Jesus Christ: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, ad hoc solum divinam gratiam per Christum Iesum dari, ut facilius homo juste vivere, ac vitam æternam promereri possit; quasi per liberum arbitrium sine gratia utrumque, sed ægre tamen et difficulter possit: anathema, sit. CANON II.--If any one saith, that the grace of God, through Jesus Christ, is given only for this, that man may be able more easily to live justly, and to merit eternal life, as if, by free-will without grace, he were able to do both, though hardly indeed and with difficulty: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, sine præveniente Spiritus Sancti inspiratione atque ejus adjutorio hominem credere, sperare, diligere, aut pænitere posse, sicut CANON III.--If any one saith, that without the prevenient inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and without his help, man can believe, hope, love, or be penitent as he

 oportet, ut ei justificationis gratia conferatur: anathema sit. ought, so that the grace of Justification may be bestowed upon him: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, liberum hominis arbitrium a Deo motum et excitatum nihil cooperari assentiendo Deo excitanti atque vocanti, quo ad obtinendam justificationis gratiam se disponat ac præparet; neque posse dissentire, si velit, sed veluti inanime quoddam nihil omnino agere, mereque passive se habere: anathema sit. CANON IV.--If any one saith, that man's free-will moved and excited by God, by assenting to God exciting and calling, nowise co-coperates towards disposing and preparing itself for obtaining the grace of Justification; that it can not refuse its consent, if it would, but that, as something inanimate, it does nothing whatever and is merely passive: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis liberum hominis arbitrium post Adæ peccatum amissum et extinctum esse dixerit, aut rem esse de solo titulo, imo titulum sine re, figmentum denique a Satana invectum in ecclesiam: anathema sit. CANON V.--If any one saith, that, since Adam's sin, the free-will of man is lost and extinguished; or, that it is a thing with only a name, yea a name without a reality, a figment, in fine, introduced into the Church by Satan: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, non esse in potestate hominis, vias suas malas facere, sed mala opera ita, ut bona, Deum operari, non permissive solum, sed etiam proprie et per se, adeo ut sit proprium ejus opus non minus proditio Iudæ, quam vocatio Pauli: anathema sit. CANON VI.--If any one saith, that it is not in man's power to make his ways evil, but that the works that are evil God worketh as well as those that are good, not permissively only, but properly, and of himself, in such wise that the treason of Judas is no less his own proper work than the vocation of Paul: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, opera omnia, quæ ante justiftcationem fiunt, quacumque ratione CANON VII.--If any one saith, that all works done before Justification, in whatsoever way they be

 facta sint, vere esse peccata, vel odium Dei mereri, aut, quanto vehementius quis nititur se disponere ad gratiam, tanto eum gravius peccare: anathema sit. done, are truly sins, or merit the hatred of God; or that the more earnestly one strives to dispose himself for grace, the more grievously he sins: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, gehennæ metum, per quem ad misericordiam Dei de peccatis dolendo confugimus vel a peccando abstinemus, peccatum esse, aut peccatores peiores facere: anathema sit. CANON VIII.--If any one saith, that the fear of hell,--whereby, by grieving for our sins, we flee unto the mercy of God, or refrain from sinning,--is a sin, or makes sinners worse: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, sola fide impium justificari, ita ut intelligat nihil aliud requiri, quod ad justificationis gratiam consequendam cooperetur, et nulla ex parte necesse esse, eum suæ voluntatis motu præparari atque disponi: anathema sit. CANON IX.--If any one saith, that by faith alone the impious is justified, in such wise as to mean, that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to the obtaining the grace of Justification, and that it is not in any way necessary, that he be prepared and disposed by the movement of his own will: let him be anathema. Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, homines sine Christi justitia, per quam nobis meruit, justificari, aut per eam ipsam formaliter justos esse: anathema sit. CANON X.--If any one saith, that men are just without the justice of Christ, whereby he merited for us to be justified; or that it is by that justice itself that they are formally just: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, homines justificari, vel sola imputatione justitiæ Christi, vel sola peccatorum remissione, exclusa gratia et caritate, quæ in cordibus eorum per Spiritum Sanctum diffundatur atque illis CANON XI.--If any one saith, that men are justified, either by the sole imputation of the justice of Christ, or by the sole remission of sins, to the exclusion of the grace and the charity which is poured forth in their hearts by the Holy Ghost, [190]

 inhæreat; aut etiam gratiam, qua justificamur, esse tantum favorem Dei: anathema sit. and is inherent in them; or even that the grace, whereby we are justified, is only the favor of God: let him be anathema. Canon XII.--Si quis dixerit, fidem justificantem nihil aliud esse, quam fiduciam divinæ misericordiæ peccata remittentis propter Christum; vel eam fiduciam solam esse, qua justificamur: anathema sit. CANON XII.--If any one saith, that justifying faith is nothing else but confidence in the divine mercy which remits sins for Christ's sake; or, that this confidence alone is that whereby we are justified: let him be anathema. Canon XIII.--Si quis dixerit, omni homini ad remissionem peccatorum assequendam necessarium esse, ut credat certo, et absque ulla hæsitatione propriæ infirmitatis et indispositionis peccata sibi esse remissa: anathema sit. CANON XIII.--If any one saith, that it is necessary for every one, for the obtaining the remission of sins, that he believe for certain, and without any wavering arising from his own infirmity and indisposition, that his sins are forgiven him: let him be anathema. Canon XIV.--Si quis dixerit, hominem a peccatis absolvi ac justificari ex eo quod se absolvi ac justificari certo credat; aut neminem vero esse justificatum, nisi qui credat se esse justificatum, et hac sola fide absolutionem et justiftcationem perfici: anathema sit. CANON XIV.--If any one saith, that man is truly absolved from his sins and justified, because that he assuredly believed himself absolved and justified; or, that no one is truly justified but he who believes himself justified; and that, by this faith alone, absolution and justification are effected: let him be anathema. Canon XV.--Si quis dixerit, hominem renatum et justificatum teneri ex fide ad credendum, se certo esse in numero prædestinatorum: anathema sit. CANON XV.--If any one saith, that a man, who is born again and justified, is bound of faith to believe that he is assuredly in the number of the predestinate: let him be anathema. Canon XVI.--Si quis magnum CANON XVI.--If any one saith,

 illud usque in finem perseverantiæ donum se certo habiturum absoluta et infallibili certitudine dixerit, nisi hoc ex speciali revelatione didicerit: anathema sit. that he will for certain, of an absolute and infallible certainty, have that great gift of perseverance unto the end,--unless he have learned this by special revelation: let him be anathema. Canon XVII.--Si quis justificationis gratiam non nisi prædestinatis ad vitam contingere dixerit, reliquos vero omnes, qui vocantur, vocari quidem, sed gratiam non accipere, utpote divina potestate prædestinatos ad malum: anathema sit. CANON XVII.--If any one saith, that the grace of Justification is only attained to by those who are predestined unto life; but that all others who are called, are called indeed, but receive not grace, as being, by the divine power, predestined unto evil: let him be anathema. Canon XVIII.--Si quis dixerit, Dei præcepta homini etiam justificato et sub gratia constitute esse ad observandum impossibilia: anathema sit. CANON XVIII.--If any one saith, that the commandments of God are, even for one that is justified and constituted in grace, impossible to keep: let him be anathema. Canon XIX.--Si quis dixerit, nihil præceptum esse in evangelio præter fidem, cetera esse indifferentia, neque præcepta, neque prohibita, sed libera; aut decem præcepta nihil pertinere ad Christianas: anathema sit. CANON XIX.--If any one saith, that nothing besides faith is commanded in the Gospel; that other things are indifferent, neither commanded nor prohibited, but free; or, that the ten commandments nowise appertain to Christians: let him be anathema. Canon XX.--Si quis hominem justificatum et quantumlibet perfectum dixerit non teneri ad observantiam mandatorum Dei et ecclesiæ, sed tantum ad credendum, quasi vero evangelium sit nuda et absoluta promissio vitæ æternæ sine conditione observationis CANON XX.--If any one saith, that the man who is justified and how perfect soever, is not bound to observe the commandments of God and of the Church, but only to believe; as if indeed the Gospel were a bare and absolute promise of eternal life, without the condition of

 mandatorum: anathema sit. observing the commandments: let him be anathema. Canon XXI.--Si quis dixerit. Christum Iesum a Deo hominibus datum fuisse, ut redemptorem, cui fidant, non etiam ut legislatorem, cui obediant: anathema sit. CANON XXI.--If any one saith, that Christ Jesus was given of God to men, as a redeemer in whom to trust, and not also as a legislator whom to obey: let him be anathema. Canon XXII.--Si quis dixerit, justificatum, vel sine speciali auxilio Dei in accepta justitia perseverare posse, vel cum eo non posse: anathema sit. CANON XXII.--If any one saith, that the justified, either is able to persevere, without the special help of God, in the justice received; or that, with that help, he is not able: let him be anathema. Canon XXIII.--Si quis hominem semel justificatum dixerit amplius peccare non posse, neque gratiam amittere, atque ideo eum qui labitur et peccat, nunquam vere fuisse justificatum; aut contra, posse in tota vita peccata omnia, etiam venialia, vitare, nisi ex speciali Dei privilegio, quemadmodum de beata Virgine tenet ecclesia: anathema sit. CANON XXIII.--If any one saith, that a man once justified can sin no more, nor lose grace, and that therefore he that falls and sins was never truly justified; or, on the other hand, that he is able, during his whole life, to avoid all sins, even those that are venial,--except by a special privilege from God, as the Church holds in regard of the Blessed Virgin: let him be anathema. Canon XXIV.--Si quis dixerit, justitiam acceptam non conservari, atque etiam non augeri coram Deo per bona opera; sed opera ipsa fructus solummodo et signa esse justificationis adeptæ, non autem ipsius augendæ causam: anathema sit. CANON XXIV.--If any one saith, that the justice received is not preserved and also increased before God through good works; but that the said works are merely the fruits and signs of Justification obtained, but not a cause of the increase thereof: let him be anathema. Canon XXV.--Si quis in quolibet bono opere justum saltem venialiter peccare dixerit, aut, CANON XXV.--If any one saith, that, in every good work, the just sins venially at least, or--which is

 quod intolerabilius est, mortaliter, atque ideo poenas æternas mereri; tantumque ob id non damnari, quia Deus opera non imputet ad damnationem: anathema sit. more intolerable still--mortally, and consequently deserves eternal punishments; and that for this cause only he is not damned, that God does not impute those works unto damnation: let him be anathema. Canon XXVI.--Si quis dixerit, justos non debere pro bonis operibus, quæ in Deo fuerint facta, expectare et sperare æternam retributionem a Deo per ejus misericordiam et Iesu Christi meritum, si bene agendo et divina mandata custodiendo usque in finem perseveraverint: anathema sit. CANON XXVI.--If any one saith, that the just ought not, for their good works done in God, to expect and hope for an eternal recompense from God, through his mercy and the merit of Jesus Christ, if so be that they persevere to the end in well doing and in keeping the divine commandments: let him be anathema. Canon XXVII.--Si quis dixerit, nullum esse mortale peccatum, nisi infidelitatis; aut nullo alio, quantumvis gravi et enormi, præterquam infidelitatis, peccato, semel acceptam gratiam amitti: anathema sit. CANON XXVII.--If any one saith, that there is no mortal sin but that of infidelity; or, that grace once received is not lost by any other sin, however grievous and enormous, save by that of infidelity: let him be anathema. Canon XXVIII.--Si quis dixerit, amissa per peccatum gratia, simul et fidem semper amitti; aut fidem, quæ remanet, non esse veram fidem, licet non sit viva; aut eum, qui fidem sine caritate habet, non esse Christianum: anathema sit. CANON XXVIII.--If any one saith, that, grace being lost through sin, faith also is always lost with it; or, that the faith which remains, though it be not a lively faith, is not a true faith; or, that he who has faith without charity is not a Christian: let him be anathema. Canon XXIX.--Si quis dixerit, eum, qui post baptismum lapsus est, non posse per Dei gratiam resurgere; aut posse quidem, sed sola fide amissam justitiam recuperare CANON XXIX.--If any one saith, that he who has fallen after baptism is not able by the grace of God to rise again; or, that he is able indeed to recover the justice

 sine sacramento poenitentiæ, prout sancta romana et universalis ecclesia a Christo Domino et ejus apostolis edocta hucusque professa est, servavit et docuit: anathema sit. which he has lost, but by faith alone without the sacrament of Penance, contrary to what the holy Roman and universal Church--instructed by Christ and his Apostles--has hitherto professed, observed, and taught: let him be anathema. Canon XXX.--Si quis post acceptam justificationis gratiam cuilibet peccatori poenitenti ita culpam remitti et reatum æternæ pænæ deleri dixerit, ut nullus remaneat reatus pænæ temporalis exsolvendæ vel in hoc seculo, vel in futuro in purgatorio, antequam ad regna coelorum aditus patere possit: anathema sit. CANON XXX.--If any one saith, that, after the grace of Justification has been received, to every penitent sinner the guilt is remitted, and the debt of eternal punishment is blotted out in such wise that there remains not any debt of temporal punishment to be discharged either in this world, or in the next in Purgatory, before the entrance to the kingdom of heaven can be opened [to him]: let him be anathema. Canon XXXI.--Si quis dixerit, justificatum peccare, dum intuitu æternæ mercedis bene operatur; anathema sit. CANON XXXI.--If any one saith, that the justified sins when he performs good works with a view to an eternal recompense: let him be anathema. Canon XXXII.--Si quis dixerit hominis justificati bona opera ita esse dona Dei, ut non sint etiam bona ipsius justificati merita; aut ipsum justificatum bonis operibus, quæ ab eo per Dei gratiam, et Iesu Christi meritum, cujus vivum membrum est, fiunt, non vere mereri augmentum gratiæ, vitam æternam, et ipsius vitæ æternæ, si tamen in gratiæ decesserit, consecutionem, CANON XXXII.--If any one saith, that the good works of one that is justified are in such manner the gifts of God, that they are not also the good merits of him that is justified; or, that the said justified, by the good works which he performs through the grace of God and the merit of Jesus Christ, whose living member he is, does not truly merit increase of grace, eternal life, and the attainment of that eternal

 atque etiam gloriæ augmentum: anathema sit. life,--if so be, however, that he depart in grace,--and also an increase of glory: let him be anathema. Canon XXXIII.--Si quis dixerit, per hanc doctrinam catholicam de justificatione, a sancta synodo hoc præsenti decreto expressam, aliqua ex parte gloriæ Dei vel meritis Iesu Christi Domini nostri derogari, et non potius veritatem fidei nostræ, Dei denique, ac Christi Iesu gloriam illustrari: anathema sit. CANON XXXIII.--If any one saith, that, by the Catholic doctrine touching Justification, by this holy Synod set forth in this present decree, the glory of God, or the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ are in any way derogated from, and not rather that the truth of our faith, and the glory in fine of God and of Jesus Christ are rendered [more] illustrious: let him be anathema.   


 [103] Isa. lxiv. 6.

 [104] Ephes. ii. 3.

 [105] Rom. vi. 17, 20.

 [106] 2Cor. i. 3.

 [107] Gal. iv. 4.

 [108] Gal. v. 4.

 [109] Rom. ix. 30.

 [110] Rom. iii. 25.

 [111] 1 John ii. 2.

 [112] 2 Cor. v. 15.

 [113] Coloss. i. 12-14.

 [114] Rom. viii. 15, 16, 23.

 [115] John iii. 5.

 [116] Zach. i. 3.

 [117] Lam. v. 21.

 [118] Rom. x. 17.

 [119] Rom. iii. 24.

 [120] Heb. xi. 6.

 [121] Matt. ii. 5.

 [122] Eccles. i. 27.

 [123] Acts ii. 38.

 [124] Matt. xxviii. 19.

 [125] 1 Kings vii. 3.

 [126] Titus iii. 7

 [127] 1 Cor. vi. 11

 [128] Ephes. i. 13, 14.

 [129] Ephes. ii. 4.

 [130] Heb. xi.

 [131] Ephes. iv. 23

 [132] 1 Cor. xii. 2.

 [133] Rom. v. 5.

 [134] James ii. 20.

 [135] Gal. v. 6.

 [136] Matt. xix. 17.

 [137] Luke xv. 22.

 [138] Rom. iii. 4.

 [139] Heb. xi. 6.

 [140] Rom. xi. 6.

 [141] Ephes. ii. 19.

 [142] Psa. lxxxiii. 8.

 [143] 2 Cor. iv. 16.

 [144] Col. iii. 5.

 [145] Rom. vi. 13, 19.

 [146] Apoc. xxii. 11.

 [147] Eccles. xviii. 22.

 [148] James ii. 24.

 [149] 1 John v. 3.

 [150] Matt. xi. 30.

 [151] John xiv. 15.

 [152] Rom. vi. 18.

 [153] Titus ii. 12.

 [154] Rom. v. 2.

 [155] Rom. viii. 17.

 [156] Heb. v. 8, 9.

 [157] 1 Cor. ix. 24, 26, 27.

 [158] 2 Peter i. 10.

 [159] Psa. cxviii. 112.

 [160] Heb. xi. 26.

 [161] Matt. xxiv. 13.

 [162] Rom. xiv. 4.

 [163] Phil. i. 6; ii. 13.

 [164] 1Cor. x. 12.

 [165] Phil. ii. 12.

 [166] 1 Peter i. 3.

 [167] Rom. viii. 12, 13.

 [168] John xx. 22, 23.

 [169] Psa. l. 19.

 [170] Ephes. iv. 30.

 [171] 1 Cor. iii. 17.

 [172] Apoc. ii. 5.

 [173] 2 Cor. vii. 10.

 [174] Matt. iii. 2.

 [175] Rom. xvi. 18.

 [176] 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10.

 [177] 1 Cor. xv. 58.

 [178] Heb. vi. 10.

 [179] Heb. x. 35.

 [180] Matt. x. 22.

 [181] 2 Tim. iv. 8.

 [182] John iv. 13, 14.

 [183] Rom. x. 3.

 [184] Matt. x. 42.

 [185] 2 Cor. iv. 17.

 [186] James iii. 2.

 [187] 1 Cor. iv. 3, 4.

 [188] 1 Cor. iv. 6.

 [189] Matt. xvi. 27.

 [190] Rom. v. 5.   


 Sessio Septima, Seventh Session, celebrata die III. Martii 1547. held March 3, 1547. DECRETUM DE SACRAMENTIS. DECREE ON THE SACRAMENTS. Prooemium. Proëm. Ad consummationem salutaris de justificatione doctrinæ, quæ in præcedenti proxima sessione uno omnium patrum consensu promulgata fuit; consentaneum visum est de sanctissimis ecclesiæ sacramentis agere, per quæ omnis vera justitia vel incipit, vel coepta augetur, vel amissa reparatur. Propterea sacrosancta, oecumenica et generalis Tridentina synodus, in Spiritu Sancto legitime congregata, præsidentibus in ea eisdem For the completion of the salutary doctrine on Justification, which was promulgated with the unanimous consent of the Fathers in the last preceding Session, it hath seemed suitable to treat of the most holy Sacraments of the Church, through which all true justice either begins, or being begun is increased, or being lost is repaired. With this view, in order to destroy the errors and to extirpate the heresies which have appeared in these our days on the subject of the said most holy sacraments,--

 apostolicæ sedis legatis, ad errores eliminandos et extirpandas hæreses, quæ circa sanctissima ipsa sacramenta hac nostra tempestate, tum de damnatis olim a patribus nostris hæresibus suscitatæ, tum etiam de novo adinventæ sunt, quæ Catholicæ Ecclesiæ puritati et animarum saluti magnopere officiunt; sanctarum scripturarum doctrinæ, apostolicis traditionibus atque aliorum conciliorum et patrum consensui inhærendo, hos præsentes canones statuendos et decernendos censuit, reliquos, qui supersunt ad coepti operis perfectionem, deinceps, divino Spiritu adjuvante, editura. as well those which have been revived from the heresies condemned of old by our Fathers, as also those newly invented, and which are exceedingly prejudicial to the purity of the Catholic Church, and to the salvation of souls,--the sacred and holy, oecumenical and general Synod of Trent, lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, the same legates of the Apostolic See presiding therein, adhering to the doctrine of the holy Scriptures, to the apostolic traditions, and to the consent of other councils and of the Fathers, has thought fit that these present canons be established and decreed; intending, the divine Spirit aiding, to publish later the remaining canons which are wanting for the completion of the work which it has begun. DE SACRAMENTIS IN GENERE. ON THE SACRAMENTS IN GENERAL. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, sacramenta novæ legis non fuisse omnia a Iesu Christo Domino nostro instituta; aut esse plura vel pauciora quam septem, videlicet: baptismum, confirmationem, eucharistiam, poenitentiam, extremam unctionem, ordinem, et matrimonium; aut etiam aliquod horum septem non esse vere et proprie sacramentum: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord; or, that they are more, or less, than seven, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not truly and properly a sacrament: let him be anathema.

 Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, ea ipsa novæ legis sacramenta a sacramentis antiquæ legis non differre, nisi quia ceremoniæ sunt aliæ et alii ritus externi: anathema, sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that these said sacraments of the New Law do not differ from the sacraments of the Old Law, save that the ceremonies are different, and different the outward rites: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, hæc septem sacramenta ita esse inter se paria, ut nulla ratione aliud sit alio dignius; anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that these seven sacraments are in such wise equal to each other, as that one is not in any way more worthy than another: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, sacramenta novæ legis non esse ad salutem necessaria, sed superflua; et sine eis aut eorum voto per solam fidem homines a Deo gratiam justificationis adipisci; licet omnia singulis necessaria non sint: anathema sit.

 Canon IV.--If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification;--though all [the sacraments] are not indeed necessary for every individual: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, hæc sacramenta propter solam fidem nutriendam instituta fuisse: anathema sit.

 Canon V.--If any one saith, that these sacraments were instituted for the sake of nourishing faith alone: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, sacramenta novæ legis non continere gratiam, quam significant; aut gratiam ipsam non ponentibus obicem non conferre; quasi signa tantum externa sint acceptæ per fidem gratiæ, vel justitiæ, et notæ quædam Christianæ professionis, quibus apud homines Canon VI.--If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the grace which they signify; or, that they do not confer that grace on those who do not place an obstacle thereunto; as though they were merely outward signs of grace or justice received through faith, and certain marks of the Christian

 discernuntur fideles ab infidelibus; anathema sit. profession, whereby believers are distinguished amongst men from unbelievers: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, non dari gratiam per hujusmodi sacramenta semper et omnibus, quantum est ex parte Dei, etiam si rite ea suscipiant, sed aliquando et aliquibus: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that grace, as far as God's part is concerned, is not given through the said sacraments, always, and to all men, even though they receive them rightly, but [only] sometimes, and to some persons: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, per ipsa novæ legis sacramenta ex opere operato non conferri gratiam, sed solam fidem divinæ promissionis ad gratiam consequendam sufficere: anathema sit. Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that by the said sacraments of the New Law grace is not conferred through the act performed, but that faith alone in the divine promise suffices for the obtaining of grace: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, in tribus sacramentis, baptismo scilicet, confirmatione et ordine, non imprimi characterem in anima, hoc est signum quoddam spirituale et indelebile, unde ea iterari non possunt: anathema sit. Canon IX.--If any one saith, that, in the three sacraments, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, and Order, there is not imprinted in the soul a character, that is, a certain spiritual and indelible sign, on account of which they can not be repeated: let him be anathema. Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, Christianos omnes in verbo, et omnibus sacramentis administrandis habere potestatem: anathema sit. Canon X.--If any one saith, that all Christians have power to administer the word, and all the sacraments: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, in ministris, dum sacramenta conficiunt et conferunt, non requiri intentionem saltem faciendi, quod facit ecclesia: anathema sit. Canon XI.--If any one saith, that, in ministers, when they effect, and confer the sacraments, there is not required the intention at least of doing what the Church does: let him be anathema. Canon XII.--Si quis dixerit, Canon XII.--If any one saith,

 ministrum in peccato mortali existentem, modo omnia essentialia, quæ ad sacramentum conficiendum aut conferendum pertinent, servaverit, non conficere aut conferre sacramentum: anathema sit. that a minister, being in mortal sin,--if so be that he observe all the essentials which belong to the effecting, or conferring of, the sacrament,--neither effects, nor confers the sacrament: let him be anathema. Canon XIII.--Si quis dixerit, receptos et approbates Ecclesiæ Catholicæ ritus, in solemni sacramentorum administratione adhiberi consuetos, aut contemni, aut sine peccato a ministris pro libito omitti, aut in novos alios per quemcumque ecclesiarum pastorem mutari posse: anathema sit. Canon XIII.--If any one saith, that the received and approved rites of the Catholic Church, wont to be used in the solemn administration of the sacraments, may be contemned, or without sin be omitted at pleasure by the ministers, or be changed, by every pastor of the churches, into other new ones: let him be anathema. DE BAPTISMO. ON BAPTISM. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, baptismum Ioannis habuisse eamdem vim cum baptismo Christi: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that the baptism of John had the same force as the baptism of Christ: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, aquam veram et naturalem non esse de necessitate baptismi; atque ideo verba illa Domini nostri Iesu Christi: Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto; ad metaphoram aliquam detorserit: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that true and natural water is not of necessity for baptism, and, on that account, wrests, to some sort of metaphor, those words of our Lord Jesus Christ: Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost: [191] let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, in Ecclesiæ Romana, quæ omnium ecclesiarum mater est et magistra, non esse veram de baptismi Canon III.--If any one saith, that in the Roman Church, which is the mother and mistress of all churches, there is not the true doctrine concerning

 sacramento doctrinam: anathema sit. the sacrament of baptism: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, baptismum, qui etiam datur ab hæreticis in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, cum intentione faciendi, quod facit ecclesia, non esse verum baptismum: anathema sit. Canon IV.--If any one saith, that the baptism which is even given by heretics in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, with the intention of doing what the Church doth, is not true baptism: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, baptismum liberum esse, hoc est, non necessarium ad salutem: anathema, sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, that baptism is free, that is, not necessary unto salvation: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, baptizatum non posse, etiam si velit, gratiam amittere, quantumcumque peccet, nisi nolit credere: anathema sit. Canon VI.--If any one saith, that one who has been baptized can not, even if he would, lose grace, let him sin ever so much, unless he will not believe: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, baptizatos per baptismum ipsum, solius tantum fidei debitores fieri, non autem universæ legis Christi servandæ: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that the baptized are, by baptism itself, made debtors but to faith alone, and not to the observance of the whole law [192] of Christ: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, baptizatos liberos esse ab omnibus sanctæ ecclesiæ præceptis, quæ vel scripta vel tradita sunt, ita ut ea observare non teneantur, nisi se sua sponte illis submittere voluerint: anathema sit. Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that the baptized are freed from all the precepts, whether written or transmitted, of holy Church, in such wise that they are not bound to observe them, unless they have chosen of their own accord to submit themselves thereunto: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, ita revocandos esse homines ad Canon IX.--If any one saith, that the remembrance of the baptism

 baptismi suscepti memoriam, ut vota omnia, quæ post baptismum fiunt, vi promissionis in baptismo ipso jam factæ, irrita esse intelligant, quasi per ea et fidei, quam professi sunt, detrahatur et ipsi baptismo: anathema sit. which they have received is so to be recalled unto men, as that they are to understand that all vows made after baptism are void, in virtue of the promise already made in that baptism; as if, by those vows, they both derogated from that faith which they have professed, and from that baptism itself: let him be anathema. Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, peccata omnia, quæ post baptismum fiunt, sola recordatione et fide suscepti baptismi vel dimitti, vel venialia fieri: anathema sit. Canon X.--If any one saith, that by the sole remembrance and the faith of the baptism which has been received, all sins committed after baptism are either remitted, or made venial: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, verum et rite collatum baptismum iterandum esse illi, qui apud infideles fidem Christi negaverit, cum ad poenitentiam convertitur: anathema sit. Canon XI.--If any one saith, that baptism, which was true and rightly conferred, is to be repeated, for him who has denied the faith of Christ amongst Infidels, when he is converted unto penitence: let him be anathema. Canon XII.--Si quis dixerit, neminem esse baptizandum, nisi ea ætate, qua Christus baptizatus est, vel in ipso mortis articulo: anathema sit. Canon XII.--If any one saith, that no one is to be baptized save at that age at which Christ was baptized, or in the very article of death: let him be anathema. Canon XIII.--Si quis dixerit, parvulos, eo quod actum credendi non habent, suscepto baptismo inter fideles computandos non esse, ac propterea, cum ad annos discretionis pervenerint, esse rebaptizandos; aut præstare, omitti eorum baptisma, Canon XIII.--If any one saith, that little children, for that they have not actual faith, are not, after having received baptism, to be reckoned amongst the faithful; and that, for this cause, they are to be rebaptized when they have attained to years of discretion; or, that it is

 quam eos non acta, proprio credentes, baptizari in sola fide ecclesiæ: anathema sit. better that the baptism of such be omitted, than that, while not believing by their own act, they should be baptized in the faith alone of the Church: let him be anathema. Canon XIV.--Si quis dixerit, hujusmodi parvulos baptizatos, cum adoleverint, interrogandos esse, an ratum habere velint, quod patrini eorum nomine, dum baptizarentur, polliciti sunt; et, ubi se nolle responderint, suo esse arbitrio relinquendos; nec alia interim poena ad Christianam vitam cogendos, nisi ut ab Eucharistiæ aliorumque sacramentorum perceptione arceantur, donec resipiscant: anathema sit. Canon XIV.--If any one saith, that those who have been thus baptized when children, are, when they have grown up, to be asked whether they will ratify what their sponsors promised in their names when they were baptized; and that, in case they answer that they will not, they are to be left to their own will; and are not to be compelled meanwhile to a Christian life by any other penalty, save that they be excluded from the participation of the Eucharist, and of the other sacraments, until they repent: let him be anathema. DE CONFIRMATIONE. ON CONFIRMATION. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, confirmationem baptizatorum otiosam ceremoniam esse, et non potius verum et proprium sacramentum; aut olim nihil aliud fuisse, quam catechesim quamdam, qua adolescentiæ, proximi fidei suæ rationem coram ecclesia exponebant: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that the confirmation of those who have been baptized is an idle ceremony, and not rather a true and proper sacrament; or that of old it was nothing more than a kind of catechism, whereby they who were near adolescence gave an account of their faith in the face of the Church: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, injurios esse Spiritui Sancto eos, qui sacro confirmationis chrismati Canon II.--If any one saith, that they who ascribe any virtue to the sacred chrism of confirmation, offer

 virtutem aliquam tribuunt: anathema sit. an outrage to the Holy Ghost: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, sanctæ confirmationis ordinarium ministrum non esse solum episcopum, sed quemvis simplicem sacerdotem: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that the ordinary minister of holy confirmation is not the bishop alone, but any simple priest soever: let him be anathema.   


 [191] John iii. 5.

 [192] Gal. v. 3.   


 Sessio Decimatertia, Thirteenth Session, celebrata die XI. Octobris 1551.

 held October 11, 1551. DECRETUM DE SANCTISSIMO EUCHARISTIÆ. DECREE CONCERNING THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST. Caput I. Chapter I. De reali præsentiæ Domini nostri Iesu Christi in sanctissimo Eucharistiæ sacramento.

 On the real presence of our Lord Jesus Christ in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist. Principio docet sancta synodus, et aperte ac simpliciter profitetur, in almo sanctæ Eucharistiæ sacramento, post panis, et vini consecrationem, Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, verum Deum atque hominem, vere, realiter, ac substantialiter sub specie illarum rerum sensibilium contineri. Neque enim hæc inter se pugnant, ut ipse Salvator noster semper ad dexteram Patris in coelis assideat juxta modum existendi naturalem, et ut multis nihilominus aliis in locis sacramentaliter præsens sua substantia nobis adsit, ea existendi ratione, quam etsi verbis exprimere vix possumus, In the first place, the holy Synod teaches, and openly and simply professes, that, in the august sacrament of the holy Eucharist, after the consecration of the bread and wine, our Lord Jesus Christ, true God and man, is truly, really, and substantially contained under the species of those sensible things. For neither are these things mutually repugnant,--that our Saviour himself always sitteth at the right hand of the Father in heaven, according to the natural mode of existing, and that, nevertheless, he be, in many other places, sacramentally present to us in his own substance, by a manner of existing, which, though we can scarcely express it in words, yet

 possibilem tamen esse Deo, cogitatione per fidem illustrata assequi possumus, et constantissime credere debemus: ita enim majores nostri omnes, quotquot in vera Christi ecclesia fuerunt, qui de sanctissimo hoc sacramento disseruerunt, apertissime professi sunt, hoc tam admirabile sacramentum in ultima cæna redemptorem nostrum instituisse, cum post panis vinique benedictionem se suum ipsius corpus illis præbere, ac suum sanguinem, disertis et perspicuis verbis testatus est; quæ verba a sanctis evangelistis commemorata et a divo Paulo postea repetita, cum propriam illam et apertissimam significationem præ se ferant, secundum quam a patribus intellecta sunt; indignissimum sane flagitium est, ea a quibusdam contentiosis et pravis hominibus ad fictitios et imaginarios tropos, quibus veritas carnis et sanguinis Christi negatur, contra universum ecclesiæ sensum detorqueri; quæ, tamquam columna et firmamentum veritatis, hæc ab impiis hominibus excogitata commenta velut satanica detestata est, grato semper et memore animo præstantissimum hoc Christi beneficium agnoscens. can we, by the understanding illuminated by faith, conceive, and we ought most firmly to believe, to be possible unto God: for thus all our forefathers, as many as were in the true Church of Christ, who have treated of this most holy Sacrament, have most openly professed, that our Redeemer instituted this so admirable a sacrament at the last supper, when, after the blessing of the bread and wine, he testified, in express and clear words, that he gave them his own very body, and his own blood, words which,--recorded by the holy Evangelists, and afterwards repeated, by Saint Paul, whereas they carry with them that proper and most manifest meaning in which they were understood by the Fathers,--it is indeed a crime the most unworthy that they should be wrested, by certain contentious and wicked men, to fictitious and imaginary tropes, whereby the verity of the flesh and blood of Christ is denied, contrary to the universal sense of the Church, which, as the pillar and ground of truth, has detested, as satanical, these inventions devised by impious men; she recognizing, with a mind ever grateful and unforgetting, the most excellent benefit of Christ.

 Caput II. Chapter II.

 De ratione institutionis sanctissimi hujus sacramenti.

 On the reason of the institution of this most holy sacrament. Ergo Salvator noster, discessurus ex hoc mundo ad Patrem, sacramentum hoc instituit, in quo divitias divini sui erga homines amoris velut effudit, memoriam faciens mirabilium suorum; et in illius sumptione colere nos sui memoriam præcepit, suamque annunciare mortem, donec ipse ad judicandum mundum veniat. Sumi autem voluit sacramentum hoc, tamquam spiritualem animarum cibum, quo alantur, et confortentur viventes vita illius, qui dixit: Qui manducat me, et ipse vivet propter me: et tamquam antidotum, quo liberemur a culpis quotidianis, et a peccatis mortalibus præservemur. Pignus præterea id esse voluit futuræ nostræ gloriæ, et perpetuæ felicitatis, adeoque symbolum unius illius corporis, cujus ipse caput existit, cuique nos, tamquam membra, arctissima fidei, spei et caritatis connexione adstrictos esse voluit, ut idipsum omnes diceremus, nec essent in nobis schismata. Wherefore, our Saviour, when about to depart out of this world to the Father, instituted this sacrament, in which he poured forth as it were the riches of his divine love towards men, making a remembrance of his wonderful works; [193] and he commanded us, in the participation thereof, to venerate his memory, and to show forth his death until he come [194] to judge the world. And he would also that this sacrament should be received as the spiritual food of souls, whereby may be fed and strengthened those who live with his life who said, He that eateth me, the same also shall live by me; [195] and as an antidote, whereby we may be freed from daily faults, and be preserved from mortal sins. He would, furthermore, have it be a pledge of our glory to come, and everlasting happiness, and thus be a symbol of that one body whereof he is the head, and to which he would fain have us as members be united by the closest bond of faith, hope, and charity, that we might all speak the same things, and there might be no schisms amongst us. [196]

 Caput III. Chapter III. De excellentia sanctissimæ Eucharistiæ super reliqua sacramenta. On the excellency of the most holy Eucharist over the rest of the sacraments. Commune hoc quidem est sanctissimæ Eucharistiæ cum ceteris sacramentis, symbolum esse rei sacræ, et invisibilis gratiæ formam visibilem; verum illud in ea excellens et singulare reperitur, quod reliqua sacramenta tunc primum sanctificandi vim habent, cum quis illis utitur: at in Eucharistia ipse sanctitatis auctor ante usum est. Nondum enim Eucharistiam de manu Domini apostoli susceperant, cum vere tamen ipse affirmaret corpus suum esse, quod præbebat. The most holy Eucharist has indeed this in common with the rest of the sacraments, that it is a symbol of a sacred thing, and is a visible form of an invisible grace; but there is found in the Eucharist this excellent and peculiar thing, that the other sacraments have then first the power of sanctifying when one uses them, whereas in the Eucharist, before being used, there is the Author himself of sanctity. For the apostles had not as yet received the Eucharist from the hand of the Lord, when nevertheless himself affirmed with truth that to be his own body which he presented [to them]. Et semper hæc fides in Ecclesia Dei fuit, statim post consecrationem verum Domini nostri corpus verumque ejus sanguinem sub panis et vini specie una cum ipsius anima et divinitate existere; sed corpus quidem sub specie panis et sanguinem sub vini specie ex vi verborum; ipsum autem corpus sub specie vini, et sanguinem sub specie panis, animamque sub utraque, vi naturalis illius connexionis et concomitantiæ, qua partes Christi Domini, qui jam ex mortuis resurrexit non amplius And this faith has ever been in the Church of God, that, immediately after the consecration, the veritable body of our Lord, and his veritable blood, together with his soul and divinity, are under the species of bread and wine; but the body indeed under the species of bread, and the blood under the species of wine, by the force of the words; but the body itself under the species of wine, and the blood under the species of bread, and the soul under both, by the force of that natural connection and concomitancy whereby the parts of Christ

 moriturus, inter se copulantur, divinitatem porro propter admirabilem illam ejus cum corpore et anima hypostaticam unionem. Quapropter verissimum est, tantumdem sub alterutra specie atque sub utraque contineri: totus enim, et integer Christus sub panis specie et sub quavis ipsius speciei parte, totus item sub vini specie et sub ejus partibus existit. our Lord, who hath now risen from the dead, to die no more, [197] are united together; and the divinity, furthermore, on account of the admirable hypostatical union thereof with his body and soul. Wherefore it is most true, that as much is contained under either species as under both; for Christ whole and entire is under the species of bread, and under any part whatsoever of that species; likewise the whole (Christ) is under the species of wine, and under the parts thereof. Caput IV. Chapter IV. De Transsubstantiatione.

 On Transubstantiation. Quoniam autem Christus, redemptor noster, corpus suum id, quod sub specie panis offerebat, vere esse dixit; ideo persuasum semper in Ecclesia Dei fuit, idque nunc denuo sancta hæc synodus declarat, per consecrationem panis et vini conversionem fieri totius substantiæ panis in substantiam corporis Christi Domini nostri, et totius substantiæ vini in substantiam sanguinis ejus: quæ conversio convenienter et proprie a sancta Catholica Ecclesia Transsubstantiatio est appellata. And because that Christ, our Redeemer, declared that which he offered under the species of bread to be truly his own body, therefore has it ever been a firm belief in the Church of God, and this holy Synod doth now declare it anew, that, by the consecration of the bread and of the wine, a conversion is made of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord, and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood; which conversion is, by the holy Catholic Church, suitably and properly called Transubstantiation.

 Caput V. Chapter V. De cultu et veneratione huic sanctissimo Sacramento exhibenda. On the cult and veneration to be shown to this most holy sacrament. Nullus itaque dubitandi locus relinquitur, quin omnes Christi fideles pro more in Catholica Ecclesia semper recepto latriæ cultum, qui vero Deo debetur, huic sanctissimo sacramento in veneratione exhibeant: neque enim ideo minus est adorandum, quod fuerit a Christo Domino, ut sumatur, institutum: nam illum eumdem Deum præsentem in eo adesse credimus, quem Pater æternus introducens in orbem terrarum dicit: Et adorent eum omnes angeli Dei; quem magi procidentes adoraverunt; quem denique in Galilæa ab apostolis adoratum fuisse, scriptura testatur. Wherefore, there is no room left for doubt, that all the faithful of Christ may, according to the custom ever received in the Catholic Church, render in veneration the worship of latria, which is due to the true God, to this most holy sacrament. For not therefore is it the less to be adored on this account, that it was instituted by Christ, the Lord, in order to be received; for we believe that same God to be present therein, of whom the eternal Father, when introducing him into the world, says: And let all the angels of God adore him; [198] whom the Magi, falling down, adored; [199] who, in fine, as the Scripture testifies, was adored by the apostles in Galilee. Declarat præterea sancta synodus, pie et religiose admodum in Dei Ecclesiam inductum fuisse hunc morem, ut singulis annis peculiari quodam et festo die præcelsum hoc et venerabile sacramentum singulari veneratione ac solemniter celebraretur, utque in processionibus reverenter et honorifice illud per vias et loca publica circumferretur. Æquissimum est enim, sacros The holy Synod declares, moreover, that very piously and religiously was this custom introduced into the Church, that this sublime and venerable sacrament be, with special veneration and solemnity, celebrated, every year, on a certain day, and that a festival; and that it be borne reverently and with honor in processions through the streets and public places. For it is most just that there be certain appointed

 aliquos statutos esse dies, cum Christiani omnes singulari ac rara quadam significatione gratos et memores testentur animos erga communem Dominum et Redemptorem pro tam ineffabili et plane divino beneficio, quo mortis ejus victoria et triumphus repræsentatur. Ac sic quidem oportuit victricem veritatem de mendacio et hæresi triumphum agere, ut ejus adversarii in conspectu tanti splendoris, et in tanta universæ ecclesiæ lætitia positi, vel debilitati et fracti tabescant, vel pudore affecti et confusi aliquando resipiscant. holy days, whereon all Christians may, with a special and unusual demonstration, testify that their minds are grateful and thankful to their common Lord and Redeemer for so ineffable and truly divine a benefit, whereby the victory and triumph of his death are represented. And so indeed did it behoove victorious truth to celebrate a triumph over falsehood and heresy, that thus her adversaries, at the sight of so much splendor, and in the midst of so great joy of the universal Church, may either pine away [200] weakened and broken; or, touched with shame and confounded, at length repent. Caput VI. Chapter VI. De asservando sacræ Eucharistiæ Sacramento, et ad infirmos deferendo. On reserving the sacrament of the sacred Eucharist, and bearing it to the sick. Consuetudo asservandi in sacrario sanctam Eucharistiam adeo antiqua est, ut eam sæculum etiam Nicæni Concilii agnoverit. Porro deferri ipsam sacram Eucharistiam ad infirmos, et in hunc usum diligenter in ecclesiis conservari, præterquam quod cum summa æquitate et ratione conjunctum est, tum multis in conciliis præceptum invenitur et vetustissimo Catholicæ Ecclesiæ more est observatum. The custom of reserving the holy Eucharist in the sacrarium is so ancient, that even the age of the Council of Nicæa recognized that usage. Moreover, as to carrying the sacred Eucharist itself to the sick, and carefully reserving it for this purpose in churches, besides that it is exceedingly conformable to equity and reason, it is also found, enjoined in numerous councils, and is a very ancient observance of the Catholic Church.

 Quare sancta hæc synodus retinendum omnino salutarem hunc et necessarium morem statuit. Wherefore, this holy Synod ordains that this salutary and necessary custom is to be by all means retained. Caput VII. Chapter VII. De præparatione, quæ adhibenda est, ut digne quis sacram Eucharistiam percipiat. On the preparation to be given that one may worthily receive the sacred Eucharist. Si non decet ad sacras ullas functiones quempiam accedere nisi sancte, certe, quo magis sanctitas et divinitas coelestis hujus sacramenti viro Christiano comperta est, eo diligentius cavere ille debet, ne absque magna reverentia et sanctitate ad id percipiendum accedat, præsertim cum illa plena formidinis verba apud apostolum legamus: Qui manducat et bibit indigne, judicium sibi manducat et bibit, non dijudicans corpus Domini. Quare communicare volenti revocandum est in memoriam ejus præceptum: Probet autem seipsum homo. Ecclesiastica autem consuetudo declarat, eam probationem necessariam esse, ut nullus sibi conscius peccati mortalis, quantumvis sibi contritus videatur, absque præmissæ sacramentali confessione ad sacram Eucharistiam accedere debeat. Quod a Christianis omnibus, etiam ab iis sacerdotibus, If it is unbeseeming for any one to approach to any of the sacred functions, unless he approach holily; assuredly, the more the holiness and divinity of this heavenly sacrament are understood by a Christian, the more diligently ought he to give heed that he approach not to receive it but with great reverence and holiness, especially as we read in the Apostle those words full of terror: He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself. [201] Wherefore, he who would communicate, ought to recall to mind the precept of the Apostle: Let a man prove himself. [202] Now ecclesiastical usage declares that necessary proof to be, that no one, conscious to himself of mortal sin, how contrite soever he may seem to himself, ought to approach to the sacred Eucharist without previous sacramental confession. This the holy Synod hath decreed is to be invariably observed by all Christians,

 quibus ex officio incubuerit celebrare, hæc sancta synodus perpetuo servandum esse decrevit, modo non desit illis copia confessoris. Quod si necessitate urgente sacerdos absque prævia confessione celebraverit, quamprimum confiteatur. even by those priests on whom it may be incumbent by their office to celebrate, provided the opportunity of a confessor do not fail them; but if, in an urgent necessity, a priest should celebrate without previous confession, let him confess as soon as possible. Caput VIII. Chapter VIII. De usu admirabilis hujus sacramenti. On the use of this admirable sacrament. Quoad usum autem recte et sapienter Patres nostri tres rationes hoc sanctum sacramentum accipiendi distinxerunt. Quosdam enim docuerunt sacramentaliter dumtaxat id sumere ut peccatores; alios tantum spiritualiter, illos nimirum, qui voto propositum illum coelestem panem edentes, fide viva, quæ per dilectionem operatur, fructum ejus et utilitatem sentiunt; tertios porro sacramentaliter simul et spiritualiter; hi autem sunt, qui ita se prius probant et instruunt, ut vestem nuptialem induti ad divinam hanc mensam accedant. Now as to the use of this holy sacrament, our Fathers have rightly and wisely distinguished three ways of receiving it. For they have taught that some receive it sacramentally only, to wit, sinners: others spiritually only, those to wit who eating in desire that heavenly bread which is set before them, are, by a lively faith which worketh by charity, [203] made sensible of the fruit and usefulness thereof: whereas the third [class] receive it both sacramentally and spiritually, and these are they who so prove and prepare themselves beforehand, as to approach to this divine table clothed with the wedding garment. [204] Now as to the reception of the sacrament, it was always the custom in the Church of God that laymen should receive the communion from priests; but that priests when celebrating should communicate themselves; In sacramentali autem sumptione semper in Ecclesia Dei mos fuit, ut laici a sacerdotibus communionem acciperent; sacerdotes autem celebrantes seipsos communicarent, qui mos,

 tamquam ex traditione apostolica descendens, jure ac merito retineri debet. which custom, as coming down from an apostolic tradition, ought with justice and reason to be retained. Demum autem paterno affectu admonet sancta synodus, hortatur, rogat et obsecrat per viscera misericordiæ Dei nostri, ut omnes et singuli, qui Christiano nomine censentur, in hoc unitatis signo, in hoc vinculo caritatis, in hoc concordiæ symbolo jam tandem aliquando conveniant et concordent, memoresque tantæ majestatis, et tam eximii amoris Iesu Christi, Domini nostri, qui dilectam animam suam in nostræ salutis pretium et carnem suam nobis dedit ad manducandum, hæc sacra mysteria corporis et sanguinis ejus ea fidei constantia et firmitate ea animi devotione, ea pietate et cultu credant et venerentur, ut panem illum supersubstantialem frequenter suscipere possint, et is vere eis sit animæ vita et perpetua sanitas mentis, cujus vigore confortati, ex hujus miseræ peregrinationis itinere ad coelestem patriam pervenire valeant, eumdem panem angelorum, quem modo sub sacris velaminibus edunt, absque ullo velamine manducaturi. And finally this holy Synod, with true fatherly affection, admonishes, exhorts, begs, and beseeches, through the bowels of the mercy of our God, that all and each of those who bear the Christian name would now at length agree and be of one mind in this sign of unity, in this bond of charity, in this symbol of concord; and that, mindful of the so great majesty, and the so exceeding love of our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave his own beloved soul as the price of our salvation, and gave us his own flesh to eat, they would believe and venerate these sacred mysteries of his body and blood, with such constancy and firmness of faith, with such devotion of soul, with such piety and worship, as to be able frequently to receive that supersubstantial bread, and that it may be to them truly the life of the soul and the perpetual health of their mind; that being invigorated by the strength thereof, they may, after the journeying of this miserable pilgrimage, be able to arrive at their heavenly country, there to eat, without any veil, that same bread of angels which they now eat under the sacred veils. Quoniam autem non est satis But forasmuch as it is not enough

 veritatem dicere, nisi detegantur et refellantur errores: placuit sanctæ synodo hos canones subjungere, ut omnes, jam agnita Catholica doctrina, intelligant quoque, quæ ab illis hæreses caveri, vitarique debeant. to declare the truth, if errors be not laid bare and repudiated, it hath seemed good to the holy Synod to subjoin these canons, that all,--the Catholic doctrine being already recognized,--may now also understand what are the heresies which they ought to guard against and avoid. DE SACROSANCTO EUCHARISTIÆ SACRAMENTO. ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST. Canon I.--Si quis negaverit, in sanctissimæ Eucharistiæ sacramento contineri vere, realiter et substantialiter corpus et sanguinem una cum anima et divinitate Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ac proinde totum Christum; sed dixerit, tantummodo esse in eo, ut in signo, vel figura, aut virtute: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one denieth, that, in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, are contained truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and consequently the whole Christ; but saith that he is only therein as in a sign, or in figure, or virtue: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, in sacrosancto Eucharistiæ sacramento remanere substantiam panis et vini una cum corpore et sanguine Domini nostri Iesu Christi, negaveritque mirabilem illam et singularem conversionem totius substantiæ panis in corpus, et totius substantiæ vini in sanguinem, manentibus dumtaxat speciebus panis et vini; quam quidem conversionem Catholica Ecclesia aptissime Canon II.--If any one saith, that, in the sacred and holy sacrament of the Eucharist, the substance of the bread and wine remains conjointly with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and denieth that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood--the species only of the bread and wine remaining--which conversion indeed the Catholic

 Transsubstantiationem appellat: anathema, sit. Church most aptly calls Transubstantiation: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis negaverit, in venerabili sacramento Eucharistiæ sub unaquaque specie, et sub singulis cujusque speciei partibus, separatione facta, totum Christum contineri: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one denieth, that, in the venerable sacrament of the Eucharist, the whole Christ is contained under each species, and under every part of each species, when separated: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, peracta consecratione, in admirabili Eucharistiæ sacramento non esse corpus et sanguinem Domini nostri Iesu Christi, sed tantum in usu, dum sumitur, non autem ante vel post, et in hostiis seu particulis consecratis, quæ post communionem reservantur vel supersunt, non remanere verum corpus Domini: anathema sit. Canon IV.--If any one saith, that, after the consecration is completed, the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are not in the admirable sacrament of the Eucharist, but [are there] only during the use, whilst it is being taken, and not either before or after; and that, in the hosts, or consecrated particles, which are reserved or which remain after communion, the true body of the Lord remaineth not: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, vel præcipuum fructum sanctissimæ Eucharistiæ esse remissionem peccatorum, vel ex ea non alios effectus provenire: anathema sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, either that the principal fruit of the most holy Eucharist is the remission of sins, or that other effects do not result therefrom: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, in sancto Eucharistiæ sacramento Christum, unigenitum Dei Filium, non esse cultu latriæ etiam externo adorandum, atque ideo non festiva peculiari celebritate venerandum, neque in processionibus secundum laudabilem et universalem Ecclesiæ Canon VI.--If any one saith, that, in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, is not to be adored with the worship, even external of latria; and is, consequently, neither to be venerated with a special festive solemnity, nor to be solemnly borne about in procession, according

 sanctæ ritum et consuetudinem solemniter circumgestandum, vel non publice, ut adoretur, populo proponendum, et ejus adoratores esse idololatras: anathema sit. to the laudable and universal rite and custom of holy Church; or, is not to be proposed publicly to the people to be adored, and that the adorers thereof are idolaters: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixcerit, non licere sacram Eucharistiam in sacrario reservari, sed statim post consecrationem adstantibus necessario distribuendam; aut non licere, ut illa ad infirmos honorifice deferatur: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that it is not lawful for the sacred Eucharist to be reserved in the sacrarium, but that, immediately after consecration, it must necessarily be distributed amongst those present; or, that it is not lawful that it be carried with honor to the sick: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, Christum in Eucharistia exhibitum spiritualiter tantum manducari, et non etiam sacramentaliter ac realiter: anathema sit. Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that Christ, given in the Eucharist, is eaten spiritually only, and not also sacramentally and really: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis negaverit, omnes et singulos Christi fideles utriusque sexus, cum ad annos discretionis pervenerint, teneri singulis annis, saltem in paschate, ad communicandum, juxta præceptum sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ: anathema sit. Canon IX.--If any one denieth, that all and each of Christ's faithful of both sexes are bound, when they have attained to years of discretion, to communicate every year, at least at Easter, in accordance with the precept of holy Mother Church: let him be anathema. Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, non licere sacerdoti celebranti seipsum communicare: anathema sit. Canon X.--If any one saith, that it is not lawful for the celebrating priest to communicate himself: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, solam fidem esse sufficientem præparationem ad sumendum sanctissimæ Eucharistiæ sacramentum: Canon XI.--If any one saith, that faith alone is a sufficient preparation for receiving the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist: let him

 anathema sit. Et, ne tantum sacramentum indigne, atque ideo in mortem et condemnationem sumatur, statuit atque declarat ipsa sancta synodus illis, quos conscientia peccati mortalis gravat, quantumcumque etiam se contritos existiment, habita copia confessoris, necessario præmittendam esse confessionem sacramentalem. Si quis autem contrarium docere, prædicare, vel pertinaciter asserere, seu etiam publice disputando defendere præsumpserit, eo ipso excommunicatus existat. be anathema. And for fear lest so great a sacrament may be received unworthily, and so unto death and condemnation, this holy Synod ordains and declares, that sacramental confession, when a confessor may be had, is of necessity to be made beforehand, by those whose conscience is burthened with mortal sin, how contrite even soever they may think themselves. But if any one shall presume to teach, preach, or obstinately to assert, or even in public disputation to defend the contrary, he shall be thereupon excommunicated.   


 [193] Psa. cx. 4.

 [194] 1 Cor. xi. 26.

 [195] John vi. 58.

 [196] 1 Cor. i. 10.

 [197] 1 Cor. vi. 9.

 [198] Psa. xcvi. 7.

 [199] Matt. ii. 11.

 [200] Psa. cxi. 10.

 [201] 1 Cor. xi. 29.

 [202] 1 Cor. v. 28.

 [203] Gal. v. 6.

 [204] Matt. xxii. 11, 12.   


 Sessio Decimaquarta, Fourteenth Session, celebrata die XXV. Nov. 1551.

 held November 25, 1551. DE SANCTISSIMIS POENITENTIÆ ET EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS SACRAMENTIS. ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENTS OF PENANCE AND EXTREME UNCTION. Caput I. Chapter I. De necessitate et institutione Sacramenti poenitentiæ On the necessity, and on the institution of the Sacrament of Penance. Si ea in regeneratis omnibus gratitudo erga Deum esset, ut justitiam in baptismo, ipsius beneficio et gratia susceptam constanter tuerentur, non fuisset opus, aliud ab ipso baptismo sacramentum ad peccatorum remissionem esse institutum. Quoniam autem Deus, dives in misericordia, cognovit figmentum nostrum, If such, in all the regenerate, were their gratitude towards God, as that they constantly preserved the justice received in baptism by his bounty and grace, there would not have been need for another sacrament, besides that of baptism itself, to be instituted for the remission of sins. But because God, rich in mercy, knows our frame, [205] he hath

 illis etiam vitæ remedium contulit, qui se postea in peccati servitutem et dæmonis potestatem tradidissent, sacramentum videlicet poenitentiæ, quo lapsis post baptismum beneficium mortis Christi applicatur. Fuit quidem poenitentia universis hominibus, qui se mortali aliquo peccato inquinassent, quovis tempore ad gratiam et justitiam assequendam necessaria, illis etiam, qui baptismi sacramento ablui petivissent, ut, perversitate abjecta et emendata, tantam Dei offensionem cum peccati odio et pio animi dolore detestarentur; unde propheta ait; Convertimini, et agite poenitentiam ab omnibus iniquitatibus vestris; et non erit vobis in ruinam iniquitas. Dominus etiam dixit: Nisi poenitentiam egeritis, omnes similiter peribitis. Et princeps apostolorum Petrus peccatoribus baptismo initiandis poenitentiam commendans dicebat: Poenitentiam agite, et baptizetur unusquisque vestrum. Porro nec ante adventum Christi poenitentia erat sacramentum, nec est post adventum illius cuiquam ante baptismum. Dominus autem sacramentum poenitentiæ tunc præcipue bestowed a remedy of life even on those who may, after baptism, have delivered themselves up to the servitude of sin and the power of the devil,--the sacrament to wit of Penance, by which the benefit of the death of Christ is applied to those who have fallen after baptism. Penitence was indeed at all times necessary, in order to attain to grace and justice, for all men who had defiled themselves by any mortal sin, even for those who begged to be washed by the sacrament of Baptism; that so, their perverseness renounced and amended, they might, with a hatred of sin and a godly sorrow of mind, detest so great an offense of God. Wherefore the prophet says: Be converted and do penance for all your iniquities, and iniquity shall not be your ruin. [206] The Lord also said: Except you do penance, you shall also likewise perish; [207] and Peter, the prince of the apostles, recommending penitence to sinners who were about to be initiated by baptism, said: Do penance, and be baptized every one of you. [208] Nevertheless, neither before the coming of Christ was penitence a sacrament, nor is it such, since his coming, to any previously to baptism. But the Lord then principally instituted the sacrament

 instituit, cum a mortuis excitatus insufflavit in discipulos suos, dicens: Accipite Spiritum Sanctum; quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt. Quo tam insigni facto et verbis tam perspicuis potestatem remittendi et retinendi peccata, ad reconciliandos fideles post baptismum lapsos, apostolis et eorum legitimis successoribus fuisse communicatam, universorum patrum consensus semper intellexit, et Novatianos, remittendi potestatem olim pertinaciter negantes, magna ratione Ecclesia Catholica, tamquam hæreticos, explosit atque condemnavit. Quare verissimum hunc illorum verborum Domini sensum sancta hæc synodus probans et recipiens, damnat eorum commentitias interpretationes, qui verba illa ad potestatem prædicandi verbum Dei et Christi evangelium annuntiandi, contra hujusmodi sacramenti institutionem, falso detorquent. of penance, when, being raised from the dead, he breathed upon his disciples, saying: Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. [209] By which action so signal, and words so clear, the consent of all the Fathers has ever understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the apostles and their lawful successors, for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after baptism. And the Catholic Church with great reason repudiated and condemned as heretics the Novatians, who of old obstinately denied that power of forgiving. Wherefore, this holy Synod, approving of and receiving as most true this meaning of those words of our Lord, condemns the fanciful interpretations of those who, in opposition to the institution of this sacrament, falsely wrest those words to the power of preaching the Word of God, and of announcing the Gospel of Christ. Caput II. Chapter II. De differentia Sacramenti poenitentiæ et Baptismi. On the difference between the Sacrament of Penance and that of Baptism. Ceterum hoc sacramentum multis rationibus a baptismo differre For the rest, this sacrament is clearly seen to be different from

 dignoscitur. Nam præterquam quod materia et forma, quibus sacramenti essentia perficitur, longissime dissidet: constat certe, baptismi ministrum judicem esse non oportere, cum Ecclesia in neminem judicium exerceat, qui non prius in ipsam per baptismi januam fuerit ingressus. Quid enim mihi, inquit apostolus, de iis, qui foris sunt, judicare? Secus est de domesticis fidei, quos Christus dominus lavacro baptismi sui corporis membra semel effecit; nam hos, si se postea crimine aliquo contaminaverint, non jam repetito baptismo ablui, cum id in Ecclesia Catholica nulla ratione liceat, sed ante hoc tribunal tamquam reos sisti voluit, ut per sacerdotum sententiam non semel, sed quoties ab admissis peccatis ad ipsum poenitentes confugerint, possent liberari. Alius præterea est baptismi, et alius poenitentiæ fructus; per baptismum enim Christum induentes, nova prorsus in illo efficimur creatura, plenam et integram peccatorum omnium remissionem consequentes: ad quam tamen novitatem, et integritatem per sacramentum poenitentiæ, sine magnis nostris fletibus baptism in many respects: for besides that it is very widely different indeed in matter and form, which constitute the essence of a sacrament, it is beyond doubt certain that the minister of baptism need not be a judge, seeing that the Church exercises judgment on no one who has not entered therein through the gate of baptism. For, what have I, saith the apostle, to do to judge them that are without? [210] It is otherwise with those who are of the household of the faith, whom Christ our Lord has once, by the laver of baptism, made the members of his own body; for such, if they should afterwards have defiled themselves, by any crime, he would no longer have them cleansed by a repetition of baptism--that being nowise lawful in the Catholic Church--but be placed as criminals before this tribunal; that, by the sentence of the priests, they might be freed, not once, but as often as, being penitent, they should, from their sins committed, flee thereunto. Furthermore, one is the fruit of baptism, and another that of penance. For, by baptism putting on Christ, [211] we are made therein entirely a new creature, obtaining a full and entire remission of all sins; unto which newness and

 et laboribus, divina id exigente justitia, pervenire nequaquam possumus, ut merito poenitentia laboriosus quidam baptismus a sanctis patribus dictus fuerit. Est autem hoc sacramentum poenitentiæ lapsis post baptismum ad salutem necessarium, ut nondum regeneratis ipse baptismus. entireness, however, we are no ways able to arrive by the sacrament of Penance, without many tears and great labors on our parts, the divine justice demanding this; so that penance has justly been called by holy Fathers a laborious kind of baptism. And this sacrament of Penance is, for those who have fallen after baptism, necessary unto salvation; as baptism itself is for those who have not as yet been regenerated. Caput III. Chapter III. De partibus et fructibus hujus sacramenti. On the parts and on the fruit of this sacrament. Docet præterea sancta synodus, sacramenti poenitentiæ formam, in qua præcipue ipsius vis sita est, in illis ministri verbis positam esse: Ego te absolvo, etc. Quibus quidem de Ecclesiæ sanctæ more preces quædam laudabiliter adjunguntur; ad ipsius tamen formæ essentiam nequaquam spectant, neque ad ipsius sacramenti administrationem sunt necessariæ. Sunt autem quasi materia hujus sacramenti ipsius poenitentis actus, nempe contritio, confessio, et satisfactio. Qui quatenus in poenitente ad integritatem sacramenti, ad plenamque et perfectam peccatorum remissionem ex Dei institutione requiruntur, The holy Synod doth furthermore teach, that the form of the sacrament of Penance, wherein its force principally consists, is placed in those words of the minister: I absolve thee, etc.; to which words indeed certain prayers are, according to the custom of holy Church, laudably joined, which nevertheless by no means regard the essence of that form, neither are they necessary for the administration of the sacrament itself. But the acts of the penitent himself, to wit, contrition, confession, and satisfaction, are as it were the matter of this sacrament. Which acts, inasmuch as they are, by God's institution, required in the penitent for the integrity of the sacrament, and for the full and perfect

 hac ratione poenitentiæ partes dicuntur. Sane vero res et effectus hujus sacramenti, quantum ad ejus vim et efficaciam pertinet, reconciliatio est cum Deo, quam interdum in viris piis, et cum devotione hoc sacramentum percipientibus, conscientiæ pax ac serenitas cum vehementi spiritus consolatione consequi solet. Hæc de partibus et effectu hujus sacramenti sancta synodus tradens, simul eorum sententias damnat, qui poenitentiæ partes incussos conscientiæ terrores et fidem esse contendunt. remission of sins, are for this reason called the parts of penance. But the thing signified indeed, and the effect of this sacrament, as far as regards its force and efficacy, is reconciliation with God, which sometimes, in persons who are pious and who receive this sacrament with devotion, is wont to be followed by peace and serenity of conscience, with exceeding consolation of spirit. The holy Synod, whilst delivering these things touching the parts and the effect of this sacrament, condemns at the same time the opinions of those who contend that the terrors which agitate the conscience, and faith, are the parts of penance. Caput IV. Chapter IV. De Contritione. On Contrition. Contritio, quæ primum locum inter dictos poenitentis actus habet, animi dolor ac detestatio est de peccato commisso, cum proposito non peccandi de cetero. Fuit autem quovis tempore ad impetrandam veniam peccatorum hic contritionis motus necessarius, et in homine post baptismum lapso ita demum præparat ad remissionem peccatorum, si cum fiducia divinæ misericordiæ et voto præstandi reliqua conjunctus sit, quæ ad rite suscipiendum Contrition, which holds the first place amongst the aforesaid acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of mind, and a detestation for sin committed, with the purpose of not sinning for the future. This movement of contrition was at all times necessary for obtaining the pardon of sins; and, in one who has fallen after baptism, it then at length prepares for the remission of sins, when it is united with confidence in the divine mercy, and with the desire of performing the other things which are required for rightly receiving this sacrament.

 hoc sacramentum requiruntur. Declarat igitur sancta synodus, hanc contritionem non solum cessationem a peccato et vitæ novas propositum et inchoationem, sed veteris etiam odium continere, juxta illud: Projicite a vobis omnes iniquitates vestras, in quibus prævaricati estis, et facite vobis cor novum et spiritum novum. Et certe, qui illos sanctorum clamores consideraverit: Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci; Laboravi in gemitu meo, lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum. Recogitabo tibi omnes annos meos in amaritudine animæ meæ; et alios hujus generis, facile intelliget, eos ex vehementi quodam anteactæ vitæ odio et ingenti peccatorum detestatione manasse. Docet præterea, etsi contritionem hanc aliquando caritate perfectam esse contingat, hominemque Deo reconciliare, priusquam hoc sacramentum actu suscipiatur, ipsam nihilominus reconciliationem ipsi contritioni sine sacramenti voto, quod in illa includitur, non esse adscribendam. Illam vero contritionem imperfectam, quæ attritio dicitur, Wherefore the holy Synod declares, that this contrition contains not only a cessation from sin, and the purpose and the beginning of a new life, but also a hatred of the old, agreeably to that saying: Cast away from you all your iniquities, wherein you have transgressed, and make to yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. [212] And assuredly he who has considered those cries of the saints: To thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before thee; [213] I have labored in my groaning, every night I will wash my bed; [214] I will recount to thee all my years, in the bitterness of my soul; [215] and others of this kind, will easily understand that they flowed from a certain vehement hatred of their past life, and from an exceeding detestation of sins. The Synod teaches moreover, that, although it sometimes happens that this contrition is perfect through charity, and reconciles man with God before this sacrament be actually received, the said reconciliation, nevertheless, is not to be ascribed to that contrition, independently of the desire of the sacrament which is included therein. And as to that imperfect contrition, which is called attrition, because

 quoniam vel ex turpitudinis peccati consideratione vel ex gehennæ et poenarum metu communiter concipitur, si voluntatem peccandi excludat cum spe veniæ, declarat non solum non facere hominem hypocritam et magis peccatorem, verum etiam donum Dei esse et Spiritus Sancti impulsum, non adhuc quidem inhabitantis, sed tantum moventis, quo poenitens adjutus viam sibi ad justitiam parat. Et quamvis sine sacramento poenitentiæ per se ad justificationem perducere peccatorem nequeat, tamen eum ad Dei gratiam in sacramento poenitentiæ impetrandam disponit: hoc enim timore utiliter concussi Ninivitæ, ad Ionæ prædicationem, plenam terroribus poenitentiam egerunt et misericordiam a Domino impetrarunt. Quamobrem falso quidam calumniantur Catholicos scriptores, quasi tradiderint, sacramentum poenitentiæ absque bono motu suscipientium gratiam conferre, quod numquam Ecclesia Dei docuit, neque sensit; sed et falso docent, contritionem esse extortam et coactam, non liberam et voluntariam. that it is commonly conceived either from the consideration of the turpitude of sin, or from the fear of hell and of punishment, it declares that if, with the hope of pardon, it exclude the wish to sin, it not only does not make a man a hypocrite, and a greater sinner, but that it is even a gift of God, and an impulse of the Holy Ghost,--who does not indeed as yet dwell in the penitent, but only moves him,--whereby the penitent being assisted prepares a way for himself unto justice. And although this [attrition] can not of itself, without the sacrament of Penance, conduct the sinner to justification, yet does it dispose him to obtain the grace of God in the sacrament of Penance. For, smitten profitably with this fear, the Ninivites, at the preaching of Jonas, did fearful penance, and obtained mercy from the Lord. Wherefore falsely do some calumniate Catholic writers, as if they had maintained that the sacrament of Penance confers grace without any good motion on the part of those who receive it: a thing which the Church of God never taught, or thought; and falsely also do they assert that contrition is extorted and forced, not free and voluntary.

 Caput V. Chapter V. De Confessione. On Confession. Ex institutione sacramenti poenitentiæ jam explicata universa Ecclesia semper intellexit, institutam etiam esse a Domino integram peccatorum confessionem, et omnibus post baptismum lapsis jure divino necessariam existere, quia Dominus noster Iesus Christus, e terris ascensurus ad coelos, sacerdotes sui ipsius vicarios reliquit, tamquam præsides et judices, ad quos omnia mortalia crimina deferantur, in quæ Christi fideles ceciderint, quo, pro potestate clavium, remissionis aut retentionis peccatorum sententiam pronuncient. Constat enim, sacerdotes judicium hoc incognita causa exercere non potuisse, nec æquitatem quidem illos in pænis injungendis servare potuisse, si in genere tumtaxat, et non potius in specie, ac sigillatim sua ipsi peccata declarassent. Ex his colligitur, oportere a poenitentibus omnia peccata mortalia, quorum post diligentem sui discussionem conscientiam habent, in confessione recenseri, etiam si occultissima illa sint et tantum adversus duo ultima decalogi præcepta commissa, quæ nonnunquam animum From the institution of the sacrament of Penance, as already explained, the universal Church has always understood that the entire confession of sins was also instituted by the Lord, and is of divine right necessary for all who have fallen after baptism; because that our Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to heaven, left priests his own vicars, as presidents and judges, unto whom all the mortal crimes, into which the faithful of Christ may have fallen, should be carried, in order that, in accordance with the power of the keys, they may pronounce the sentence of forgiveness or retention of sins. For it is manifest that priests could not have exercised this judgment without knowledge of the cause; neither indeed could they have observed equity in enjoining punishments, if the said faithful should have declared their sins in general only, and not rather specifically, and one by one. Whence it is gathered that all the mortal sins, of which, after a diligent examination of themselves, they are conscious, must needs be by penitents enumerated in confession, even though those sins be most hidden, and committed only against the two last precepts of the

 gravius sauciant, et periculosiora sunt iis, quæ in manifesto admittuntur. Nam venialia, quibus a gratia Dei non excludimur et in quæ frequentius labimur, quamquam recte et utiliter citraque omnem præsumptionem in confessione dicantur, quod piorum hominum usus demonstrat, taceri tamen citra culpam multisque aliis remediis expiari possunt. Verum, cum universa mortalia peccata, etiam cogitationis, homines iræ filios et Dei inimicos reddant, necessum est, omnium etiam veniam cum aperta et verecunda confessione, a Deo quærere. Itaque dum omnia, quæ memoriæ occurrunt, peccata Christi fideles confiteri student, procul dubio omnia divinæ misericordiæ ignoscenda exponunt. Qui vero secus faciunt et scienter aliqua retinent, nihil divinæ bonitati per sacerdotem remittendum proponunt. Si enim erubescat ægrotus vulnus medico detegere, quod ignorat, medicina non curat. Colligitur præterea, etiam eas circumstantias in confessione explicandas esse, quæ speciem peccati mutant, quod sine illis peccata ipsa neque a poenitentibus decalogue,--sins which sometimes wound the soul more grievously, and are more dangerous, than those which are committed outwardly. For venial sins, whereby we are not excluded from the grace of God, and into which we fall more frequently, although they be rightly and profitably, and without any presumption, declared in confession, as the custom of pious persons demonstrates, yet may they be omitted without guilt, and be expiated by many other remedies. But, whereas all mortal sins, even those of thought, render men children of wrath, [216] and enemies of God, it is necessary to seek also for the pardon of them all from God, with an open and modest confession. Wherefore, while the faithful of Christ are careful to confess all the sins which occur to their memory, they without doubt lay them all bare before the mercy of God to be pardoned: whereas they who act otherwise, and knowingly keep back certain sins, such set nothing before the divine bounty to be forgiven through the priest; for if the sick be ashamed to show his wound to the physician, his medical art cures not that which it knows not of. We gather, furthermore, that those circumstances which change the species

 integre exponantur, nec judicibus innotescant; et fieri nequeat, ut de gravitate criminum recte censere possint et poenam, quam oportet, pro illis poenitentibus imponere. Unde alienum a ratione est docere, circumstantias has ab hominibus otiosis excogitatas fuisse, aut unam tantum circumstantiam confitendam esse, nempe peccasse in fratrem. Sed et impium est, confessionem, quæ hac ratione fieri præcipitur, impossibilem dicere, aut carnificinam, illam conscientiarum appellare; constat enim, nihil aliud in Ecclesia a poenitentibus exigi, quam ut, postquam quisque diligentius se excusserit et conscientiæ suæ sinus omnes et latebras exploraverit, ea peccata confiteatur, quibus se Dominum et Deum suum mortaliter offendissi meminerit; reliqua autem peccata, quæ diligenter cogitanti non occurrunt, in universum eadem confessione inclusa esse intelliguntur; pro quibus fideliter cum propheta dicimus: Ab occultis meis munda me, Domine. Ipsa vero hujusmodi confessionis difficultas ac peccata detegendi verecundia, gravis quidem videri of the sin are also to be explained in confession, because that, without them, the sins themselves are neither entirely set forth by the penitents, nor are they known clearly to the judges; and it can not be that they can estimate rightly the grievousness of the crimes, and impose on the penitents the punishment which ought to be inflicted on account of them. Whence it is unreasonable to teach that these circumstances have been invented by idle men; or that one circumstance only is to be confessed, to wit, that one has sinned against a brother. But it is also impious to assert, that confession, enjoined to be made in this manner, is impossible, or to call it a slaughter-house of consciences; for it is certain, that in the Church nothing else is required of penitents, but that, after each has examined himself diligently, and searched all the folds and recesses of his conscience, he confess those sins by which he shall remember that he has mortally offended his Lord and God: whilst the other sins, which do not occur to him after diligent thought, are understood to be included as a whole in that same confession; for which sins we confidently say with the prophet: From my secret sins cleanse me, O Lord. [217] Now, the

 posset, nisi tot tantisque commodis et consolationibus levaretur, quæ omnibus digne ad hoc sacramentum accedentibus per absolutionem certissime conferuntur. Ceterum, quoad modum confitendi secreto apud solum sacerdotem, etsi Christus non vetuerit, quin aliquis in vindictam suorum scelerum et sui humiliationem, cum ob aliorum exemplum, tum ob Ecclesiæ offensæ ædificationem delicta sua publice confiteri possit: non est tamen hoc divino præcepto mandatum, nec satis consulte humana aliqua lege præciperetur, ut delicta, præsertim secreta, publica essent confessione aperienda; unde cum a sanctissimis et antiquissimis patribus magno unanimique consensu secreta confessio sacramentalis, qua ab initio Ecclesia sancta usa est et modo etiam utitur, fuerit semper commendata, manifeste refellitur inanis eorum calumnia, qui eam a divino mandato alienam et inventum humanum esse, atque a patribus in concilio lateranensi congregatis initium habuisse, docere non verentur; neque enim per lateranense concilium Ecclesia statuit, ut Christi fideles confiterentur, very difficulty of a confession like this, and the shame of making known one's sins, might indeed seem a grievous thing, were it not alleviated by the so many and so great advantages and consolations, which are most assuredly bestowed by absolution upon all who worthily approach to this sacrament. For the rest, as to the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, although Christ has not forbidden that a person may,--in punishment of his sins, and for his own humiliation, as well for an example to others as for the edification of the Church that has been scandalized,--confess his sins publicly, nevertheless this is not commanded by a divine precept; neither would it be very prudent to enjoin by any human law, that sins, especially such as are secret, should be made known by a public confession. Wherefore, whereas the secret sacramental confession, which was in use from the beginning in holy Church, and is still also in use, has always been commended by the most holy and the most ancient Fathers with a great and unanimous consent, the vain calumny of those is manifestly refuted, who are not ashamed to teach that confession is alien from the divine command, and is a human invention, and that it took its

 quod jure divino necessarium et institutum esse intellexerat, sed ut præceptum confessionis, saltem semel in anno, ab omnibus et singulis, cum ad annos discretionis pervenissent, impleretur; unde jam in universa Ecclesia cum ingenti animarum fidelium fructu observatur mos ille salutaris confitendi sacro illo et maxime acceptabili tempore quadragesimæ: quem morem hæc sancta synodus maxime probat et amplectitur, tamquam pium et merito retinendum. rise from the Fathers assembled in the Council of Lateran: for the Church did not, through the Council of Lateran, ordain that the faithful of Christ should confess,--a thing which it knew to be necessary, and to be instituted of divine right,--but that the precept of confession should be complied with, at least once a year, by all and each, when they have attained to years of discretion. Whence, throughout the whole Church, the salutary custom is, to the great benefit of the souls of the faithful, now observed, of confessing at that most sacred and most acceptable time of Lent,--a custom which this holy Synod most highly approves of and embraces, as pious and worthy of being retained. Caput VI. Chapter VI. De ministro hujus sacramenti et Absolutione. On the ministry of this sacrament, and on Absolution. Circa ministrum autem hujus sacramenti declarat sancta synodus, falsas esse et a veritate evangelii penitus alienas doctrinas omnes, quæ ad alios quosvis homines, præter episcopos et sacerdotes clavium ministerium perniciose extendunt, putantes verba illa Domini: Quæcumque alligaveritis super terram, erunt alligata et in coelo, et quæcumque solveritis But, as regards the minister of this sacrament, the holy Synod declares all those doctrines to be false, and utterly alien from the truth of the Gospel, which perniciously extend the ministry of the keys to any others soever besides bishops and priests; imagining, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, that those words of our Lord, Whatsoever you shall bind, upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven, and

 super terram, erunt soluta et in coelo; et: Quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: ad omnes Christi fideles, indifferenter et promiscue, contra institutionem hujus sacramenti ita fuisse dicta, ut quivis potestatem habeat remittendi peccata, publica quidem per correptionem, si correptus acquieverit, secreta vero per spontaneam confessionem cuicumque factam. Docet quoque, etiam sacerdotes, qui peccato mortali tenentur, per virtutem Spiritus Sancti in ordinatione collatam, tamquam Christi ministros, functionem remittendi peccata exercere, eosque prave sentire, qui in malis sacerdotibus hanc potestatem non esse contendunt. Quamvis autem absolutio sacerdotis alieni beneficii sit dispensatio, tamen non est solum nudum ministerium vel annuntiandi evangelium, vel declarandi remissa esse peccata; sed ad instar actus judicialis, quo ab ipso, velut a judice, sententia pronuntiatur. Atque ideo non debet pænitens adeo sibi de sua ipsius fide blandiri, ut, etiam si nulla illi adsit contritio, aut sacerdote animus serio whatsoever you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed also in heaven, [218] and, Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained, [219] were in such wise addressed to all the faithful of Christ indifferently and indiscriminately, as that every one has the power of forgiving sins,--public sins to wit by rebuke, provided he that is rebuked shall acquiesce, and secret sins by a voluntary confession made to any individual whatsoever. It also teaches, that even priests, who are in mortal sin, exercise, through the virtue of the Holy Ghost which was bestowed in ordination, the office of forgiving sins, as the ministers of Christ; and that their sentiment is erroneous who contend that this power exists not in bad priests. But although the absolution of the priest is the dispensation of another's bounty, yet is it not a bare ministry only, whether of announcing the Gospel, or of declaring that sins are forgiven, but is after the manner of a judicial act, whereby sentence is pronounced by the priest as by a judge; and therefore the penitent ought not, so to confide in his own personal faith as to think that,--even though there be no contrition on his part, or no intention on the

 agendi et vere absolvendi desit, putet tamen se propter suam solam fidem vere et coram Deo esse absolutum. Nec enim fides sine poenitentia remissionem ullam peccatorum præstaret; nec is esset nisi salutis suæ negligentissimus, qui sacerdotem joco se absolventem cognosceret, et non alium serio agentem sedulo requireret. part of the priest of acting seriously and absolving truly,--he is nevertheless truly and in God's sight absolved, on account of his faith alone. For neither would faith without penance bestow any remission of sins, nor would he be otherwise than most careless of his own salvation, who, knowing that a priest but absolved him in jest, should not carefully seek for another who would act in earnest. Caput VII. Chapter VII. De casuum reservatione. On the reservation of cases. Quoniam igitur natura et ratio judicii illud exposcit, ut sententia in subditos dumtaxat feratur, persuasum semper in Ecclesia Dei fuit, et verissimum esse synodus hæc confirmat, nullius momenti absolutionem eam esse debere, quam sacerdos in eum profert, in quem ordinariam aut subdelegatam non habet jurisdictionem. Magnopere vero ad Christiani populi disciplinam pertinere sanctissimis patribus nostris visum est, ut atrociora quædam et graviora crimina non a quibusvis, sed a summis dumtaxat sacerdotibus absolverentur; unde merito Pontifices maximi pro suprema potestate sibi in Ecclesia universa tradita causas aliquas criminum Wherefore, since the nature and order of a judgment require this, that sentence be passed only on those subject [to that judicature], it has ever been firmly held in the Church of God, and this Synod ratifies it as a thing most true, that the absolution, which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either an ordinary or a delegated jurisdiction, ought to be of no weight whatever. And it hath seemed to our most holy Fathers to be of great importance to the discipline of the Christian people, that certain more atrocious and more heinous crimes should be absolved, not by all priests, but only by the highest priests; whence the Sovereign Pontiffs, in virtue of the supreme power delivered to them in

 graviores suo potuerunt peculiari judicio reservare. Neque dubitandum esset, quando omnia, quæ a Deo sunt, ordinata sunt, quin hoc idem episcopis omnibus in sua cuique diæcesi, in ædificationem tamen, non in destructionem liceat, pro illis in subditos tradita supra reliquos inferiores sacerdotes auctoritate, præsertim quoad illa, quibus excommunicationis censura annexa est. Hanc autem delictorum reservationem consonum est divinæ auctoritati non tantum in externa politia, sed etiam coram Deo vim habere. Verumtamen pie admodum, ne hac ipsa occasione aliquis pereat, in eadem Ecclesia Dei custoditum semper fuit, ut nulla sit reservatio in articulo mortis; atque ideo omnes sacerdotes quoslibet poenitentes a quibusvis peccatis et censuris absolvere possunt; extra quem articulum sacerdotes cum nihil possint in casibus reservatis, id unum poenitentibus persuadere nitantur, ut ad superiores et legitimos judices pro beneficio absolutionis accedant. the universal Church, were deservedly able to reserve, for their special judgment, certain more grievous cases of crimes. Neither is it to be doubted,--seeing that all things, that are from God, are well ordered,--but that this same may be lawfully done by all bishops, each in his own diocese, unto edification, however, not unto destruction, in virtue of the authority, above [that of] other inferior priests, delivered to them over their subjects, especially as regards those crimes to which the censure of excommunication is annexed. But it is consonant to the divine authority, that this reservation of cases have effect, not merely in external polity, but also in God's sight. Nevertheless, for fear lest any may perish on this account, it has always been very piously observed in the said Church of God, that there be no reservation at the point of death, and that therefore all priests may absolve all penitents whatsoever from every kind of sins and censures whatever: and as, save at that point of death, priests have no power in reserved cases, let this alone be their endeavor, to persuade penitents to repair to superior and lawful judges for the benefit of absolution.

 Caput VIII. Chapter VIII. De Satisfactionis necessitate et fructu. On the necessity and on the fruit of Satisfaction. Demum quoad satisfactionem, quæ ex omnibus poenitentiæ, partibus, quemadmodum a patribus nostris Christiano populo fuit perpetuo tempore commendata, ita una maxime nostra ætate summo pietatis prætextu impugnatur ab iis, qui speciem pietatis habent, virtutem autem ejus abnegarunt: sancta synodus declarat, falsum omnino esse et a verbo Dei alienum, culpam a Domino nunquam remitti, quin universa etiam poena condonetur. Perspicua enim et illustria in sacris litteris exempla reperiuntur, quibus, præter divinam traditionem, hic error quam manifestissime revincitur. Sane et divinæ justitiæ ratio exigere videtur, ut aliter ab eo in gratiam recipiantur, qui ante baptismum per ignorantiam deliquerint; aliter vero qui semel a peccati et dæmonis servitute liberati, et accepto Spiritus Sancti dono, scientes templum Dei violare et Spiritum Sanctum contristare non formidaverint. Et divinam clementiam decet, ne ita nobis absque ulla Finally, as regards satisfaction,--which as it is, of all the parts of penance, that which has been at all times recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers, so is it the one especially which in our age is, under the loftiest pretext of piety, impugned by those who have an appearance of godliness, but have denied the power thereof, [220] --the holy Synod declares, that it is wholly false, and alien from the Word of God, that the guilt is never forgiven by the Lord, without the whole punishment also being therewith pardoned. For clear and illustrious examples are found in the sacred writings, whereby, besides by divine tradition, this error is refuted in the plainest manner possible. And truly the nature of divine justice seems to demand, that they, who through ignorance have sinned before baptism, be received into grace in one manner; and in another those who, after having been freed from the servitude of sin and of the devil, and after having received the gift of the Holy Ghost, have not feared, knowingly to violate the temple of God, [221] and to grieve the Holy Spirit. [222] And it

 satisfactione peccata dimittantur, ut, occasione accepta, peccata leviora putantes, velut injurii et contumeliosi Spiritui Sancto in graviora labamur, thesaurizantes nobis iram in die iræ. Procul dubio enim magnopere a peccato revocant et quasi fræno quodam cærcent hæ satisfactoriæ poenæ, cautioresque et vigilantiores in futurum pænitentes efficiunt; medentur quoque peccatorum reliquiis et vitiosos habitus male vivendo comparatos contrariis virtutum actionibus tollunt. Neque vero securior ulla via in Ecclesia Dei umquam existimata fuit ad amovendam imminentem a Domino poenam, quam ut hæc poenitentiæ opera homines cum vero animi dolore frequentent. Accedit ad hæc, quod, dum satisfaciendo patimur pro peccatis, Christo Jesu, qui pro peccatis nostris satisfecit, ex quo omnis nostra sufficientia est, conformes efficimur, certissimam quoque inde arrham habentes, quod, si compatimur et conglorificabimur. Neque vero ita nostra est satisfactio hæc, quam pro peccatis nostris exsolvimus, ut beseems the divine clemency, that sins be not in such wise pardoned us without any satisfaction, as that, taking occasion therefrom, thinking sins less grievous, we, offering as it were an insult and an outrage to the Holy Ghost, [223] should fall into more grievous sins, treasuring up wrath against the day of wrath. [224] For, doubtless, these satisfactory punishments greatly recall from sin, and check as it were with a bridle, and make penitents more cautious and watchful for the future; they are also remedies for the remains of sin, and, by acts of the opposite virtues, they remove the habits acquired by evil living. Neither indeed was there ever in the Church of God any way accounted surer to turn aside the impending chastisement of the Lord, than that men should, with true sorrow of mind, practice these works of penitence. Add to these things, that, whilst we thus, by making satisfaction, suffer for our sins, we are made conformable to Jesus Christ, who satisfied for our sins, from whom all our sufficiency is; [225] having also thereby a most sure pledge, that if we suffer with him, we shall also be glorified with him. [226] But neither is this satisfaction, which we

 non sit per Christum Iesum, nam qui ex nobis, tamquam ex nobis, nihil possumus, eo cooperante, qui nos confortat, omnia possumus. Ita non habet homo, unde glorietur; sed omnis gloriatio nostra in Christo est; in quo vivimus, in quo meremur, in quo satisfacimus, facientes fructus dignos poenitentiæ, qui ex illo vim habent, ab illo offeruntur Patri, et per illum acceptantur a Patre. Debent ergo sacerdotes Domini, quantum Spiritus et prudentia suggesserit, pro qualitate criminum et poenitentium facultate, salutares et convenientes satisfactiones injungere; ne, si forte peccatis conniveant et indulgentius cum poenitentibus agant, levissima quædam opera pro gravissimis delictis injungendo, alienorum peccatorum participes efficiantur. Habeant autem præ oculis, ut satisfactio, quam imponunt, non sit tantum ad novæ vitæ custodiam et infirmitatis medicamentum, sed etiam ad præteritorum peccatorum vindictam et castigationem: nam claves sacerdotum, non ad solvendum dumtaxat, sed et ad ligandum concessas etiam antiqui patres discharge for our sins, so our own, as not to be through Jesus Christ. For us who can do nothing of ourselves, as of ourselves, can do all things, he co-operating, who strengthens us. Thus, man has not wherein to glory, but all our glorying is in Christ: in whom we live; in whom we merit; in whom we satisfy; bringing forth fruits worthy of penance, [227] which from him have their efficacy; by him are offered to the Father; and through him are accepted by the Father. Therefore the priests of the Lord ought, as far as the Spirit and prudence shall suggest, to enjoin salutary and suitable satisfactions, according to the quality of the crimes and the ability of the penitent; lest, if haply they connive at sins, and deal too indulgently with penitents, by enjoining certain very light works for very grievous crimes, they be made partakers of other men's sins. But let them have in view, that the satisfaction, which they impose, be not only for the preservation of a new life and a medicine of infirmity, but also for the avenging and punishing of past sins. For the ancient Fathers likewise both believe and teach, that the keys of the priests were given, not to loose only, but also to bind. [228] But not therefore

 et credunt et docent. Nec propterea existimarunt, sacramentum poenitentiæ esse forum iræ vel poenarum, sicut nemo umquam Catholicus sensit, ex hujusmodi nostris satisfactionibus vim meriti et satisfactionis Domini nostri Iesu Christi vel obscurari vel aliqua ex parte imminui; quod dum novatores intelligere nolunt, ita optimam poenitentiam novam vitam esse docent, ut omnem satisfactionis vim et usum tollant. did they imagine that the sacrament of Penance is a tribunal of wrath or of punishments; even as no Catholic ever thought, that, by this kind of satisfaction on our parts, the efficacy of the merit and of the satisfaction of our Lord Jesus Christ is either obscured or in any way lessened: which when the innovators seek to understand, they in such wise maintain a new life to be the best penance, as to take away the entire efficacy and use of satisfaction. Caput IX. Chapter IX. De operibus Satisfactionis. On works of Satisfaction. Docet præterea, tantam esse divinæ munificentiæ largitatem, ut non solum pænis sponte a nobis pro vindicando peccato susceptis, aut sacerdotis arbitrio pro mensura delicti impositis, sed etiam, quod maximum amoris argumentum est, temporalibus flagellis a Deo inflictis et a nobis patienter toleratis apud Deum Patrem per Christum Iesum satisfacere valeamus. The Synod teaches furthermore, that so great is the liberality of the divine munificence, that we are able through Jesus Christ to make satisfaction to God the Father, not only by punishments voluntarily undertaken of ourselves for the punishment of sin, or by those imposed at the discretion of the priest according to the measure of our delinquency, but also, which is a very great proof of love, by the temporal scourges inflicted of God, and borne patiently by us. DOCTRINA DE SACRAMENTO EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS. ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION. Visum est autem sanctæ synodo, præcedenti doctrinæ de poenitentia adjungere ea, quæ sequuntur de sacramento It hath also seemed good to the holy Synod, to subjoin to the preceding doctrine on Penance, the following

 extremæ unctionis, quod non modo poenitentiæ, sed et totius Christianæ vitæ, quæ perpetua poenitentia esse debet, consummativum existimatum est a Patribus. Primum itaque circa illius institutionem declarat et docet, quod clementissimus Redemptor noster, qui servis suis quovis tempore voluit de salutaribus remediis adversus omnia omnium hostium tela esse prospectum, quemadmodum auxilia maxima in sacramentis aliis præparavit, quibus Christiani conservare se integros, dum viverent, ab omni graviori spiritus incommodo possint: ita extremæ unctionis sacramento finem vitæ, tamquam firmissimo quodam præsidio, munivit. Nam etsi adversarius noster occasiones per omnem vitam quærat et captet, ut devorare animas nostras quoquo modo possit: nullum tamen tempus est, quo vehementius ille omnes suæ versutiæ nervos intendat ad perdendos nos penitus, et a fiducia etiam, si possit, divinæ misericordiæ deturbandos, quam cum impendere nobis exitum vitæ prospicit. on the sacrament of Extreme Unction, which by the Fathers was regarded as being the completion, not only of penance, but also of the whole Christian life, which ought to be a perpetual penance. First, therefore, as regards its institution, it declares and teaches, that our most gracious Redeemer,--who would have his servants at all times provided with salutary remedies against all the weapons of all their enemies,--as, in the other sacraments, he prepared the greatest aids, whereby during life, Christians may preserve themselves whole from every more grievous spiritual evil, so did he guard the close of life, by the sacrament of Extreme Unction, as with a most firm defense. For though our adversary seeks and seizes opportunities, all our life long, to be able in any way to devour [229] our souls; yet is there no time wherein he strains more vehemently all the powers of his craft to ruin us utterly, and, if he can possibly, to make us fall even from trust in the mercy of God, than when he perceives the end of our life to be at hand.

 Caput I. Chapter I. De institutione sacramenti Extremæ Unctionis. On the institution of the sacrament of Extreme Unction. Instituta est autem sacra unctio infirmorum tamquam vere et proprie sacramentum novi testamenti, a Christo Domino nos tro apud Marcum quidem insinuatum, per Iacobum autem apostolum ac Domini fratrem, fidelibus commendatum ac promulgatum. Infirmatur, inquit, quis in vobis? inducat presbyteros Ecclesiæ, et orent super eum, ungentes eum oleo in nomine Domini; et oratio fidei salvabit infirmum; et alleviabit eum Dominus; et si in peccatis sit, dimittentur ei. Quibus verbis, ut ex apostolica traditione per manus accepta Ecclesia didicit, docet materiam, formam, proprium ministrum, et effectum hujus salutaris sacramenti. Intellexit enim Ecclesia, materiam esse oleum ab episcopo benedictum; nam unctio aptissime Spiritus Sancti gratiam, qua invisibiliter anima ægrotantis inungitur, repræsentat; formam deinde esse illa verba: Per istam unctionem, etc. Now, this sacred unction of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord, as truly and properly a sacrament of the new law, insinuated indeed in Mark, but recommended and promulgated to the faithful by James the Apostle, and brother of the Lord. Is any man, he saith, sick among you? Let him, bring in the priests of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save the sick man; and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him. [230] In which words, as the Church has learned from apostolic tradition, received from hand to hand, he teaches the matter, the form, the proper minister, and the effect of this salutary sacrament. For the Church has understood the matter thereof to be oil blessed by a bishop. For the unction very aptly represents the grace of the Holy Ghost, with which the soul of the sick person is invisibly anointed; and furthermore that those words, "By this unction," etc., are the form.

 Caput II. Chapter II. De effectu hujus Sacramenti. On the effect of this Sacrament. Res porro et effectus hujus sacramenti illis verbis explicatur: Et oratio fidei salvabit infirmum; et alleviabit eum Dominus; et si in peccatis sit, dimittentur ei. Res etenim hæc gratia est Spiritus Sancti, cujus unctio delicta, si quæ sint adhuc expianda, ac peccati reliquias abstergit; et ægroti animam alleviat et confirmat, magnam in eo divinæ misericordiæ fiduciam excitando; qua infirmus sublevatus et morbi incommoda ac labores levius fert, et tentationibus dæmonis, calcaneo insidiantis, facilius resistit, et sanitatem corporis interdum, ubi saluti animæ expedierit, consequitur. Moreover, the thing signified, and the effect of this sacrament, are explained in those words: And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and the Lord shall raise him up, and if he be in sins they shall be forgiven him. For the thing here signified is the grace of the Holy Ghost; whose anointing cleanses away sins, if there be any still to be expiated, as also the remains of sins; and raises up and strengthens the soul of the sick person, by exciting in him a great confidence in the divine mercy; whereby the sick being supported, bears more easily the inconveniences and pains of his sickness; and more readily resists the temptations of the devil who lies in wait for his heel; [231] and at times obtains bodily health, when expedient for the welfare of the soul. Caput III. Chapter III. De ministro hujus Sacramenti, et tempore, quo dari debeat. On the minister of this Sacrament, and on the time when it ought to be administered. Jam vero, quod attinet ad præscriptionem eorum, qui et suscipere et ministrare hoc sacramentum debent, haud obscure fuit illud etiam in verbis prædictis traditum. Nam et ostenditur illic, proprios hujus sacramenti And now as to prescribing who ought to receive, and who to administer this sacrament, this also was not obscurely delivered in the words above cited. For it is there also shown, that the proper ministers of this sacrament are the Presbyters

 ministros esse Ecclesia Presbyteros; quo nomine eo loco, non ætate seniores, aut primores in populo intelligendi veniunt, sed aut episcopi, aut sacerdotes ab ipsis rite ordinati per impositionem manuum presbyterii. Declaratur etiam, esse hanc unctionem infirmis adhibendam, illis vero præsertim, qui tam periculose decumbunt, ut in exitu vitæ constituti videantur; unde et sacramentum exeuntium nuncupatur. Quod si infirmi post susceptam hanc unctionem convaluerint, iterum hujus sacramenti subsidio juvari poterunt, cum in aliud simile vitæ discrimen inciderint. Quare nulla ratione audiendi sunt, qui contra tam apertam et dilucidam apostoli Iacobi sententiam docent, hanc unctionem vel figmentum esse humanum, vel ritum a patribus acceptum, nec mandatum Dei, nec promissionem gratiæ habentem; et qui illam jam cessasse asserunt, quasi ad gratiam curationum dumtaxat in primitiva Ecclesia referenda esset; et qui dicunt, ritum et usum, quem sancta Romana Ecclesia in hujus sacramenti administratione observat, Iacobi apostoli sententiæ repugnare, of the Church; by which name are to be understood, in that place, not the elders by age, or the foremost in dignity amongst the people, but either bishops, or priests by bishops rightly ordained by the imposition of the hands of the priesthood. [232] It is also declared, that this unction is to be applied to the sick, but to those especially who lie in such danger as to seem to be about to depart this life: whence also it is called the sacrament of the departing. And if the sick should, after having received this unction, recover, they may again be aided by the succor of this sacrament, when they fall into another like danger of death. Wherefore, they are on no account to be hearkened to, who, against so manifest and clear a sentence of the Apostle James, teach, either that this unction is a human figment or is a rite received from the Fathers, which neither has a command from God, nor a promise of grace: nor those who assert that it has already ceased, as though it were only to be referred to the grace of healing in the primitive Church; nor those who say that the rite and usage which the holy Roman Church observes in the administration of this sacrament is repugnant to the sentiment of the Apostle

 atque ideo in alium commutandum esse; et denique, qui hanc extremam unctionem a fidelibus sine peccato contemni posse affirmant. Hæc enim omnia manifestissime pugnant cum perspicuis tanti apostoli verbis. Nec profecto Ecelesia Romana, aliarum omnium mater et magistra, aliud in hac administranda unctione, quantum ad ea, quæ hujus sacramenti substantiam perficiunt, observat, quam quod beatus Iacobus præscripsit. Neque vero tanti sacramenti contemptus absque ingenti scelere et ipsius Spiritus Sancti injuria esse posset. James, and that it is therefore to be changed into some other; nor finally those who affirm that this Extreme Unction may without sin be contemned by the faithful; for all these things are most manifestly at variance with the perspicuous words of so great an apostle. Neither assuredly does the Roman Church, the mother and mistress of all other churches, observe aught in administering this unction,--as regards those things which constitute the substance of this sacrament,--but what blessed James has prescribed. Nor indeed can there be contempt of so great a sacrament without a heinous sin, and an injury to the Holy Ghost himself. Hæc sunt, quæ de poenitentiæ et extremæ unctionis sacramentis sancta hæc oecumenica synodus profitetur et docet atque omnibus Christi fidelibus credenda et tenenda proponit. Sequentes autem canones inviolabiliter servandos esse tradit, et asserentes contrarium perpetuo damnat et anathematizat. These are the things which this holy oecumenical Synod professes and teaches and proposes to all the faithful of Christ, to be believed and held, touching the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction. And it delivers the following canons to be inviolably preserved; and condemns and anathematizes those who assert what is contrary thereto. DE SANCTISSIMO POENITENTIÆ SACRAMENTO. ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF PENANCE. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, in Catholica Ecclesia poenitentiam non esse vere et proprie sacramentum pro fidelibus, quoties Canon I.--If any one saith, that in the Catholic Church Penance is not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ our Lord

 post baptismum in peccata labuntur, ipsi Deo reconciliandis a Christo Domino nostro institutum: anathema sit. for reconciling the faithful unto God, as often as they fall into sin after baptism: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis sacramenta confundens, ipsum baptismum poenitentiæ sacramentum esse dixerit, quasi hæc duo sacramenta distincta non sint, atque ideo poenitentiam non recte secundam post naufragium tabulam appellari: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one, confounding the sacraments, saith that baptism is itself the sacrament of Penance, as though these two sacraments were not distinct, and that therefore Penance is not rightly called a second plank after shipwreck: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, verba illa Domini Salvatoris: Accipite Spiritum Sanctum; quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis; et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: non esse intelligenda de potestate remittendi et retinendi peccata in sacramento poenitentiæ, sicut Ecclesia Catholica ab initio semper intellexit; detorserit autem, contra institutionem hujus sacramenti, ad auctoritatem prædicandi evangelium: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that those words of the Lord the Saviour, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained, [233] are not to be understood of the power of forgiving and of retaining sins in the sacrament of Penance, as the Catholic Church has always from the beginning understood them; but wrests them, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, to the power of preaching the gospel: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis negaveret, ad integram et perfectam peccatorum remissionem requiri tres actus in poenitente, quasi materiam sacramenti poenitentiæ, videlicet, contritionem, confessionem, et satisfactionem, quæ tres poenitentiæ Canon IV.--If any one denieth, that, for the entire and perfect remission of sins, there are required three acts in the penitent, which are as it were the matter of the sacrament of Penance, to wit, contrition, confession, and satisfaction, which are called the three parts of

 partes dicuntur; aut dixerit, duas tantum esse poenitentiæ partes, terrores scilicet incussos conscientiæ, agnito peccato, et fidem conceptam ex evangelio vel absolutione, qua credit quis sibi per Christum remissa peccata: anathema sit. penance; or saith that there are two parts only of penance, to wit, the terrors with which the conscience is smitten upon being convinced of sin, and the faith, generated by the gospel, or by the absolution, whereby one believes that his sins are forgiven him through Christ: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit eam contritionem, quæ paratur per discussionem, collectionem et detestationem peccatorum, qua quis recogitat annos suos in amaritudine animæ suæ, ponderando peccatorum suorum gravitatem, multitudinem, foeditatem, amissionem æternæ beatitudinis, et æternæ damnationis incursum, cum proposito melioris vitæ, non esse verum et utilem dolorem, nec præparare ad gratiam, sed facere hominem hypocritam et magis peccatorem; demum, illum esse dolorem coactum et non liberum ac voluntarium: anathema sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, that the contrition which is acquired by means of the examination, collection, and detestation of sins,--whereby one thinks over his years in the bitterness of his soul, [234] by pondering on the grievousness, the multitude, the filthiness of his sins, the loss of eternal blessedness, and the eternal damnation which he has incurred, having therewith the purpose of a better life,--is not a true and profitable sorrow, does not prepare for grace, but makes a man a hypocrite and a greater sinner; in fine, that this [contrition] is a forced and not free and voluntary sorrow: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis negaverit, confessionem sacramentalem vel institutam, vel ad salutem necessariam esse jure divino; aut dixerit, modum secrete confitendi soli sacerdoti, quem Ecclesia Cathotica ab initio semper observavit et observat, alienum Canon VI.--If any one denieth, either that sacramental confession was instituted, or is necessary to salvation, of divine right; or saith, that the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, which the Church hath ever observed from the beginning, and doth observe, is alien

 esse ab institutione et mandato Christi, et inventum esse humanum: anathema sit. from the institution and command of Christ, and is a human invention: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, in sacramento poenitentiæ ad remissionem peccatorum necessarium non esse jure divino confiteri omnia et singula peccata mortalia, quorum memoria cum debita et diligenti præmeditatione habeatur, etiam occulta, et quæ sunt contra duo ultima Decalogi præcepta, et circumstantias, quæ peccati speciem mutant, sed eam confessionem tantum esse utilem ad erudiendum et consolandum poenitentem, et olim observatam fuisse tantum ad satisfactionem canonicam imponendam; aut dixerit eos, qui omnia peccata confiteri student, nihil relinquere velle divinæ misericordiæ ignoscendum; aut demum, non licere confiteri peccata venialia: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that, in the sacrament of Penance, it is not necessary, of divine right, for the remission of sins, to confess all and singular the mortal sins which after due and diligent previous meditation are remembered, even those [mortal sins] which are secret, and those which are opposed to the two last commandments of the Decalogue, as also the circumstances which change the species of a sin; but [saith] that such confession is only useful to instruct and console the penitent, and that it was of old only observed in order to impose a canonical satisfaction; or saith that they, who strive to confess all their sins, wish to leave nothing to the divine mercy to pardon; or, finally, that it is not lawful to confess venial sins: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, confessionem omnium peccatorum, qualem Ecclesia servat, esse impossibilem et traditionem humanam a piis abolendam; aut ad eam non teneri omnes et singulos utriusque Christi fideles, juxta magni Concilii Lateranensis constitutionem, semel in anno et Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that the confession of all sins, such as it is observed in the Church, is impossible, and is a human tradition to be abolished by the godly; or that all and each of the faithful of Christ, of either sex, are not obliged thereunto once a year, conformably to the constitution of the great Council of Lateran, and that,

 ob id suadendum esse Christi fidelibus, ut non confiteantur tempore quadragesimæ: anathema sit. for this cause, the faithful of Christ are to be persuaded not to confess during Lent: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, absolutionem sacramentalem sacerdotis, non esse actum judicialem, sed nudum ministerium pronunciandi et declarandi, remissa esse peccata confitenti, modo tantum credat, se esse absolutum; aut sacerdos non serio, sed joco absolvat; aut dixerit, non requiri confessionem poenitentis, ut sacerdos ipsum absolvere possit: anathema sit. Canon IX.--If any one saith, that the sacramental absolution of the priest is not a judicial act, but a bare ministry of pronouncing and declaring sins to be forgiven to him who confesses; provided only he believe himself to be absolved, or [even though] the priest absolve not in earnest, but in joke; or saith, that the confession of the penitent is not required, in order that the priest may be able to absolve him: let him be anathema. Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, sacerdotes, qui in peccato mortali sunt, potestatem ligandi et solvendi non habere; aut non solos sacerdotes esse ministros absolutionis, sed omnibus et singulis Christi fidelibus esse dictum: Quæcumque ligaveritis super terram, erunt ligata et in coelo; et quæcumque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in cælo; et: Quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis; et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: quorum verborum virtute quilibet absolvere possit peccata, publica quidem per correptionem dumtaxat, si correptus acquieverit, Canon X.--If any one saith, that priests, who are in mortal sin, have not the power of binding and loosing; or, that not priests alone are the ministers of absolution, but that, to all and each of the faithful of Christ is it said: Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven; [235] and, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained; [236] by virtue of which words every one is able to absolve from sins, to wit, from public sins by reproof only, provided he who is

 secreta vero per spontaneam confessionem: anathema sit. reproved yield thereto, and from secret sins by a voluntary confession: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, episcopos non habere jus reservandi sibi casus, nisi quoad externam politiam, atque ideo casuum reservationem non prohibere, quo minus sacerdos a reservatis vere absolvat: anathema sit. Canon XI.--If any one saith, that bishops have not the right of reserving cases to themselves, except as regards external polity, and that therefore the reservation of cases hinders not, but that a priest may truly absolve from reserved cases: let him be anathema. Canon XII.--Si quis dixerit, totam poenam simul cum culpa remitti semper a Deo, satisfactionemque poenitentium non esse aliam quam fidem, qua apprehendunt Christum pro eis satisfecisse: anathema sit. Canon XII.--If any one saith, that God always remits the whole punishment together with the guilt, and that the satisfaction of penitents is no other than the faith whereby they apprehend that Christ has satisfied for them: let him be anathema. Canon XIII.--Si quis dixerit, pro peccatis, quoad poenam temporalem, minime Deo pro Christi merita satisfieri poenis ab eo inflictis et patienter toleratis, vel a sacerdote injunctis, sed neque sponte susceptis, ut jejuniis, orationibus, eleemosynis, vel aliis etiam pietatis operibus, atque ideo optimam poenitentiam esse tantum novam vitam: anathema sit. Canon XIII.--If any one saith, that satisfaction for sins, as to their temporal punishment, is nowise made to God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, by the punishments inflicted by him, and patiently borne, or by those enjoined by the priest, nor even by those voluntarily undertaken, as by fastings, prayers, alms-deeds, or by other works also of piety; and that, therefore, the best penance is merely a new life: let him be anathema. Canon XIV.--Si quis dixerit, satisfactiones, quibus poenitentes per Christum Iesum peccata redimunt, non esse cultus Canon XIV.--If any one saith, that the satisfactions, by which penitents redeem their sins through Jesus Christ, are not a worship of

 Dei, sed traditiones hominum, doctrinam de gratia, et verum Dei cultum atque ipsum beneficium mortis Christi obscurantes: anathema sit. God, but traditions of men, which obscure the doctrine of grace, and the true worship of God, and the benefit itself of the death of Christ: let him be anathema. Canon XV.--Si quis dixerit, claves Ecclesiæ esse datas tantum ad solvendum, non etiam ad ligandum, et propterea sacerdotes, dum imponunt poenas confitentibus, agere contra finem clavium et contra institutionem Christi; et fictionem esse, quod, virtute clavium sublata poena æterna, poena temporalis plerumque exsolvenda remaneat: anathema sit. Canon XV.--If any one saith, that the keys are given to the Church, only to loose, not also to bind; and that, therefore, priests act contrary to the purpose of the keys, and contrary to the institution of Christ, when they impose punishments on those who confess; and that it is a fiction, that, after the eternal punishment has, by virtue of the keys, been removed, there remains for the most part a temporal punishment to be discharged: let him be anathema. DE SACRAMENTO EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS. ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, extremam unctionem non esse vere et proprie sacramentum a Christo domino nostro institutum et a beato Iacobo apostolo promulgatum; sed ritum tantum acceptum a patribus aut figmentum humanum: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that Extreme Unction is not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ our Lord, and promulgated by the blessed Apostle James; but is only a rite received from the Fathers, or a human figment: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, sacram infirmorum unctionem non conferre gratiam, nec remittere peccata, nec alleviare infirmos, sed jam cessasse, quasi olim tantum fuerit gratia curationum: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that the sacred unction of the sick does not confer grace, nor remit sin, nor comfort the sick; but that it has already ceased, as though it were of old only the grace of working cures: let him be anathema.

 Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, extremæ unctionis ritum et usum, quem observat sancta Romana Ecclesia, repugnare sententiæ beati Iacobi apostoli, ideoque eum mutandum, posseque a Christianis absque peccato contemni: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that the right and usage of Extreme Unction, which the holy Roman Church observes, is repugnant to the sentiment of the blessed Apostle James, and that is therefore to be changed, and may, without sin, be contemned by Christians: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, Presbyteros Ecclesiæ, quos beatus Iacobus adducendos esse ad infirmum, inungendum hortatur, non esse sacerdotes ab episcopo ordinatos, sed ætate seniores in quavis communitate, ob idque proprium extremæ unctionis ministrum non esse solum sacerdotem: anathema sit. Canon IV.--If any one saith, that the Presbyters of the Church, whom blessed James exhorts to be brought to anoint the sick, are not the priests who have been ordained by a bishop, but the elders in each community, and that for this cause a priest alone is not the proper minister of Extreme Unction: let him be anathema.   


 [205] Psa. cii. 14.

 [206] Ezek. xviii. 30.

 [207] Luke xiii. 5.

 [208] Acts ii. 38.

 [209] John xx. 23.

 [210] 1 Cor. v. 12.

 [211] Gal. iii. 23.

 [212] Ezek. xviii. 31.

 [213] Psa. l. 6.

 [214] Psa. vi. 7.

 [215] Isa. xxxviii. 15.

 [216] Ephes. ii. 3.

 [217] Psa. xviii. 13.

 [218] Matt. xviii. 18.

 [219] John xx. 23.

 [220] 2 Tim. iii. 5.

 [221] 1 Cor. iii. 17.

 [222] Ephes. iv. 30.

 [223] Heb. x. 29.

 [224] Rom. ii. 4.

 [225] 2 Cor. iii. 5.

 [226] Rom. viii. 17.

 [227] Matt. iii. 18.

 [228] Matt. xvi. 19.; John xx. 23.

 [229] 1 Pet. v. 8.

 [230] James v. 14, 15.

 [231] Gen. iii. 15.

 [232] 1 Tim. iv. 14.

 [233] John xx. 22, 23.

 [234] Isa. xxxviii. 15.

 [235] Matt. xviii. 15.

 [236] John xx. 23.   


 Sessio Vigesimaprima, Twenty-first Session, celebrata die XVI. Iulii 1562.

 held July 16, 1562.



 Laicos et clericos non conficientes non adstringi jure divino ad communionem sub utraque specie.

 That laymen and clerics, when not sacrificing, are not bound, of divine right, to communion under both species. Itaque sancta ipsa synodus, a Spiritu Sancto, qui spiritus est sapientiæ et intellectus, spiritus consilii et pietatis, edocta, atque ipsius Ecclesiæ judicium Wherefore, this holy Synod,--instructed by the Holy Spirit, who is the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and of godliness, [237] and following the

 et consuetudinem secuta, declarat, ac docet, nullo divino præcepto laicos et clericos non conficientes, obligari ad Eucharistiæ sacramentum sub utraque specie sumendum; neque ullo pacto, salva fide, dubitari posse, quin illis alterius speciei communio ad salutem sufficiat: nam, etsi Christus Dominus in ultima cæna venerabile hoc sacramentum in panis, et vini speciebus instituit et apostolis tradidit; non tamen illa institutio et traditio eo tendunt, ut omnes Christi fideles statuto Domini ad utramque speciem accipiendam adstringantur. Sed neque ex sermone illo, apud Ioannem VI., recte colligitur, utriusqme speciei communionem a Domino præceptam esse: utcumque juxta varias sanctorum patrum et doctorum interpretationes intelligatur: namque, qui dixit: Nisi manducaveritis carnem filii hominis et biberitis ejus sanguinem, non habebitis vitam in vobis: dixit quoque: Si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane, vivet in æternum. Et qui dixit: Qui manducat meam carnem, et bibit meum sanguinem, habet vitam æternam: dixit etiam: Panis, quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi judgment and usage of the Church itself,--declares and teaches, that laymen, and clerics when not consecrating, are not obliged, by any divine precept, to receive the sacrament of the Eucharist under both species; and that neither can it by any means be doubted, without injury to faith, that communion under either species is sufficient for them unto salvation. For, although Christ, the Lord, in the Last Supper, instituted and delivered to the apostles, this venerable sacrament in the species of bread and wine; not therefore do that institution and delivery tend thereunto, that all the faithful of the Church be bound, by the institution of the Lord, to receive both species. But neither is it rightly gathered, from that discourse which is in the sixth of John,--however according to the various interpretations of holy Fathers and Doctors it be understood,--that the communion of both species was enjoined by the Lord; for he who said, Except you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you (v. 54), also said: He that eateth this bread shall live forever (v. 59); and he who said, He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath everlasting life (v. 55), also said: The bread that I will

 vita. Et denique qui dixit: Qui manducat meam carnem et bibit meum sanguinem, in me manet et ego in illo: dixit nihilominus: Qui manducat hunc panem, vivet in æternum. give is my flesh for the life of the world (v. 52); and, in fine, he who said, He that eateth my flesh and drinkeih my blood, abideth in me and I in him (v. 57), said, nevertheless, He that eateth this bread shall live forever (v. 59). Caput II. Chapter II. Ecclesiæ potestas circa dispensationem sacramenti Eucharistiæ. The power of the Church as regards the dispensation of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Præterea declarat, hanc potestatem perpetuo in Ecclesia fuisse, ut in sacramentorum dispensatione, salva illorum substantia, ea statueret vel mutaret, quæ suscipientium utilitati seu ipsorum sacramentorum venerationi, pro rerum, temporum et locorum veritate, magis expedire judicaret. Id autem apostolus non obscure visus est innuisse, cum ait: Sic nos existimet homo, ut ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum Dei; atque ipsum quidem hac potestate usum esse satis constat cum in multis aliis, tum in hoc ipso sacramento, cum, ordinatis nonnullis circa ejus usum, Cetera, inquit, cum venero, disponam. Quare agnoscens sancta mater Ecclesia hanc suam in administratione sacramentorum auctoritatem, licet ab It furthermore declares, that this power has ever been in the Church, that, in the dispensation of the sacraments, their substance being untouched, it may ordain, or change, what things soever it may judge most expedient, for the profit of those who receive, or for the veneration of the said sacraments, according to the difference of circumstances, times, and places. And this the Apostle seems not obscurely to have intimated, when he says: Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God. [238] And, indeed, it is sufficiently manifest that he himself exercised this power, as in many other things, so in regard of this very sacrament; when, after having ordained certain things touching the use thereof, he says: The rest I will set in order when I come. [239] Wherefore, holy

 initio Christianæ religionis non infrequens utriusque speciei usus fuisset, tamen progressu temporis, latissime jam mutata illa consuetudine, gravibus et justis causis adducta hanc consuetudinem sub altera specie communicandi approbabit, et pro lege habendam decrevit, quam reprobare aut sine ipsius Ecclesiæ auctoritate pro libito mutare non licet. Mother Church, knowing this her authority in the administration of the sacraments, although the use or both species has, from the beginning of the Christian religion, not been unfrequent, yet, in progress of time, that custom having been already very widely changed, she, induced by weighty and just reasons, has approved of this custom of communicating under one species, and decreed that it was to be held as a law; which it is not lawful to reprobate, or to change at pleasure, without the authority of the Church itself. Caput III. Chapter III. Totum et integrum Christum ac verum sacramentum sub qualibet specie sumi.

 That Christ whole and entire and a true Sacrament are received under either species. Insuper declarat, quamvis Redemptor noster, ut antea dictum est, in suprema illa cæna hoc sacramentum in duabus speciebus instituerit et apostolis tradiderit, tamen fatendum esse, etiam sub altera tantum specie totum atque integrum Christum verumque sacramentum sumi; ac propterea, quod ad fructum attinet nulla gratia necessaria ad salutem eos defraudari, qui unam speciam solam accipiunt. It moreover declares, that although, as hath been already said, our Redeemer, in that last supper, instituted, and delivered to the apostles, this sacrament in two species, yet is to be acknowledged, that Christ whole and entire and a true sacrament are received under either species alone; and that therefore, as regards the fruit thereof, they, who receive one species alone are not defrauded of any grace necessary to salvation.

 Caput IV. Chapter IV. Parvulos non obligari ad communionem sacramentalem. That little Children are not bound to sacramental Communion. Denique eadem sancta synodus docet, parvulos usu rationis carentes nulla obligari necessitate ad sacramentalem Eucharistiæ communionem, siquidem, per baptismi lavacrum regenerati et Christo incorporati, adeptam jam filiorum Dei gratiam in illa ætate amittere non possunt. Neque ideo tamen damnanda est antiquitas, si eum morem in quibusdam locis aliquando servavit. Ut enim sanctissimi illi patres sui facti probabilem causam pro illius temporis ratione habuerunt, ita certe eos nulla salutis necessitate id fecisse sine controversia credendum est. Finally, this same holy Synod teaches, that little children, who have not attained to the use of reason, are not by any necessity obliged to the sacramental communion of the Eucharist: forasmuch as, having been regenerated by the laver of baptism, and being incorporated with Christ, they can not, at that age, lose the grace which they have already acquired of being the sons of God. Not therefore, however, is antiquity to be condemned, if, in some places, it, at one time, observed that custom; for as those most holy Fathers had a probable cause for what they did in respect of their times, so, assuredly, is it to be believed without controversy, that they did this without any necessity thereof unto salvation. DE COMMUNIONE SUB UTRAQUE SPECIE ET PARVULORUM. ON COMMUNION UNDER BOTH SPECIES, AND ON THE COMMUNION OF INFANTS. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, ex Dei præcepto vel necessitate salutis omnes et singulos Christi fideles utramque speciem sanctissimi Eucharistiæ sacramenti sumere debere: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that, by the precept of God, or by necessity of salvation, all and each of the faithful of Christ ought to receive both species of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, sanctum Ecclesiam Catholicam non justis Canon II.--If any one saith, that the holy Catholic Church was not

 causis et rationibus adductam fuisse, ut laicos atque etiam clericos non conficientes sub panis tantummodo specie communicaret, aut in eo errasse: anathema sit. induced, by just causes and reasons, to communicate, under the species of bread only, laymen, and also clerics when not consecrating: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis negaverit, totum et integrum Christum, omnium gratiarum fontem et auctorem, sub una panis specie sumi, quia, ut quidam falso asserunt, non secundum ipsius Christi institutionem sub utraque specie sumatur: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one denieth, that Christ whole and entire,--the fountain and author of all graces,--is received under the one species of bread; because that, as some falsely assert, he is not received, according to the institution of Christ himself, under both species: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, parvulis, antequam ad annos discretionis pervenerint, necessariam esse Eucharistiæ communionem: anathema sit. Canon IV.--If any one saith, that the communion of the Eucharist is necessary for little children, before they have arrived at years of discretion: let him be anathema. Duos vero articulos alias propositos nondum tamen excussos, videlicet: an rationes, quibus sancta Catholica Ecclesia adducta fuit, ut communicaret laicos atque etiam non celebrantes sacerdotes, sub una tantum panis specie, ita sint retinendæ, ut nulla ratione calicis usus cuiquam sit permittendus; et: an, si honestis et Christianæ caritati consentaneis rationibus concedendus alicui vel nationi vel regno calicis usus videatur, sub aliquibus conditionibus concedendus sit, et quænam sint illæ, eadem As regards, however, those two articles, proposed on another occasion, but which have not as yet been discussed: to wit, whether the reasons by which the holy Catholic Church was led to communicate, under the one species of bread only, laymen, and also priests when not celebrating, are in such wise to be adhered to, as that on no account is the use of the chalice to be allowed to any one soever; and whether, in case that, for reasons beseeming and consonant with Christian charity, it appears that the use of the chalice is to be granted to any nation or kingdom, it is to be conceded

 sancta synodus in aliud tempus, oblata sibi quamprimum occasione, examinandos atque definiendos reservat. under certain conditions; and what are those conditions: this same holy Synod reserves the same to another time,--for the earliest opportunity that shall present itself,--to be examined and defined.   


 [237] Isa. xi. 2.

 [238] 1 Cor. iv. i.

 [239] 1 Cor. xi. 34.   


 Sessio Vigesimasecunda, Twenty-second Session, celebrata die XVII. Sept. 1562. held Sept. 17, 1562. DOCTRINA DE SACRIFICIO MISSÆ DOCTRINE ON THE SACRIFICE OF THE MASS. Caput I. Chapter I. De institutione sacrosancti missæ sacrificii. On the institution of the most holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Quoniam sub priori Testamento, teste Apostolo Paulo, propter Levitici sacerdotii imbecillitatem consummatio non erat, oportuit, Deo patre misericordiarum ita ordinante, sacerdotem alium secundum ordinem Melchisedech surgere, Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, qui posset omnes, quotquot sanctificandi essent, consummare, et ad perfectum adducere. Is igitur Deus et Dominus noster, etsi semel se ipsum in ara crucis, morte intercedente, Deo patri oblaturus erat, ut æternam illic redemptionem operaretur, quia tamen per mortem sacerdotium ejus Forasmuch as, under the former Testament, according to the testimony of the Apostle Paul, there was no perfection, because of the weakness of the Levitical priesthood; [240] there was need, God, the Father of mercies, so ordaining, that another priest should rise, according to the order of Melchisedech, [241] our Lord Jesus Christ, who might consummate, and lead to what is perfect, as many as were to be sanctified. He, therefore, our God and Lord, though he was about to offer himself once on the altar of the cross unto God the Father, by means of his death, there to operate an eternal redemption; [242] nevertheless, because that his priesthood was not

 extinguendum non erat, in cæna novissima, qua nocte tradebatur, ut dilectæ sponsæ suæ Ecclesiæ visibile, sicut hominum natura exigit, relinqueret sacrificium, quo cruentum illud semel in cruce peragendum repræsentaretur, ejusque memoria in finem usque sæculi permaneret, atque illius salutaris virtus in remissionem eorum, quæ a nobis quotidie committuntur, peccatorum applicaretur, sacerdotem secundum ordinem Melchisedech se in æternum constitutum declarans, corpus et sanguinem suum sub speciebus panis et vini Deo Patri obtulit, ac sub earumdem rerum symbolis apostolis, quos tunc Novi Testamenti sacerdotes constituebat, ut sumerent, tradidit, et eisdem eorumque in sacerdotio successoribus, ut offerrent, præcepit per hæc verba: Hoc facite in meam commemorationem: uti semper Catholica Ecclesia intellexit et docuit. Nam celebrato veteri Pascha, quod in memoriam exitus de Aegypto multitudo filiorum Israel immolabat, novum instituit Pascha se ipsum ab Ecclesia per sacerdotes sub signis visibilibus immolandum in memoriam to be extinguished by his death, in the Last Supper, on the night in which he was betrayed,--that he might leave, to his own beloved Spouse the Church, a visible sacrifice, such as the nature of man requires, whereby that bloody sacrifice, once to be accomplished on the cross, might be represented, and the memory thereof remain even unto the end of the world, and its salutary virtue be applied to the remission of those sins which we daily commit,--declaring himself constituted a priest forever, according to the order of Melchisedech, [243] he offered up to God the Father his own body and blood under the species of bread and wine; and, under the symbols of those same things, he delivered [his own body and blood] to be received by his apostles, whom he then constituted priests of the New Testament; and by those words, Do this in commemoration of me, [244] he commanded them and their successors in the priesthood to offer [them]; even as the Catholic Church has always understood and taught. For, having celebrated the ancient Passover, which the multitude of the children of Israel immolated in memory of their going out of Egypt, he instituted the new Passover [to wit], himself to

 transitus sui ex hoc mundo ad Patrem, quando per sui sanguinis effusionem nos redemit eripuitque de potestate tenebrarum, et in regnum suum transtulit. Et hæc quidem illa munda oblatio est, quæ nulla indignitate aut malitia offerentium inquinari potest; quam Dominus per Malachiam nomini suo, quod magnum futurum esset in gentibus, in omni loco mundam offerendam prædixit, et quam non obscure innuit Apostolus Paulus Corinthiis scribens, cum dicit, non posse eos, qui participatione mensæ dæmoniorum polluti sint, mensæ Domini participes fieri, per mensam altare utrobique intelligens. Hæc denique illa est, quæ per varias sacrificiorum, naturæ et legis tempore, similitudines figurabatur; utpote quæ bona omnia, per illa significata, velut illorum omnium consummatio et perfectio complectitur. be immolated, under visible signs, by the Church through [the ministry of] priests, in memory of his own passage from this world unto the Father, when by the effusion of his own blood he redeemed us, and delivered us from the power of darkness, and translated us into his kingdom. [245] And this is indeed that clean oblation, which can not be defiled by any unworthiness, or malice of those that offer [it]; which the Lord foretold by Malachias was to be offered in every place, clean to his name, which was to be great amongst the Gentiles; [246] and which the Apostle Paul, writing to the Corinthians, has not obscurely indicated, when he says, that they who are defiled by the participation of the table of devils, can not be partakers of the table of the Lord; [247] by the table, meaning in both places the altar. This, in fine, is that oblation which was prefigured by various types of sacrifices, during the period of nature, and of the law; inasmuch as it comprises all the good things signified by those sacrifices, as being the consummation and perfection of them all.

 Caput II. Chapter II. Sacrificium missæ est propitiatorium, tam pro vivis, quam pro defunctis.

 That the Sacrifice of the Mass is propitiatory, both for the living and the dead. Et quoniam in divino hoc sacrificio, quod in missa peragitur, idem ille Christus continetur et incruente immolatur, qui in ara crucis semel se ipsum cruente obtulit, docet sancta synodus, sacrificium istud vere propitiatorium esse, per ipsumque fieri, ut, si cum vero corde et recta fide, cum metu et reverentia, contriti ac poenitentes ad Deum accedamus, misericordiam consequamur et gratiam inveniamus in auxilio opportuno. Hujus quippe oblatione placatus Dominus gratiam et donum poenitentiæ concedens, crimina et peccata etiam ingentia dimittit. Una enim eademque est hostia, idem nunc offerens sacerdotum ministerio, qui se ipsum tunc in cruce obtulit, sola offerendi ratione diversa. Cujus quidem oblationis cruentæ, inquam, fructus per hanc incruentam uberrime percipiuntur, tantum abest, ut illi per hanc quovis modo derogetur. Quare non solum pro fidelium vivorum peccatis, poenis, satisfactionibus et aliis necessitatibus, sed pro defunctis And forasmuch as, in this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the mass, that same Christ is contained and immolated in an unbloody manner who once offered himself in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross; the holy Synod teaches, that this sacrifice is truly propitiatory, and that by means thereof this is effected, that we obtain mercy, and find grace in seasonable aid, [248] if we draw nigh unto God, contrite and penitent, with a sincere heart and upright faith, with fear and reverence. For the Lord, appeased by the oblation thereof, and granting the grace and gift of penitence, forgives even heinous crimes and sins. For the victim is one and the same, the same now offering by the ministry of priests, who then offered himself on the cross, the manner alone of offering being different. The fruits indeed of which oblation, of that bloody one to wit, are received most plentifully through this unbloody one; so far is this [latter] from derogating in any way from, that [former oblation]. Wherefore, not only for the sins, punishments, satisfactions, and other necessities of the faithful who are living, but

 in Christo nondum ad plenum purgatis rite juxta apostolorum traditionem offertur. also for those who are departed in Christ, and who are not as yet fully purified, is it rightly offered, agreeably to a tradition of the apostles. Caput III. Chapter III. De missa in honorem sanctorum. On Masses in honor of the Saints. Et quamvis in honorem et memoriam sanctorum nonnullus interdum missas Ecclesia celebrare consueverit, non tamen illis sacrificium offerri docet, sed Deo soli, qui illos coronavit; unde nec sacerdos dicere solet: Offero tibi sacrificium, Petre vel Paule; sed, Deo de illorum victoriis gratias agens, eorum patrocinia implorat, ut ipsi pro nobis intercedere dignentur in coelis, quorum memoriam facimus in terris. And although the Church has been accustomed at times to celebrate certain masses in honor and memory of the saints; not therefore, however, doth she teach that sacrifice is offered unto them, but unto God alone, who crowned them; whence neither is the priest wont to say, 'I offer sacrifice to thee, Peter or Paul;' but, giving thanks to God for their victories, he implores their patronage, that they may vouchsafe to intercede for us in heaven, whose memory we celebrate upon earth. Caput IV. Chapter IV. De canone missæ. On the Canon of the Mass. Et cum sancta sancta administrari conveniat, sitque hoc omnium sanctissimum sacrificium, Ecclesia Catholica, ut digne reverenterque offerretur ac perciperetur, sacrum canonem multis ante sæculis instituit, ita ab omni errore purum, ut nihil in eo contineatur, quod non maxime sanctitatem ac pietatem quamdam redoleat, mentesque oferentium in Deum erigat. And whereas it beseemeth that holy things be administered in a holy manner, and of all holy things this sacrifice is the most holy; to the end that it might be worthily and reverently offered and received, the Catholic Church instituted, many years ago, the sacred Canon, so pure from every error, that nothing is contained therein which does not in the highest degree savor of a certain holiness and piety, and raise

 Is enim constat cum ex ipsis Domini verbis, tum ex apostolorum, traditionibus ac sanctorum quoque pontificum piis institutionibus. up unto God the minds of those that offer. For it is composed out of the very words of the Lord, the traditions of the Apostles, and the pious institutions also of holy Pontiffs. Caput V. Chapter V. De missæ ceremoniis et ritibus. On the solemn ceremonies of the Sacrifice of the Mass. Cumque natura hominum ea sit, ut non facile queat sine adminiculis exterioribus ad rerum divinarum meditationem sustolli, propterea pia mater Ecclesia ritus quosdam, ut scilicet quædam summissa voce, alia vero elatiore, in missa pronunciarentur, instituit. Cerimonias item, adhibuit, ut mysticas benedictiones, lumina, thymiamata, vestes, aliaque id genus multa ex apostolica disciplina et traditione, quo et majestas tanti sacrificii commendaretur, et mentes fidelium per hæc visibilia religionis et pietatis signa ad rerum altissimarum, quæ in hoc sacrificio latent, contemplationem excitarentur. And whereas such is the nature of man, that, without external helps, he can not easily be raised to the meditation of divine things; therefore has holy Mother Church instituted certain rites, to wit, that certain things be pronounced in the mass in a low, and others in a louder, tone. She has likewise employed ceremonies, such as mystic benedictions, lights, incense, vestments, and many other things of this kind, derived from an apostolical discipline and tradition, whereby both the majesty of so great a sacrifice might be recommended, and the minds of the faithful be excited, by those visible signs of religion and piety, to the contemplation of those most sublime things which are hidden in this sacrifice. Caput VI. Chapter VI. De missa, in qua solus sacerdos communicat. On Mass wherein the priest alone communicates. Optaret quidem sacrosancta synodus, ut in singulis missis The sacred and holy Synod would fain indeed that, at each mass, the

 fideles adstantes non solum spirituali affectu, sed sacramentali etiam Eucharistiæ perceptione communicarent, quod ad eos sanctissimi hujus sacrificii fructus uberior proveniret; nec tamen, si id non semper fiat, propterea missas illas, in quibus solus sacerdos sacramentaliter communicat, ut privatas et illicitas damnat, sed probat atque adeo commendat, siquidem illæ quoque missæ vere communes censeri debent, partim, quod in eis populus spiritualiter communicet, partim vero, quod a publico Ecclesiæ ministro non pro se tantum, sed pro omnibus fidelibus, qui ad corpus Christi pertinent, celebrentur. faithful who are present should communicate, not only in spiritual desire, but also by the sacramental participation of the Eucharist, that thereby a more abundant fruit might be derived to them from this most holy sacrifice: but not therefore, if this be not always done, does it condemn, as private and unlawful, but approves of and therefore commends, those masses in which the priest alone communicates sacramentally; since those masses also ought to be considered as truly common; partly because the people communicate spiritually thereat; partly also because they are celebrated by a public minister of the Church, not for himself only, but for all the faithful, who belong to the body of Christ. Caput VII. Chapter VII. De aqua miscenda vino in calice offerendo. On the water that is to be mixed with the wine to be offered in the chalice. Monet deinde sancta synodus, præceptum esse ab Ecclesia sacerdotibus, ut aquam vino in calice offerendo miscerent, tum quod Christum Dominum ita fecisse credatur, tum etiam quia e latere ejus aqua simul cum sanguine exierit, quod sacramentum hac mixtione recolitur, et, The holy Synod notices, in the next place, that it has been enjoined by the Church on priests, to mix water with the wine that is to be offered in the chalice; as well because it is believed that Christ the Lord did this, as also because from his side there came out blood and water; [249] the memory of which mystery is

 cum aquæ in apocalypsi beati Ioannis populi dicantur, ipsius populi fidelis cum capite Christo unio repræsentatur. renewed by this commixture; and, whereas in the apocalypse of blessed John the peoples are called waters, [250] the union of that faithful people with Christ their head is thereby represented. Caput VIII. Chapter VIII. Missa vulgari lingua non celebretur. Ejus mysteria populo explicentur.

 On not celebrating the Mass every where in the vulgar tongue; the mysteries of the Mass to be explained to the people. Etsi missa magnam contineat populi fidelis eruditionem; non tamen expedire visum est patribus, ut vulgari passim lingua celebraretur. Quamobrem, retento ubique cujusque Ecclesiæ antiquo et a sancta Romana Ecclesia, omnium ecclesiarum matre et magistra, probato ritu, ne oves Christi esuriant, neve parvuli panem petant et non sit qui frangat eis, mandat sancta synodus pastoribus et singulis curam animarum gerentibus, ut frequenter inter missarum celebrationem vel per se vel per alios ex iis, quæ in missa leguntur, aliquid exponant; atque inter cetera sanctissimi hujus sacrificii mysterium aliquod declarent, diebus præsertim dominicis et festis. Although the mass contains great instruction for the faithful people, nevertheless, it has not seemed expedient to the Fathers that it should be every where celebrated in the vulgar tongue. Wherefore, the ancient usage of each Church, and the rite approved of by the holy Roman Church, the mother and mistress of all churches, being in each place retained; and, that the sheep of Christ may not suffer hunger, nor the little ones ask for bread, and there be none to break it unto them, [251] the holy Synod charges pastors, and all who have the cure of souls, that they frequently, during the celebration of mass, expound either by themselves, or others, some portion of those things which are read at Mass, and that, amongst the rest, they explain some mystery of this most holy sacrifice, especially on the Lord's days and festivals.

 Caput IX. Chapter IX. Prolegomenon canonum sequentium. Preliminary Remark on the following Canons. Quia vero adversus veterem hanc in sacrosancto evangelio, apostolorum traditionibus sanctorumque patrum doctrina fundatam fidem hoc tempore multi disseminati sunt errores, multaque a multis docentur et disputantur; sancta synodus, post multos gravesque his de rebus mature habitos tractatus, unanimi patrum omnium concensu quæ huic purissimæ fidei sacræque doctrinæ adversantur damnare et a sancta Ecclesia eliminare, per subjectos hos canones constituit. And because that many errors are at this time disseminated and many things are taught and maintained by divers persons, in opposition to this ancient faith, which is based on the sacred Gospel, the traditions of the Apostles, and the doctrine of the holy Fathers; the sacred and holy Synod, after many and grave deliberations maturely had touching these matters, has resolved, with the unanimous consent of all the Fathers, to condemn, and to eliminate from holy Church by means of the canons subjoined, whatsoever is opposed to this most pure faith and sacred doctrine. DE SACRIFICIO MISSÆ. ON THE SACRIFICE OF THE MASS. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, in missa non offerri Deo verum et proprium sacrificium, aut quod offerri non sit aliud quam nobis Christum ad manducandum dari: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that in the mass a true and proper sacrifice is not offered to God; or, that to be offered is nothing else but that Christ is given us to eat: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, illis verbis: Hoc facite in meam commemorationem, Christum non instituisse apostolos sacerdotes, aut non ordinasse, ut ipsi aliique sacerdotes offerrent corpus et sanguinem suum: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that by those words, Do this for the commemoration of me (Luke xxii. 19), Christ did not institute the apostles priests; or, did not ordain that they and other priests should offer his own body and blood: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, Canon III.--If any one saith,

 missæ sacrificium tantum esse laudis et gratiarum actionis, aut nudam commemorationem sacrificii in cruce peracti, non autem propitiatorium; vel soli prodesse sumenti; neque pro vivis et defunctis pro peccatis, poenis, satisfactionibus et aliis necessitatibus offerri debere: anathema sit. that the sacrifice of the mass is only a sacrifice of praise and of thanksgiving; or, that it is a bare commemoration of the sacrifice consummated on the cross, but not a propitiatory sacrifice; or, that it profits him only who receives; and that it ought not to be offered for the living and the dead for sins, pains, satisfactions, and other necessities: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, blasphemiam irrogari sanctissimo Christi sacrificio in cruce peracto per missæ sacrificium, aut illi per hoc derogari: anathema sit. Canon IV.--If any one saith, that, by the sacrifice of the mass, a blasphemy is cast upon the most holy sacrifice of Christ consummated on the cross; or, that it is thereby derogated from: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, imposturam esse, missas celebrare in honorem sanctorum et pro illorum intercessione apud Deum obtinenda, sicut Ecclesia intendit: anathema sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, that it is an imposture to celebrate masses in honor of the saints, and for obtaining their intercession with God, as the Church intends: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, canonem missæ errores continere, ideoque abrogandum esse: anathema sit. Canon VI.--If any one saith, that the canon of the mass contains errors, and is therefore to be abrogated: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, ceremonias, vestes et externa signa, quibus in missarum celebratione Ecclesia Catholica utitur, irritabula impietatis esse magis quam officia pietatis: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that the ceremonies, vestments, and outward signs, which the Catholic Church makes use of in the celebration of masses, are incentives to impiety, rather than offices of piety: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, missas, in quibus solus sacerdos Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that masses, wherein the priest alone

 sacramentaliter communicat, illicitas esse ideoque abrogandas: anathema sit. communicates sacramentally, are unlawful, and are, therefore, to be abrogated: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, Ecclesiæ Romanæ ritum, quo submissa voce pars canonis et verba consecrationis proferuntur, damnandum esse; aut lingua tantum vulgari missam celebrari debere; aut aquam non miscendam esse vino in calice offerendo, eo quod sit contra Christi institutionem: anathema sit. Canon IX.--If anyone saith, that the rite of the Roman Church, according to which a part of the canon and the words of consecration are pronounced in a low tone, is to be condemned; or, that the mass ought to be celebrated in the vulgar tongue only; or, that water ought not to be mixed with the wine that is to be offered in the chalice, for that it is contrary to the institution of Christ: let him be anathema.   


 [240] Heb. vii. 11, 18.

 [241] Heb. v. 10.

 [242] Heb. ix. 12.

 [243] Psa. cix. 4.

 [244] Luke xxii. 19.

 [245] Col. i. 13.

 [246] Mal. i. 11.

 [247] 1 Cor. x. 20 sqq.

 [248] Heb. iv. 6.

 [249] John xix. 34.

 [250] Apoc. xvii. 15.

 [251] Lam. iv. 4.   


 Sessio Vigesimatertia, Twenty-third Session, celebrata die XV. Iulii 1563. held July 15, 1563. VERA ET CATHOLICA DOCTRINA DE SACRAMENTO ORDINIS. THE TRUE AND CATHOLIC DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRAMENT OF ORDER. Caput I. Chapter I. De institutione sacerdoti novæ legis. On the institution of the Priesthood of the New Law. Sacrificium et sacerdotium ita Dei ordinatione conjuncta sunt, ut utrumque in omni lege exstiterit. Cum igitur in Novo Testamento sanctum Eucharistiæ sacrificium visibile ex Domini institutione Catholica Ecclesia acceperit, fateri etiam oportet, in ea novum esse visible et externum sacerdotium, in quod vetus translatum est. Hoc autem ab eodem Domino Sacrifice and priesthood are, by the ordinance of God, in such wise conjoined, as that both have existed in every law. Whereas, therefore, in the New Testament, the Catholic Church has received, from the institution of Christ, the holy visible sacrifice of the Eucharist; it must needs also be confessed, that there is, in that Church, a new, visible, and external priesthood, into which the old has been translated. [252]

 Salvatore nostro institutum esse, atque apostolis eorumque successoribus in sacerdotio potestatem traditum consecrandi, offerendi et ministrandi corpus et sanguinem ejus, necnon et peccata dimittendi et retinendi, sacræ litteræ ostendunt et Catholicæ Ecclesiæ traditio semper docuit. And the sacred Scriptures show, and the tradition of the Catholic Church has always taught, that this priesthood was instituted by the same Lord our Saviour, and that to the Apostles, and their successors in the priesthood, was the power delivered of consecrating, offering, and administering his body and blood, as also of forgiving and of retaining sins. Caput II. Chapter II. De septem ordinibus. On the Seven Orders. Cum autem divina res sit tam sancti sacerdotii ministerium, consentaneum fuit, quo dignius et majori cum veneratione exerceri posset, ut in Ecclesiæ ordinatissima dispositione plures et diversi essent ministrorum ordines, qui sacerdotio ex officio deservirent, ita distributi, ut, qui jam clericali tonsura insigniti essent, per minores ad majores ascenderent. Nam non solum de sacerdotibus, sed et de diaconis sacræ litteræ apertam mentionem faciunt, et quæ maxime in illorum ordinatione attendenda sunt gravissimis verbis docent; et ab ipso Ecclesiæ initio sequentium ordinum nomina, atque uniuscujusque eorum propria ministeria, subdiaconi scilicet, And whereas the ministry of so holy a priesthood is a divine thing; to the end that it might be exercised in a more worthy manner, and with greater veneration, it was suitable that, in the most well ordered settlement of the Church, there should be several and diverse orders of ministers to minister to the priesthood, by virtue of their office; orders so distributed as that those already marked with the clerical tonsure should ascend through the lesser to the greater orders. For the sacred Scriptures make open mention not only of priests, but also of deacons; and teach, in words the most weighty, what things are especially to be attended to in the Ordination thereof; and, from the very beginning of the Church, the names of the following orders, and

 acolythi, exorcistæ, lectoris et ostiarii in usu fuisse cognoscuntur, quamvis non pari gradu; nam subdiaconatus ad majores ordines a patribus et sacris conciliis refertur, in quibus et de aliis inferioribus frequentissime legimus. the ministrations proper to each one of them, are known to have been in use; to wit, those of subdeacon, acolyth, exorcist, lector, and door-keeper; though these were not of equal rank; for the subdeaconship is classed amongst the greater orders by the Fathers and sacred Councils, wherein also we very often read of the other inferior orders. Caput III. Chapter III. Ordinem vere esse sacramentum. That Order is truly and properly a Sacrament. Cum Scripturæ testimonio, apostolica traditione et patrum unanimi consensu perspicuum sit, per sacram ordinationem, quæ verbis et signis exterioribus perficitur, gratiam conferri, dubitare nemo debet, ordinem esse vere et proprie unum ex septem sanctæ Ecclesiæ sacramentis. Inquit enim apostolus: Admoneo te, ut resuscites gratiam Dei, quæ est in te, per impositionem manuum mearum. Non enim dedit nobis Deus spiritum timoris, sed virtutis et dilectionis et sobrietatis. Whereas, by the testimony of Scripture, by Apostolic tradition, and the unanimous consent of the Fathers, it is clear that grace is conferred by sacred ordination, which is performed by words and outward signs, no one ought to doubt that Order is truly and properly one of the seven sacraments of holy Church. For the Apostle says: I admonish thee that thou stir up the grace of God, which is in thee by the imposition of my hands. For God has not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of sobriety. [253] Caput IV. Chapter IV. De ecclesiastica hierarchia et ordinatione. On the Ecclesiastical hierarchy, and on Ordination. Quoniam vero in sacramento ordinis, sicut et in baptismo et But, forasmuch as in the sacrament of Order, as also in Baptism

 confirmatione, character imprimitur, qui nec deleri nec auferri potest, merito sancta synodus damnat eorum sententiam, qui asserunt Novi Testamenti sacerdotes temporariam tantummodo potestatem habere, et semel rite ordinatos iterum laicos effici posse, si verbi Dei ministerium non exerceant. Quod si quis omnes Christianos promiscue Novi Testamenti sacerdotes esse, aut omnes pari inter se potestate spirituali præditos affirmet, nihil aliud facere videtur, quam ecclesiasticam hierarchiam, quæ est ut castrorum acies ordinata, confundere; perinde ac si contra beati Pauli doctrinam omnes apostoli, omnes prophetæ, omnes evangelistæ, omnes pastores, omnes sint doctores. Proinde sacrosancta synodus declarat, præter ceteros ecclesiasticos gradus episcopos, qui in apostolorum locum successerunt, ad hunc hierarchicum ordinem præcipue pertinere, et positos, sicut idem apostolus ait, a Spiritu Sancto regere Ecclesiam Dei; eosque presbyteris superiores esse, ac sacramentum confirmationis conferre, ministros Ecclesiæ ordinare, atque alia pleraque peragere and Confirmation, a character is imprinted which can neither be effaced nor taken away, the holy Synod with reason condemns the opinion of those who assert that the priests of the New Testament have only a temporary power; and that those who have once been rightly ordained can again become laymen, if they do not exercise the ministry of the Word of God. And if any one affirm, that all Christians indiscriminately are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all mutually endowed with an equal spiritual power, he clearly does nothing but confound the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is as an army set in array; [254] as if, contrary to the doctrine of blessed Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors. [255] Wherefore, the holy Synod declares that, besides the other ecclesiastical degrees, bishops, who have succeeded to the place of the Apostles, principally belong to this hierarchical order; that they are placed, as the same apostle says, by the Holy Ghost, to rule the Church of God; [256] that they are superior to priests; administer the sacrament of Confirmation; ordain the ministers of the Church; and that they can perform very many other things; over which

 ipsos posse, quarum functionum potestatem reliqui inferioris ordinis nullam habent. Docet insuper sacrosancta synodus, in ordinatione episcoporum, sacerdotum et ceterorum ordinum nec populi nec cujusvis sæcularis potestatis et magistratus consensum sive vocationem sive auctoritatem ita requiri, ut sine ea irrita sit ordinatio; quin potius decernit, eos, qui tantummodo a populo aut sæculari potestate ac magistratu vocati et instituti ad hæc ministeria, exercenda adscendunt, et qui ea propria temeritate sibi sumunt, omnes non Ecclesiæ ministros sed fures et latrones per ostium non ingressos habendos esse. Hæo sunt, quæ generatim sacræ synodo visum est Christi fideles de sacramento ordinis docere. His autem contraria certis et propriis canonibus in hunc, qui sequitur, modum damnare constituit, ut omnes adjuvante Christo fidei regula utentes in tot errorum tenebris Catholicam veritatem facilius agnoscere et tenere possint. functions others of an inferior order have no power. Furthermore, the sacred and holy Synod teaches, that, in the ordination of bishops, priests, and of the other orders, neither the consent, nor vocation, nor authority, whether of the people, or of any civil power or magistrate whatsoever, is required in such wise as that, without this, the ordination is invalid: yea rather doth it decree, that all those who, being only called and instituted by the people, or by the civil power and magistrate, ascend to the exercise of these ministrations, and those who of their own rashness assume them to themselves, are not ministers of the Church, but are to be looked upon as thieves and robbers, who have not entered by the door. [257] These are the things which it hath seemed good to the sacred Synod to teach the faithful of Christ, in general terms, touching the sacrament of Order. But it hath resolved to condemn whatsoever things are contrary thereunto, in express and specific canons, in the manner following; in order that all men, with the help of Christ, using the rule of faith, may, in the midst of the darkness of so many errors, more easily be able to recognize and to hold Catholic truth.

 DE SACRAMENTO ORDINIS. ON THE SACRAMENT OF ORDER. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, non esse in Novo Testamento sacerdotium visibile et externum, vel non esse potestatem aliquam consecrandi et offerendi verum corpus et sanguinem Domini, et peccata remittendi et retinendi, sed officium tantum et nudum ministerium prædicandi evangelium, vel eos, qui non prædicant, prorsus non esse sacerdotes: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that there is not in the New Testament a visible and external priesthood; or, that there is not any power of consecrating and offering the true body and blood of the Lord, and of forgiving and retaining sins, but only an office and bare ministry of preaching the Gospel; or, that those who do not preach are not priests at all: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, præter sacerdotium non esse in Ecclesia Catholica alios ordines et majores et minores, per quos, velut per gradus quosdam, in sacerdotium tendatur: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that, besides the priesthood, there are not in the Catholic Church other orders, both greater and minor, by which, as by certain steps, advance is made unto the priesthood: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, ordinem sive sacram ordinationem non esse vere et proprie sacramentum a Christo Domino institutum, vel esse figmentum quoddam humanum, excogitatum a viris rerum ecclesiasticarum imperitis, aut esse tantum ritum quemdam eligendi ministros verbi Dei et sacramentorum: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that order, or sacred ordination, is not truly and properly a sacrament instituted by Christ the Lord; or, that it is a kind of human figment devised by men unskilled in ecclesiastical matters; or, that it is only a kind of rite for choosing ministers of the Word of God and of the sacraments: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, per sacram ordinationem non dari Spiritum Sanctum, ac proinde frustra episcopos dicere: Canon IV.--If any one saith, that, by sacred ordination, the Holy Ghost is not given; and that vainly therefore do the bishops say,

 Accipe Spiritum Sanctum, aut per eam non imprimi characterem; vel eum, qui sacerdos semel fuit, laicum rursus fieri posse: anathema sit. Receive ye the Holy Ghost; or, that a character is not imprinted by that ordination; or, that he who has once been a priest can again become a layman: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, sacram unctionem, qua Ecclesia in sancta ordinatione utitur, non tantum non requiri, sed contemnendam et perniciosam esse, similiter et alias ordinis ceremonies: anathema sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, that the sacred unction which the Church uses in holy ordination is not only not required, but is to be despised and is pernicious, as likewise are the other ceremonies of order: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, in Ecclesia Catholica non esse hierarchiam divina ordinatione institutam, quæ constat ex episcopis, presbyteris et ministris: anathema sit. Canon VI.--If any one saith, that, in the Catholic Church there is not a hierarchy by divine ordination instituted, consisting of bishops, priests, and ministers: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, episcopos non esse presbyteris superiores, vel non habere potestatem confirmandi et ordinandi, vel eam, quam habent, illis esse cum presbyteris communem, vel ordines ab ipsis collatos sine populi vel potestatis sæcularis consensu aut vocatione irritos esse; aut eos qui nec ab ecclesiastica et canonica potestate rite ordinati, nec missi sunt, sed aliunde veniunt, legitimos esse verbi et sacramentorum ministros: anathema, sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that bishops are not superior to priests; or, that they have not the power of confirming and ordaining: or, that the power which they possess is common to them and to priests; or, that orders, conferred by them, without the consent or vocation of the people, or of the secular power, are invalid; or, that those who have neither been rightly ordained, nor sent, by ecclesiastical and canonical power, but come from elsewhere, are lawful ministers of the Word and of the sacraments: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, episcopos, qui auctoritate Romani Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that the bishops, who are assumed

 pontiftcis assumuntur, non esse legitimos et veros episcopos, sed figmentum humanum: anathema sit. by authority of the Roman Pontiff, are not legitimate and true bishops, but are a human figment: let him be anathema.   


 [252] Heb. vii. 12.

 [253] 2 Tim. i. 6, 7.

 [254] Cant. vi. 3.

 [255] Ephes. vi. 11, 12.

 [256] Acts xx. 28.

 [257] John x. 1.   


 Sessio Vigesimaquarta, Twenty-fourth Session, celebrata die XI. Nov. 1563. held Nov. 11, 1563. DOCTRINA DE SACRAMENTO MATRIMONII. DOCTRINE ON THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY. Matrimonii perpetuum indissolubilemque nexum primus humani generis parens divini Spiritus instinctu pronuntiavit, cum dixit: Hoc nunc os ex ossibus meis et caro de carne mea; quamobrem relinquet homo patrem suum et matrem et adhærebit uxori suæ, et erunt duo in carne una. The first parent of the human race, under the influence of the Divine Spirit, pronounced the bond of matrimony perpetual and indissoluble, when he said: This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be two in one flesh. [258] Hoc autem vinculo duos tantummodo copulari et conjungi, Christus Dominus apertius docuit, cum postrema illa verba tamquam a Deo prolata referens dixit: Itaque jam non sunt duo, sed una caro; statimque ejusdem nexus firmitatem ab Adamo tanto ante pronuntiatam his verbis confirmavit: Quod ergo Deus conjunxit, homo non separet. But, that by this bond two only are united and joined together, our Lord taught more plainly, when, rehearsing those last words as having been uttered by God, he said: Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh; [259] and straightway confirmed the firmness of that tie, proclaimed so long before by Adam, by these words: What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder. [260] Gratiam vero, quæ naturalem illum amorem perficeret et indissolubilem But the grace which might perfect that natural love, and confirm

 unitatem confirmaret conjugesque sanctificaret, ipse Christus, venerabilium sacramentorum institutor atque perfector, sua nobis passione promeruit; quod Paulus Apostolus innuit, dicens: Viri, diligite uxores vestras, sicut Christus dilexit Ecclesiam, et seipsum tradidit pro ea; mox subjungens: Sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et in Ecclesia. that indissoluble union, and sanctify the married, Christ himself, the institutor and perfecter of the venerable sacraments, merited for us by his passion; as the Apostle Paul intimates, saying, Husbands love your wives, as Christ also loved the Church, and delivered himself up for it; adding shortly after, This is a great sacrament, but I speak in Christ and in the Church. [261] Cum igitur matrimonium in lege evangelica veteribus connubiis per Christum gratia præstet, merito inter novæ legis sacramenta adnumerandum, sancti patres nostri, concilia, et universalis Ecclesiæ traditio semper docuerunt, adversus quam impii homines hujus sæculi insanientes non solum perperam de hoc venerabili sacramento senserunt, sed de more suo prætextu evangelii libertatem carnis introducentes, multa ab Ecclesiæ Catholicæ sensu et ab apostolorum temporibus probata consuetudine aliena scripto et verbo asseruerunt non sine magna Christi fidelium jactura; quorum temeritati sancta et universalis synodus cupiens occurrere, insigniores prædictorum schismaticorum hæreses et errores, ne plures ad Whereas therefore matrimony, in the evangelical law, excels in grace, through Christ, the ancient marriages, with reason have our holy Fathers, the Councils, and the tradition of the universal Church, always taught, that it is to be numbered amongst the sacraments of the new law; against which, impious men of this age raging, have not only had false notions touching this venerable sacrament, but, introducing according to their wont, under the pretext of the Gospel, a carnal liberty, they have by word and writing asserted, not without great injury to the faithful of Christ, many things alien from the sentiment of the Catholic Church, and from the usage approved of since the times of the Apostles; the holy and universal Synod, wishing to meet the rashness of these men, has thought

 se trahat perniciosa eorum contagio, exterminandos duxit, hos in ipsos hæreticos eorumque errores decernens anathematismos. it proper, lest their pernicious contagion may draw more after it, that the more remarkable heresies and errors of the above-named schismatics be exterminated, by decreeing against the said heretics and their errors the following anathemas. DE SACRAMENTO MATRIMONII. ON THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY. Canon I.--Si quis dixerit, matrimonium non esse vere et proprie unum ex septem legis evangelicæ sacramentis a Christo Domino institutum, sed ab hominibus in Ecclesia inventum, neque gratiam conferre: anathema sit. Canon I.--If any one saith, that matrimony is not truly and properly one of the seven sacraments of the evangelic law, [a sacrament] instituted by Christ the Lord; but that it has been invented by men in the Church; and that it does not confer grace: let him be anathema. Canon II.--Si quis dixerit, licere Christianis plures simul habere uxores, et hoc nulla lege divina esse prohibitum: anathema sit. Canon II.--If any one saith, that it is lawful for Christians to have several wives at the same time, and that this is not prohibited by any divine law: let him be anathema. Canon III.--Si quis dixerit, eos tantum consanguinitatis et affinitatis gradus, qui Levitico exprimuntur, posse impedire matrimonium contrahendum et dirimere contractum, nec posse Ecclesiam in nonnullis illorum dispensare aut constituere, ut plures impediant et dirimant: anathema sit. Canon III.--If any one saith, that those degrees only of consanguinity and affinity which are set down in Leviticus can hinder matrimony from being contracted, and dissolve it when contracted; and that the Church can not dispense in some of those degrees, or establish that others may hinder and dissolve it: let him be anathema. Canon IV.--Si quis dixerit, Ecclesiam non potuisse constituere impedimenta matrimonium dirimentia, vel in iis constituendis Canon IV.--If any one saith, that the Church could not establish impediments dissolving marriage; or, that she has erred in establishing

 errasse: anathema sit. them: let him be anathema. Canon V.--Si quis dixerit, propter hæresim, aut molestam cohabitationem, aut affectatam absentiam a conjuge, dissolvi posse matrimonii vinculum : anathema sit. Canon V.--If any one saith, that on account of heresy, or irksome cohabitation, or the affected absence of one of the parties, the bond of matrimony may be dissolved: let him be anathema. Canon VI.--Si quis dixerit, matrimonium ratum non consummatum per solemnem religionis professionem alterius conjugum non dirimi: anathema sit. Canon VI.--If any one saith, that matrimony contracted, but not consummated, is not dissolved by the solemn profession of religion by one of the parties: let him be anathema. Canon VII.--Si quis dixerit, Ecclesiam errare, cum docuit et docet juxta evangelicam et apostolicam doctrinam, propter adulterium alterius conjugum matrimonii vinculum non posse dissolvi, et utrumque, vel etiam innocentem, qui causam adulterio non dedit, non posse, altero conjuge vivente, aliud matrimonium contrahere, mæcharique eum, qui, dimissa adultera, aliam duxerit, et eam, quæ, dimisso adultero, alii nupserit: anathema sit. Canon VII.--If any one saith, that the Church has erred, in that she hath taught, and doth teach, in accordance with the evangelical and apostolical doctrine, that the bond of matrimony can not be dissolved on account of the adultery of one of the married parties; and that both, or even the innocent one who gave not occasion to the adultery, can not contract another marriage during the lifetime of the other; and, that he is guilty of adultery, who, having put away the adulteress, shall take another wife, as also she, who, having put away the adulterer, shall take another husband: let him be anathema. Canon VIII.--Si quis dixerit, Ecclesiam errare, cum ob multas causas separationem inter conjuges quoad thorum seu Canon VIII.--If any one saith, that the Church errs, in that she declares that, for many causes, a separation may take place between

 quoad cohabitationem ad certum incertumve tempus fieri posse decernit: anathema sit. husband and wife, in regard of bed, or in regard of cohabitation, for a determinate or for an indeterminate period: let him be anathema. Canon IX.--Si quis dixerit, clericos in sacris ordinibus constitutos, vel regulares castitatem solemniter professos posse matrimonium contrahere, contractumque validum esse non obstante lege ecclesiastica vel voto; et oppositum nil aliud esse quam damnare matrimonium, posseque omnes contrahere matrimonium, qui non sentiunt se castitatis, etiam si eam voverint, habere donum: anathema sit; cum Deus id recte petentibus non deneget, nec patiatur nos supra id quod possumus, tentari. Canon IX.--If anyone saith, that clerics constituted in sacred orders, or regulars, who have solemnly professed chastity, are able to contract marriage, and that being contracted it is valid, notwithstanding the ecclesiastical law, or vow; and that the contrary is nothing else than to condemn marriage; and, that all who do not feel that they have the gift of chastity, even though they have made a vow thereof, may contract marriage: let him be anathema; seeing that God refuses not that gift to those who ask for it rightly, neither does he suffer us to be tempted above that which we are able. [262] Canon X.--Si quis dixerit, statum, conjugalem anteponendum esse statui virginitatis vel cælibatus, et non esse melius ac beatius manere in virginitate aut cælibatu, quam jungi matrimonio: anathema sit. Canon X.--If any one saith, that the marriage state is to be placed above the state of virginity, or of celibacy, and that it is not better and more blessed to remain in virginity, or in celibacy, than to be united in matrimony: let him be anathema. Canon XI.--Si quis dixerit, prohibitionem solemnitatis nuptiarum certis anni temporibus superstitionem esse tyrannicam ab ethnicorum superstitione profectam, Canon XI.--If any one saith, that the prohibition of the solemnization of marriages at certain times of the year is a tyrannical superstition, derived from the superstition of the

 aut benedictiones et alias ceremonias, quibus Ecclesia in illis utitur, damnaverit: anathema sit. heathen; or condemn the benedictions and other ceremonies which the Church makes use of therein: let him be anathema. Canon XII.--Si quis dixerit, causas matrimoniales non spectare ad judices ecclesiasticos: anathema sit. Canon XII.--If any one saith, that matrimonial causes do not belong to ecclesiastical judges: let him be anathema.   


 [258] Gen. ii. 23, 24.

 [259] Matt. xix. 6.

 [260] Matt. xix. 6.

 [261] Ephes. v. 25, 32.

 [262] 1 Cor. x. 13.   


 Sessio Vigesimaquinta, Twenty-fifth Session, coepta die III. absoluta die IV. Decembris 1563. begun on the third, and terminated on the fourth of December, 1563 DECRETUM DE PURGATORIO. DECREE CONCERNING PURGATORY. Cum Catholica Ecclesia, Spiritu Sancto edocta ex sacris litteris et antiqua patrum traditione, in sacris conciliis et novissime in hoc oecumenica synodo docuerit, purgatorium esse, animasque ibi detentas, fidelium suffragiis, potissimum vero acceptabili altaris sacrificio, juvari; præcipit sancta synodus episcopis, ut sanam de purgatorio doctrinam a sanctis patribus et sacris conciliis traditam, a Christi fidelibus credi, teneri, doceri et ubique prædicari diligenter studeant. Whereas the Catholic Church, instructed by the Holy Ghost, has, from the Sacred Writings and the ancient tradition of the Fathers, taught, in sacred Councils, and very recently in this oecumenical Synod, that there is a Purgatory, and that the souls there detained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful, but principally by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar,--the holy Synod enjoins on bishops that they diligently endeavor that the sound doctrine concerning Purgatory, transmitted by the holy Fathers and sacred Councils, be believed, maintained, taught, and every where proclaimed by the faithful of Christ. Apud rudem vero plebem difficiliores ac subtiliores quæstiones, quaæque ædificationem non faciunt, But let the more difficult and subtle questions, and which tend not to edification, and from which for the

 et ex quibus plerumque nulla fit pietatis accessio, a popularibus concionibus secludantur. Incerta item, vel quæ specie falsi laborant, evulgari ac tractari non permittant. Ea vero, quæ ad curiositatem quamdam aut superstitionem spectant, vel turpe lucrum sapiunt, tamquam scandala et fidelium offendicula prohibeant. most part there is no increase of piety, be excluded from popular discourses before the uneducated multitude. In like manner, such things as are uncertain, or which labor under an appearance of error, let them not allow to be made public and treated of. While those things which tend to a certain kind of curiosity or superstition, or which savor of filthy lucre, let them prohibit as scandals and stumbling-blocks of the faithful. But let the bishops take care that the suffrages of the faithful who are living, to wit, the sacrifices of masses, prayers, alms, and other works of piety, which have been wont to be performed by the faithful for the other faithful departed, be piously and devoutly performed, in accordance with the institutes of the Church; and that whatsoever is due on their behalf, from the endowments of testators, or in other way, be discharged, not in a perfunctory manner, but diligently and accurately, by the priests and ministers of the Church, and others who are bound to render this [service]. Curent autem episcopi, ut fidelium vivorum suffragia, missarum scilicet sacrificia, orationes, eleemosynæ, aliaque pietatis opera, quæ a fidelibus pro aliis fidelibus defunctis fieri consueverunt, secundum Ecclesiæ instituta pie et devote fiant; et quæ pro illis ex testatorum fundationibus vel alia ratione debentur, non perfunctorie, sed a sacerdotibus et Ecclesia ministris et aliis, qui hoc præstare tenentur, diligenter et accurate persolvantur. DE INVOCATIONE, VENERATIONE, ET RELIQUIIS SANCTORUM, ET SACRIS IMAGINIBUS. ON THE INVOCATION, VENERATION, AND RELICS OF SAINTS, AND ON SACRED IMAGES. Mandat sancta synodus omnibus episcopis et ceteris docendi The holy Synod enjoins on all bishops, and others who sustain the

 munus curamque sustinentibus, ut juxta Catholicæ et Apostolicæ Ecclesiæ usum a primævis Christianæ religionis temporibus receptum sanctorumque patrum consensionem et sacrorum conciliorum decreta in primis de sanctorum intercessione, invocatione, reliquiarum honore et legitimo imaginum usu, fideles diligenter instruant, docentes eos, sanctos una cum Christo regnantes orationes suas pro hominibus Deo offerre; bonum, atque utile esse, suppliciter eos invocare; et ob beneficia impenetranda a Deo per filium ejus Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum, qui solus noster redemptor et salvator est, ad eorum orationes, opem, auxiliumque confugere; illos vero, qui negant, sanctos æterna felicitate in coelo fruentes invocandos esse; aut qui asserunt, vel illos pro hominibus non orare, vel eorum, ut pro nobis etiam singulis orent, invocationem esse idololatriam, vel pugnare cum verbo Dei, adversarique honori unius mediatoris Dei et hominum Iesu Christi, vel stultum esse, in coelo regnantibus voce vel mente supplicare, impie sentire. office and charge of teaching, that, agreeably to the usage of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, received from the primitive times of the Christian religion, and agreeably to the consent of the holy Fathers, and to the decrees of sacred Councils, they especially instruct the faithful diligently concerning the intercession and invocation of saints; the honor [paid] to relics; and the legitimate use of images: teaching them, that the saints, who reign together with Christ, offer up their own prayers to God for men; that it is good and useful suppliantly to invoke them, and to have recourse to their prayers, aid, [and] help for obtaining benefits from God, through his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who is our alone Redeemer and Saviour; but that they think impiously who deny that the saints, who enjoy eternal happiness in heaven, are to be invocated; or who assert either that they do not pray for men; or that the invocation of them to pray for each of us even in particular is idolatry; or that it is repugnant to the Word of God, and is opposed to the honor of the one mediator of God and men, Christ Jesus; [263] or that it is foolish to supplicate, vocally or mentally, those who reign in heaven.

 Sanctorum quoque martyrum et aliorum cum Christo viventium sancta corpora, quæ viva membra fuerunt Christi et templum Spiritus Sancti, ab ipso ad æternam vitam suscitanda et glorificanda, a fidelibus veneranda esse, per quæ multa beneficia a Deo hominibus præstantur; ita ut affirmantes, sanctorum reliquiis venerationem atque honorem non deberi; vel eas aliaque sacra monumenta a fidelibus inutiliter honorari, atque eorum opis impetrandæ causa sanctorum memorias frustra frequentari; omnino damnandos esse, prout jam pridem eos damnavit, et nunc etiam damnat Ecclesia. Also, that the holy bodies of holy martyrs, and of others now living with Christ,--which bodies were the living members of Christ, and the temple of the Holy Ghost, [264] and which are by him to be raised unto eternal life, and to be glorified,--are to be venerated by the faithful; through which [bodies] many benefits are bestowed by God on men; so that they who affirm that veneration and honor are not due to the relics of saints; or that these, and other sacred monuments, are uselessly honored by the faithful; and that the places dedicated to the memories of the saints are in vain visited with the view of obtaining their aid, are wholly to be condemned, as the Church has already long since condemned, and now also condemns them. Imagines porro Christi, Deiparæ Virginis et aliorum sanctorum in templis præsertim habendas et retinendas, eisque debitum honorem et venerationem impertiendam; non quod credatur in esse aliqua in iis divinitas vel virtus, propter quam sint colendæ, vel quod ab eis sit aliquid petendum, vel quod fiducia in imaginibus sit figenda veluti olim fiebat a gentibus, quæ in idolis spem suam Moreover, that the images of Christ, of the Virgin Mother of God, and of the other saints, are to be had and retained particularly in temples, and that due honor and veneration are to be given them; not that any divinity, or virtue, is believed to be in them, on account of which they are to be worshipped; or that any thing is to be asked of them; or that trust is to be reposed in images, as was of old done by the Gentiles, who placed their hope

 collocabant; sed quoniam honos, qui eis exhibetur, refertur ad prototypa, quæ illæ repræsentant, ita ut per imagines, quas osculamur et coram quibus caput aperimus et procumbimus, Christum adoremus, et sanctos, quorum illæ similitudinem gerunt, veneremur: id quod conciliorum præsertim vero secundæ Nicænæ Synodi decretis contra imaginum oppugnatores est sancitum. in idols; but because the honor which is shown them is referred to the prototypes which those images represent; in such wise that by the images which we kiss, and before which we uncover the head, and prostrate ourselves, we adore Christ, and we venerate the saints, whose similitude they bear: as, by the decrees of Councils, and especially of the second Synod of Nicæa, has been defined against the opponents of images. Illud vero diligenter doceant episcopi, per historias mysteriorum nostræ redemptionis picturis vel aliis similitudinibus expressas erudiri et confirmari populum in articulis fidei commemorandis et assidue recolendis; tum vero ex omnibus sacris imaginibus magnum fructum percipi, non solum quia admonetur populus beneficiorum et munerum, quæ a Christo sibi collata sunt, sed etiam quia Dei per sanctos miracula et salutaria exempla oculis fidelium subjiciuntur, ut pro iis Deo gratias agant, ad sanctorumque imitationem vitam moresque suos componant, excitenturque ad adorandum ac diligendum Deum et ad pietatem colendam. Si quis autem his decretis contraria docuerit And the bishops shall carefully teach this,--that, by means of the histories of the mysteries of our Redemption, portrayed by paintings or other representations, the people is instructed, and confirmed in [the habit of] remembering, and continually revolving in mind the articles of faith; as also that great profit is derived from all sacred images, not only because the people are thereby admonished of the benefits and gifts bestowed upon them by Christ, but also because the miracles which God has performed by means of the saints, and their salutary examples, are set before the eyes of the faithful; that so they may give God thanks for those things; may order their own lives and manners in imitation of the saints; and may be excited to adore and love God, and to cultivate piety. But if any one

 aut senserit: anathema sit. shall teach or entertain sentiments contrary to these decrees: let him be anathema. In has autem sanctas et salutares observationes si qui abusus irrepserint, eos prorsus aboleri sancta synodus vehementer cupit; ita ut nullæ falsi dogmatis imagines et rudibus periculosi erroris occasionem præbentes, statuantur. Quod si aliquando historias et narrationes sacræ scripturæ, cum id indoctæ plebi expediet, exprimi et figurari contigerit, doceatur populus, non propterea divinitatem figurari, quasi corporeis oculis conspici vel coloribus, aut figuris exprimi possit. And if any abuses have crept in amongst these holy and salutary observances, the holy Synod ardently desires that they be utterly abolished; in such wise that no images [suggestive] of false doctrine, and furnishing occasion of dangerous error to the uneducated, be set up. And if at times, when expedient for the unlettered people, it happen that the facts and narratives of sacred Scripture are portrayed and represented, the people shall be taught, that not thereby is the Divinity represented, as though it could be seen by the eyes of the body, or be portrayed by colors or figures. Omnis porro superstitio in sanctorum invocatione, reliquiarum veneratione et imaginum sacro usu tollatur, omnis turpis quæstus eliminetur, omnis denique lascivia vitetur; ita ut procaci venustate imagines non pingantur nec ornentur, et sanctorum celebratione ac reliquiarum visitatione homines ad commessationes atque ebrietates non abutantur, quasi festi dies in honorem sanctorum per luxum ac lasciviam agantur. Moreover, in the invocation of saints, the veneration of relics, and the sacred use of images, every superstition shall be removed, all filthy lucre be abolished; finally, all lasciviousness be avoided; in such wise that figures shall not be painted or adorned with a beauty exciting to lust; nor the celebration of the saints and the visitation of relics be by any perverted into revelings and drunkenness; as if festivals were celebrated to the honor of the saints by luxury and wantonness. Postremo, tanta circa hæc digentia In fine, let so great care and diligence

 et cura ab episcopis adhibeatur, ut nihil inordinatum aut præpostere et tumultuarie accomodatum, nihil profanum nihilque inhonestum appareat, cum domum Dei deceat sanctitudo. be used herein by bishops, as that there be nothing seen that is disorderly, or that is unbecomingly or confusedly arranged, nothing that is profane, nothing indecorous, seeing that holiness becometh the house of God. [265] Hæc ut fidelius observentur, statuit sancta synodus, nemini licere ullo in loco vel ecclesia, etiam quomodolibet exempta, ullam insolitam ponere vel ponendam curare imaginem, nisi ab episcopo approbata fuerit; nulla etiam admittenda esse nova miracula, nec novas reliquias recipiendas, nisi eodem recognoscente et approbante episcopo, qui, simul atque de iis aliquid compertum habuerit, adhibitis in consilium theologis et aliis piis viris, ea faciat, quæ veritati et pietati consentanea judicaverit. And that these things may be the more faithfully observed, the holy Synod ordains, that no one be allowed to place, or cause to be placed, any unusual image, in any place or church, howsoever exempted, except that image has been approved of by the bishop; also, that no new miracles are to be acknowledged, or new relics recognized, unless the said bishop has taken cognizance and approved thereof; who, as soon as he has obtained some certain information in regard of these matters, shall, after having taken the advice of theologians, and of other pious men, act therein as he shall judge to be consonant with truth and piety. But if any doubtful or difficult abuse has to be extirpated; or, in fine, if any more grave question shall arise touching these matters, the bishop, before deciding the controversy, shall await the sentence of the metropolitan and of the bishops of the province, in a provincial Council; yet so that nothing new, or that previously has Quod si aliquis dubius, aut difficilis abusus sit exstirpandus, vel omnino aliqua de iis rebus gravior quæstio incidat, episcopus, antequam controversiam dirimat, metropolitani et comprovincialium episcoporum in concilio provinciali sententiam exspectet, ita tamen, ut nihil inconsulto

 sanctissimo Romano pontifice novum aut in Ecclesia hactenus inusitatum decernatur. not been usual in the Church, shall be resolved on without having first consulted the most holy Roman Pontiff.   


 [263] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

 [264] 1 Cor. iii. 6.

 [265] Psa. xcii. 5.   


 Continuatio Sessionis Continuation of the Session, die IV. Decembris. on the fourth day of December. DECRETUM DE INDULGENTIIS. DECREE CONCERNING INDULGENCES. Cum potestas conferendi indulgentias a Christo Ecclesiæ concessa sit, atque hujusmodi potestate divinitus sibi tradita antiquissimis etiam temporibus illa usa fuerit, sacrosancta synodus indulgentiarum usum, Christiano populo maxime salutarem et sacrorum conciliorum auctoritate probatum, in Ecclesia retinendum esse docet et præcipit, eosque anathemate damnat, qui aut inutiles esse asserunt, vel eas concedendi in Ecclesia potestatem esse negant. In his tamen concedendis moderationem juxta veterem et probatam in Ecclesia consuetudinem adhiberi cupit, ne nimia facilitate ecclesiastica disciplina enervetur. Whereas the power of conferring Indulgences was granted by Christ to the Church, and she has, even in the most ancient times, used the said power delivered unto her of God, the sacred holy Synod teaches and enjoins that the use of Indulgences, for the Christian people most salutary, and approved of by the authority of sacred Councils, is to be retained in the Church; and it condemns with anathema those who either assert that they are useless, or who deny that there is in the Church the power of granting them. In granting them, however, it desires that, in accordance with the ancient and approved custom in the Church, moderation be observed; lest, by excessive facility, ecclesiastical discipline be enervated. And being desirous that the abuses which have crept therein, and by occasion of which this honorable name of Indulgences is blasphemed by heretics, be amended and corrected, it Abusus vero, qui in his irrepserunt, et quorum occasione insigne hoc indulgentiarum nomen ab hæreticis blasphematur, emendatos et correctos

 cupiens, præsenti decreto generaliter statuit, pravos quæstus omnes pro his consequendis, unde plurima in Christiano populo abusuum causa fluxit, omnino abolendos esse. ordains generally by this decree, that all evil gains for the obtaining thereof,--whence, a most prolific cause of abuses amongst the Christian people has been derived,--be wholly abolished. But as regards the other abuses which have proceeded from superstition, ignorance, irreverence, or from whatsoever other source, since, by reason of the manifold corruptions in the places and provinces where the said abuses are committed, they can not conveniently be specially prohibited, it commands all bishops diligently to collect, each in his own Church, all abuses of this nature, and to report them in the first provincial Synod; that, after having been reviewed by the opinions of the other bishops also, they may forthwith be referred to the Sovereign Roman Pontiff, by whose authority and prudence that which may be expedient for the universal Church will be ordained; that thus the gift of holy Indulgences may be dispensed to all the faithful, piously, holily, and incorruptly. Ceteros vero, qui ex superstitione, ignorantia, irreverentia, aut aliunde quomodocumque provenerunt, cum ob multiplices locorum et provinciarum, apud quas hi committuntur, corruptelas commode nequeant specialiter prohiberi; mandat omnibus episcopis, ut diligenter quisque hujusmodi abusus Ecclesiæ suæ colligat, eosque in prima synodo provinciali referat; ut, aliorum quoque episcoporum sententia cognita, statim ad summum Romanum pontificem deferantur, cujus auctoritate et prudentia, quod universali Ecclesiæ expediet, statuatur; ut ita sanctarum indulgentiarum munus pie, sancte et incorrupte omnibus fidelibus dispensetur.   



  II. PROFESSIO FIDEI TRIDENTINÆ. Profession of the Tridentine Faith. A.D. 1564.

 [From the bulls of Pope Pius IV., 'Injunctum nobis,' Nov. 13, 1564, and 'In sacrosancta,' Dec. 9, 1564 (in the Bullar. Rom., also in Streitwolf and Klener, Libri Symb. Eccles. Cath. Tom. II. pp. 315-321). The Latin text of the Creed is given also by Streitwolf and Klener (Tom. I. p. 98, sub tit.: Forma juramenti professionis fidei), by Denzinger, and in other collections of Roman Symbols. See Vol. I. § 25, pp. 96-99.]

 I. Ego ---- firma fide credo et profiteor omnia et singula, quæ continentur in symbolo fidei, quo sancta Romana Ecclesia utitur, videlicet: I. I, ---- with a firm faith believe and profess all and every one of the things contained in that creed which the holy Roman Church makes use of: 'Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotontem,' etc. [Symbolum Nicenum. See p. 27.] 'I believe in one God, the Father Almighty,' etc. [The Nicene Creed. See pp. 27 and 98.] II. Apostolicas et ecclesiasticas traditiones, reliquasque ejusdem Ecclesiæ observationes et constitutiones firmissime admitto et amplector. II. I most steadfastly admit and embrace apostolic and ecclesiastic traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same Church. III. Item sacram Scripturam juxta eum sensum, quem tenuit et tenet sancta mater Ecclesia, cujus est judicare de vero sensu et interpretatione sacrarum Scripturarum, admitto; nec eam unquam, nisi juxta unanimem consensum patrum accipiam et interpretabor. III. I also admit the holy Scriptures, according to that sense which our holy mother Church has held and does hold, to which it belongs to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Scriptures; neither will I ever take and interpret them otherwise than according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. IV. Profiteor quoque, septem esse vere et proprie sacramenta novæ legis a Jesu Christo Domino nostro instituta, atque ad salutem humani generis, licet non omnia singulis, necessaria: scilicet baptismum, confirmationem, IV. I also profess that there are truly and properly seven sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all for every one, to wit: baptism, confirmation,

 eucharistiam, poenitentiam, extremam unctionem, ordinem et matrimonium; illaque gratiam conferre; et ex his baptismum, confirmationem et ordinem sine sacrilegio reiterare non posse. Receptos quoque et approbatos Ecclesiæ Catholicæ ritus in supradictorum omnium sacramentorum solemni administratione recipio et admitto. the eucharist, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and matrimony; and that they confer grace; and that of these, baptism, confirmation, and ordination can not be reiterated without sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received and approved ceremonies of the Catholic Church, used in the solemn administration of the aforesaid sacraments. V. Omnia et singula, quæ de peccato originali et de justificatione in sacrosancta Tridentina synodo definita et declarata fuerunt, amplector et recipio. V. I embrace and receive all and every one of the things which have been defined and declared in the holy Council of Trent concerning original sin and justification. VI. Profiteor pariter, in missa offerri Deo verum, proprium et propitiatorium sacrificium pro vivis et defunctis; atque in sanctissimo eucharistiæ sacramento esse vere, realiter et substantialiter corpus et sanguinem, una cum anima et divinitate Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fierique conversionem totius substantiæ panis in corpus et totius substantiæ vini in sanguinem; quam conversionem Catholica Ecclesia transsubstantiationem appellat. VI. I profess, likewise, that in the mass there is offered to God a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead; and that in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist there is truly, really, and substantially, the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there is made a change of the whole essence of the bread into the body, and of the whole essence of the wine into the blood; which change the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation. VII. Fateor etiam, sub altera tantum specie totum atque integrum Christum, verumque sacramentum sumi. VII. I also confess that under either kind alone Christ is received whole and entire, and a true sacrament. VIII. Constanter teneo, purgatorium VIII. I firmly hold that there is

 esse, animasque ibi detentas fidelium suffragiis juvari. Similiter et sanctos una cum Christo regnantes venerandos atque invocandos esse, eosque orationes Deo pro nobis offerre, atque eorum reliquias esse venerandas. a purgatory, and that the souls therein detained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Likewise, that the saints reigning with Christ are to be honored and invoked, and that they offer up prayers to God for us, and that their relics are to be had in veneration. IX. Firmissime [266] assero, imagines Christi ac Deiparæ semper Virginis, nec non aliorum sanctorum habendas et retinendas esse, atque eis debitum honorem ac venerationem impertiendam. Indulgentiarum etiam potestatem a Christo in Ecclesia relictam fuisse, illarumque usum Christiano populo maxime salutarem esse affirmo. IX. I most firmly assert that the images of Christ, and of the perpetual Virgin the Mother of God, and also of other saints, ought to be had and retained, and that due honor and veneration are to be given them. I also affirm that the power of indulgences was left by Christ in the Church, and that the use of them is most wholesome to Christian people. X. Sanctam Catholicam et Apostolicam Romanam Ecclesiam omnium ecclesiarum matrem et magistram agnosco, Romano que pontifici, beati Petri apostolorum principis successori ac Jesu Christi vicario veram obedientiam spondeo ac juro. X. I acknowledge the holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church for the mother and mistress of all churches; and I promise and swear true obedience to the Bishop of Rome, successor to St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and Vicar of Jesus Christ. XI. Cætera item omnia a sacris canonibus et oecumenicis conciliis, ac præcipue a sacrosancta Tridentina synodo tradita, definita et declarata indubitanter recipio atque profiteor; simulque contraria omnia, atque hæreses quascumque ab Ecclesia XI. I likewise undoubtingly receive and profess all other things delivered, defined, and declared by the Sacred Canons and General Councils, and particularly by the holy Council of Trent; and I condemn, reject, and anathematize all things contrary thereto, and all

 damnatas, rejectas et anathematizatas ego pariter damno, rejicio et anathematizo. heresies which the Church has condemned, rejected, and anathematized. XII. Hanc veram Catholicam fidem, extra quam nemo salvus esse potest, quam in præsenti sponte profiteor et veraciter teneo, eundem integram et inviolatam [267] usque ad extremum vitæ spiritum constantissime, Deo adjuvante, retinere et confiteri, atque a meis subditis vel illis, quorum cura ad me in munere meo spectabit, teneri, doceri et prædicari, quantum in me erit, curaturum. Ita ego idem ---- spondeo, voveo ac juro. Sic me Deus adjuvet, et hæc sancta Dei Evangelia. XII. I do, at this present, freely profess and truly hold this true Catholic faith, without which no one can be saved; and I promise most constantly to retain and confess the same entire and inviolate, with God's assistance, to the end of my life. And I will take care, as far as in me lies, that it shall be held, taught, and preached by my subjects, or by those the care of whom shall appertain to me in my office. This I promise, vow, and swear--so help me God, and these holy Gospels of God.



 [266] Bullarium Rom.: firmiter.

 [267] [Note.--As it was promulgated by Pius IX., Jan. 20, 1877--Acta sedis sanc. X., 382--and is now offered to Catholic priests and professors, Pius IV.'s Profession contains in article XI, after the words Tridentino synodo, the clause et ab oecumenico concilio Vaticano (tradita, definita et declarata) præsertim de Romani pontificis primatu ac infallibili magisterio. The insertion conforms to Pius IX.'s letter to a German bishop, Nov. 6, 1876, that it is altogether necessary that priests with full and unreserved assent of will accept the definition of papal infallibility unless they want to abandon the right faith, pleno et absoluto intellectus et voluntatis assensu definitionem complectantur, nisi a recta fide aberrare velint. In the same letter, Pius wrote that 'nothing could be more absurd than to think that the Holy Spirit would vouchsafe truths and that, at the same time, it might be inopportune to teach them.' The Profession is printed with the insertion in Benedict's Code of Canon Law.--Ed.]   


  III. DECRETUM PII IX. DE IMMACULATA CONCEPTIONE BEATÆ VIRGINIS MARIÆ. The Decree of Pope Pius IX. on the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

 [The Latin text from the Bull 'Ineffabilis Deus,' in which Pope Pius IX. promulgated to the Roman Catholic world the definition of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, as read before an assembly of Cardinals and Bishops in St. Peter's, Dec. 8, 1864. See Vol. I. §§ 28 and 29, pp. 109 sqq.]

 Postquam nunquam intermisimus, in humilitate et jejunio privatas nostras et publicas Ecclesiæ preces Deo Patri per Filium Ejus offerre, ut Spiritus Sancti virtute mentem nostram dirigere et confirmare dignaretur, implorato universæ coelestis curiæ præsidio, et advocato cum genitibus Paraclito Spiritu, eoque sic adspirante, ad honorem Sanctæ et Individuæ Trinitatis, ad decus et ornamentum Virginis Deiparæ, ad exaltationem Fidei Catholicæ et Christianæ Religionis augmentum, auctoritate Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli ac nostra declaramus, pronunciamus et definimus Since we have never ceased in humility and fasting to offer up our prayers and those of the Church to God the Father through his Son, that he might deign to direct and confirm our mind by the power of the Holy Ghost, after imploring the protection of the whole celestial court, and after invoking on our knees the Holy Ghost the Paraclete, under his inspiration WE PRONOUNCE, DECLARE, AND DEFINE, unto the glory of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, the honor and ornament of the holy Virgin the Mother of God, for the exaltation of the Catholic faith and the increase of the Christian religion, by the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ and the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and in our own authority, that The Doctrine which holds the Blessed Virgin Mary to have been, from the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of Almighty God, in view of the merits of Christ Jesus the Saviour of mankind, Doctrinam, quæ tenet, beatissimam Virginem Mariam in primo instanti suæ Conceptionis fuisse singulari omnipotentis Dei gratiæ privilegio, intuitu meritorum Christi Jesu Salvatoris humani generis, ab omni originalis

 culpæ labe præservatam immunem, esse a Deo revelatam, adque idcirco ab omnibus fidelibus firmiter constanterque credendam. preserved free from all stain of original sin, was revealed by God, and is, therefore, to be firmly and constantly believed by all the faithful. Therefore, if some should presume to think in their hearts otherwise than we have defined (which God forbid), they shall know and thoroughly understand that they are by their own judgment condemned, have made shipwreck concerning the faith, and fallen away from the unity of the Church; and, moreover, that they, by this very act, subject themselves to the penalties ordained by law, if, by word or writing, or any other external means, they dare to signify what they think in their hearts. Quapropter si qui secus ac a nobis definitum est, quod Deus avertat, præsumpserint corde sentire, ii noverint, ac porro sciant, se proprio judicio condemnatos, nanfragium circa filem passos esse, et ab unitate Ecclesiæ defecisse, ac præterea facto ipso suo semet poenis a jure statutis subjicere si quod corde sentiunt, verbo aut scripto vel alio quovis externo modo signiftcare ausi fuerint.   


  IV. SYLLABUS ERRORUM. The Papal Syllabus of Errors. A.D. 1864.

 [This document, though issued by the sole authority of Pope Pius IX., Dec. 8,1864, must be regarded now as infallible and irreformable, even without the formal sanction of the Vatican Council. It is purely negative, but indirectly it teaches and enjoins the very opposite of what it condemns as error. See Vol. I. § 20, pp. 128-134.]

 Syllabus complectens præcipuos nostræ ætatis Errores qui notantur in Allocutionibus Consistorialibus, in Encyclicis, aliisque Apostolicis Letteris Sanctissimi Domini Nostri Pii Papæ IX.

 The Syllabus of the principal errors of our time, which are stigmatized in the Consistorial Allocutions, Encyclicals, and other Apostolical Letters of our Most Holy Lord, Pope Pius IX.



1. Nullum supremum, sapientissimum, providentissimumque Numen divinum exsistit ab hac rerum universitate distinctum, et Deus idem est ac rerum natura et iccirco immutationibus obnoxius, Deusque reapse fit in homine et mundo, atque omnia Deus sunt et ipsissimam Dei habent substantiam; ac una eademque res est Deus cum mundo, et proinde spiritus cum materia, necessitas cum libertate, verum cum falso, bonum cum malo, et justum cum injusto. 1. There exists no supreme, most wise, and most provident divine being distinct from the universe, and God is none other than nature, and is therefore subject to change. In effect, God is produced in man and in the world, and all things are God, and have the very substance of God. God is therefore one and the same thing with the world, and thence spirit is the same thing with matter, necessity with liberty, true with false, good with evil, justice with injustice. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 2. Neganda, est omnis Dei actio in homines et mundum. 2. All action of God upon man and the world is to be denied. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 3. Humana ratio, nullo prorsus 3. Human reason, without any

 Dei respectu habito, unicus est veri et falsi, boni et mali arbiter, sibi ipsi est lex et naturalibus suis viribus ad hominum ac populorum bonum curandum sufficit. regard to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, of good and evil; it is its own law to itself, and suffices by its natural force to secure the welfare of men and of nations. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 4. Omnes religionis veritates ex nativa humanæ rationis vi derivant; hinc ratio est princeps norma, qua homo cognotionem: omnium cujuscumque generis veritatum assequi possit ac debeat. 4. All the truths of religion are derived from the native strength of human reason; whence reason is the master rule by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Epist. encycl. Singulari quidem 17 martii 1856. Encyclical Letters, Singulari quidem, 17th March, 1856. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June,1862. 5. Divina revelatio est imperfecta et iccirco subjecta continuo et indefinito progressui, qui humanæ rationis progressioni respondeat. 5. Divine revelation is imperfect, and, therefore, subject to a continual and indefinite progress, which corresponds with the progress of human reason. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 6. Christi fides humanæ refragatur rationi; divinaque revelatio non solum nihil prodest, verum etiam nocet hominis perfectioni. 6. Christian faith contradicts human reason, and divine revelation not only does not benefit, but even injures the perfection of man. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June,1862. 7. Prophetiæ et miracula in 7. The prophecies and miracles

 Sacris Litteris exposita et narrata sunt poetarum commenta, et Christianæ fidei mysteria philosophicarum investigationum summa; et utriusque Testamenti libris mythica continentur inventa; ipseque Jesus Christus est mythica fictio. set forth and narrated in the Sacred Scriptures are the fictions of poets; and the mysteries of the Christian faith are the result of philosophical investigations. In the books of both Testaments there are contained mythical inventions, and Jesus Christ is himself a mythical fiction. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. II.--RATIONALISMUS MODERATUS. § II.--MODERATE RATIONALISM. 8. Quum ratio humana ipsi religioni æquiparetur, iccirco theologicæ disciplinæ perinde ac philosophicæ tractandæ sunt. 8. As human reason is placed on a level with religion, so theological matters must be treated in the same manner as philosophical ones. Alloc. Singulari quadam perfusi 9 decembris 1854. Allocution Singulari quadam perfusi, 9th December, 1854. 9. Omnia indiscriminatim dogmata religionis Christianæ sunt objectum naturalis scientiæ seu philosophiæ; et humana ratio historice tantum exculta potest ex suis naturalibus viribus et principiis ad veram de omnibus etiam reconditioribus dogmatibus scientiam pervenire, modo hæc dogmata ipsi rationi tamquam objectum proposita fuerint. 9. All the dogmas of the Christian religion are, without exception, the object of scientific knowledge or philosophy, and human reason, instructed solely by history, is able, by its own natural strength and principles, to arrive at the true knowledge of even the most abstruse dogmas: provided such dogmas be proposed as subject-matter for human reason. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, 11th December, 1862. Epist. ad eumdem Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. To the same, Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 10. Quum aliud sit philosophus, aliud philosophia, ille jus 10. As the philosopher is one thing, and philosophy is another, so

 et officium habet se submittendi auctoritati, quam veram ipse probaverit; at philosophia neque potest, neque debet ulli sese submittere auctoritati. it is the right and duty of the philosopher to submit to the authority which he shall have recognized as true; but philosophy neither can nor ought to submit to any authority. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, 11th December, 1862. Epist. ad eumdem Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. To the same, Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 11. Ecclesia non solum non debet in philosophiam unquam animadvertere, verum etiam debet ipsius philosophiæ tolerare errores, eique relinquere ut ipsa se corrigat. 11. The Church not only ought never to animadvert upon philosophy, but ought to tolerate the errors of philosophy, leaving to philosophy the care of their correction. Epist. ad Arcbiep. Frising. Gravissimas 11 decembris 1862. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Gravissimas, 11th December, 1862. 12. Apostolicæ Sedis, Romanarumque Congregationum decreta liberum scientiæ progressum impediunt. 12. The decrees of the Apostolic See and of the Roman Congregations fetter the free progress of science. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 13. Methodus et principia, quibus antiqui Doctores scholastici Theologiam excoluerunt, temporum nostrorum necessitatibus scientiarumque progressui minime congruunt. 13. The method and principles by which the old scholastic doctors cultivated theology are no longer suitable to the demands of the age and the progress of science. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 14. Philosophia tractanda est, nulla supernaturalis revelationis habita ratione. 14. Philosophy must be treated of without any account being taken of supernatural revelation. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. N. B.--Cum rationalismi systemate cohærent N. B.--To the rationalistic system belong,

 maximam partem errores Antonii Grünther, qui damnantur in Epist. ad Card. Archiep. Coloniensem Eximiam tuam 15 junii 1857, et in Epist. ad Episc. Wratislaviensem Dolore haud mediocri 30 aprilis 1860. in great part, the errors of Anthony Günther, condemned in the letter to the Cardinal Archbishop of Cologne, Eximiam tuam, June 15, 1857, and in that to the Bishop of Breslau, Dolore haud mediocri, April 30, 1860.



15. Liberum cuique homini est eam amplecti ac profiteri religionem, quam rationis lumine quis ductus veram putaverit. 15. Every man is free to embrace and profess the religion he shall believe true, guided by the light of reason. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June,1862. 16. Homines in cujusvis religionis cultu viam æternæ salutis reperire æternamque salutem assequi possunt. 16. Men may in any religion find the way of eternal salvation, and obtain eternal salvation. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Ubi primum 17 decembris 1847. Allocution Ubi primum, 17th December, 1847. Epist. encycl. Singulari quidem 17 martii 1856. Encyclical Letters, Singulari quidem, 17th March, 1856. 17. Saltem bene sperandum est de æterna illorum omnium salute, qui in vera Christi Ecclesia nequaquam versantur. 17. We may entertain at least a well-founded hope for the eternal salvation of all those who are in no manner in the true Church of Christ. Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 decembris 1854. Allocution Singulari quâdam, 9th December, 1854. Epist. encycl. Quanto conficiamur 17 augustii 1863. Encyclical Letters, Quanto conficiamur, 17th August, 1863. 18. Protestantismus non aliud est quam diversa veræ ejusdem Christianæ religionis forma, in qua æque ac in Ecclesia Catholica 18. Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which it is possible to be equally

 Deo placere datum est. pleasing to God as in the Catholic Church. Epist. encycl Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 decembris 1849. Encyclical Letters, Noscitis et Nobiscum, 8th December, 1849.



Ejusmodi pestes sæpe gravissimisque verborum formulis reprobantur in Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembr. 1846; in Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 april. 1849; in Epist. encycl. Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 dec. 1849; in Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 dec. 1854; in Epist. encycl. Quanto conficiamur mærore 10 augusti 1863. Pests of this description are frequently rebuked in the severest terms in the Encyc. Qui pluribus, Nov. 9, 1846; Alloc. Quibus quantisque, April 20, 1849; Encyc. Noscitis et Nobiscum, Dec. 8, 1849; Alloc. Singulari quâdam, Dec. 9, 1854; Encyc. Quanto conficiamur mærore, Aug. 10, 1863.



19. Ecclesia non est vera perfectaque societas plane libera, nec pollet suis propriis et constantibus juribus sibi a divino suo fundatore collatis, sed civilis potestatis est definire quæ sint Ecclesiæ jura ac limites, intra quos eadem jura exercere queat. 19. The Church is not a true, and perfect, and entirely free society, nor does she enjoy peculiar and perpetual rights conferred upon her by her Divine Founder, but it appertains to the civil power to define what are the rights and limits with which the Church may exercise authority. Alloc. Singulari quadam 9 decembris 1854. Allocution Singulari quadam, 9th December, 1854. Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 20. Ecclesiastica potestas suam 20. The ecclesiastical power must

 auctoritatem exercere non debet absque civilis gubernii venia et assensu. not exercise its authority without the permission and assent of the civil government. Alloc. Meminit unusquisque 30 septembris 1861. Allocution Meminit unusquisque, 30th September, 1861. 21. Ecclesia non habet potestatem dogmatice definiendi, religionem Catholicæ Ecelesiæ esse unice veram religionem. 21. The Church has not the power of defining dogmatically that the religion of the Catholic Church is the only true religion. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. 22. Obligatio, qua Catholici magistri et scriptores omnino adstringuntur, coarctatur in iis tantum, quæ ab infallibili Ecclesiæ judicio veluti fidei dogmata ab omnibus credenda proponuntur. 22. The obligation which binds Catholic teachers and authors applies only to those things which are proposed for universal belief as dogmas of the faith, by the infallible judgment of the Church. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 23. Romani Pontifices et Concilia oecumenica a limitibus suæ potestatis recesserunt, jura principum usurparunt, atque etiam in rebus fidei et morum definiendis errarunt. 23. The Roman Pontiffs and oecumenical Councils have exceeded the limits of their power, have usurped the rights of princes, and have even committed errors in defining matters of faith and morals. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. 24. Ecclesia vis inferendæ potestatem non habet, neque potestatem ullam temporalem directam vel indirectam. 24. The Church has not the power of availing herself of force, or any direct or indirect temporal power. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 25. Præter potestatem Episcopatui inhærentem, alia est attributa temporalis potestas a civili 25. In addition to the authority inherent in the Episcopate, a further and temporal power is granted

 imperio vel expresse vel tacite concessa, revocanda propterea, cum libuerit, a civili imperio. to it by the civil authority, either expressly or tacitly, which power is on that account also revocable by the civil authority whenever it pleases. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 26. Ecclesia non habet nativum ac legitimum jus acquirendi ac possidendi. 26. The Church has not the innate and legitimate right of acquisition and possession. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. Epist. encycl. Incredibili 17 septembris 1863. Encyclical Letters, Incredibili, 17th September, 1863. 27. Sacri Ecclesiæ ministri Romanusque Pontifex ab omni rerum temporalium cura ac dominio sunt omnino excludendi. 27. The ministers of the Church, and the Roman Pontiff, ought to be absolutely excluded from all charge and dominion over temporal affairs. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 28. Episcopis, sine gubernii venia, fas non est vel ipsas apostolicas litteras promulgare. 28. Bishops have not the right of promulgating even their apostolical letters, without the permission of the government. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. 29. Gratiæ a Romano Pontifice concessæ existimari debent tamquam irritæ, nisi per gubernium fuerint imploratæ. 29. Dispensations granted by the Roman Pontiff must be considered null, unless they have been asked for by the civil government. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. 30. Ecclesiæ et personarum ecclesiasticarum immunitas a jure civili ortum habuit. 30. The immunity of the Church and of ecclesiastical persons derives its origin from civil law. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. 31. Ecclesiasticum forum pro temporalibus clericorum causis sive civilibus sive criminalibus omnino de medio tollendum est, 31. Ecclesiastical courts for temporal causes, of the clergy, whether civil or criminal, ought by all means to be abolished, either without the

 etiam inconsulta et reclamante Apostolica Sede. concurrence and against the protest of the Holy See. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th September, 1852. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocation Nunquam fore, 15th December, 1856. 32. Absque ulla naturalis juris et æquitatis violatione potest abrogari personalis immunitas, qua clerici ab onere subeundæ exercendæque militiæ eximuntur; hanc vero abrogationem postulat civilis progressus maxime in societate ad formam liberioris regiminis constituta. 32. The personal immunity exonerating the clergy from military service may be abolished, without violation either of natural right or of equity. Its abolition is called for by civil progress, especially in a community constituted upon principles of liberal government. Epist. ad Epistc. Montisregal. Singularis Nobisque 29 septembris 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Montreal, Singularis nobisque, 29th September, 1864. 33. Non pertinet unice ad ecclesiasticam jurisdictionis potestatem proprio ac nativo jure dirigere theologicarum rerum doctrinam. 33. It does not appertain exclusively to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, by any right, proper and inherent, to direct the teaching of theological subjects. Epist. ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter 21 decembris 1863. Letter ad Archiep. Frising. Tuas libenter, 21st December, 1863. 34. Doctrina, comparantium Romanum Pontificem principi libero et agenti in universa Ecclesia doctrina est quæ media ævo prævaluit. 34. The teaching of those who compare the sovereign Pontiff to a free sovereign acting in the universal Church is a doctrine which prevailed in the middle ages. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 35. Nihil vetat, alicujus concilii generalis sententia aut universorum populorum facto, summum Pontificatum ab Romano Episcopo atque Urbe ad alium 35. There would be no obstacle to the sentence of a general council, or the act of all the universal peoples, transferring the pontifical sovereignty from the Bishop and

 Episcopum aliamque civitatem transferri. City of Rome to some other bishopric and some other city. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 36. Nationalis consilii definitio nullam aliam admittit disputationem, civilisque administratio rem ad hosce terminos exigere potest. 36. The definition of a national council does not admit of any subsequent discussion, and the civil power can regard as settled an affair decided by such national council. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 37. Institui possunt nationales Ecclesiæ ab auctoritate Romani Pontificis subductæ planeque divisæ. 37. National churches can be established, after being withdrawn and plainly separated from the authority of the Roman Pontiff. Alloc. Multis gravibusgue 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860. Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861. 38. Divisioni Ecclesiæ in orientalem atque occidentalem nimia Romanorum Pontificum arbitria contulerunt. 38. Roman Pontiffs have, by their too arbitrary conduct, contributed to the division of the Church into eastern and western. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851.



39. Reipublicæ status, utpote omnium jurium origo et fons, jure quodam pollet nullis circumscripto limitibus. 39. The commonwealth is the origin and source of all rights, and possesses rights which are not circumscribed by any limits. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 40. Catholicæ Ecclesia doctrina 40. The teaching of the Catholic

 humanæ societatis bono et commodis adversatur. Church is opposed to the well-being and interests of society. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocution Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849. 41. Civili potestati vel ab infideli imperante exercitæ competit potestas indirecta negativa in sacra; eidem proinde competit nedum jus quod vocant exequatur, sed etiam jus appellationis, quam nuncupant, ab abusu. 41. The civil power, even when exercised by an unbelieving sovereign, possesses an indirect and negative power over religious affairs. It therefore possesses not only the right called that of exequatur, but that of the (so-called) appellatio ab abusu. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August. 1851. 42. In conflictu legum utriusque potestatis jus civile prævalet. 42. In the case of conflicting laws between the two powers, the civil law ought to prevail. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 43. Laica potestas auctoritatem habet rescindendi, declarandi ac faciendi irritas solemnes conventiones (vulgo Concordata) super usu jurium ad ecclesiasticam immunitatem pertinentium cum Sede Apostolica initas, sine hujus consensu, immo et ea reclamante. 43. The civil power has a right to break, and to declare and render null, the conventions (commonly called Concordats) concluded with the Apostolic See, relative to the use of rights appertaining to the ecclesiastical immunity, without the consent of the Holy See, and even contrary to its protest. Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850. Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860. 44. Civilis auctoritas potest se immiscere rebus quæ ad religionem, mores et regimen spirituale 44. The civil authority may interfere in matters relating to religion, morality, and spiritual government.

 pertinent. Hinc potest de instructionibus judicare, quas Ecclesiæ pastores ad conscientiarum normam pro suo munere edunt, quin etiam potest de divinorum sacramentorum administratione et dispositionibus ad ea suscipienda necessariis decernere. Hence it has control over the instructions for the guidance of consciences issued, conformably with their mission, by the pastors of the Church. Further, it possesses power to decree, in the matter of administering the divine sacraments, as to the dispositions necessary for their reception. Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 45. Totum scholarum publicarum regimen, in quibus juventus Christianæ alicujus reipublicæ instituitur, episcopalibus dumtaxat seminariis aliqua ratione exceptis, potest ac debet attribui auctoritati civili, et ita quidem attribui, ut nullam alii cuicumque auctoritati recognoscatur jus immiscendi se in disciplina scholarum, in regimine studiorum, in graduum collatione, in dilectu aut approbatione magistrorum. 45. The entire direction of public schools, in which the youth of Christian states are educated, except (to a certain extent) in the case of episcopal seminaries, may and must appertain to the civil power, and belong to it so far that no other authority whatsoever shall be recognized as having any right to interfere in the discipline of the schools, the arrangement of the studies, the taking of degrees, or the choice and approval of the teachers. Alloc. In Consistoriali 1 novembris 1850. Allocution In Consistoriali, 1st Nov., 1850. Alloc. Quibus luctuosissimis 5 septembris 1851. Allocution Quibus luctuosissimis, 5th September, 1851. 46. Immo in ipsis clericorum seminariis methodus studiorum adhibenda civili auctoritati subjicitur. 46. Much more, even in clerical seminaries, the method of study to be adopted is subject to the civil authority. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nimquam fore, 15 Dec., 1856. 47. Postulat optima civilis societatis ratio, ut populares scholæ, quæ patent omnibus cujusque e populo classis pueris, ac publica 47. The best theory of civil society requires that popular schools open to the children of all classes, and, generally, all public institutes

 universim instituta, quæ litteris severioribusque disciplinis tradendis et educationi juventutis curandæ sunt destinata, eximantur ab omni Ecclesiæ auctoritate, moderatrice vi et ingerentia, plenoque civilis ac politicæ auctoritatis arbitrio subjiciantur ad imperantium placita et ad communium ætatis opinionum amussim. intended for instruction in letters and philosophy, and for conducting the education of the young, should be freed from all ecclesiastical authority, government, and interference, and should be fully subject to the civil and political power, in conformity with the will of rulers and the prevalent opinions of the age. Epist. ad Archiep. Friburg. Quum non sine 14 julii 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Fribourg, Quum non sine, 14th July, 1864. 48. Catholicis viris probari potest ea juventutis instituendæ ratio, quæ sit a Catholica fide et ab Ecclesiæ potestate sejuncta, quæque rerum dumtaxat naturalium scientiam ac terrenæ socialis vitæ fines tantummodo vel saltem primario spectet. 48. This system of instructing youth, which consists in separating it from the Catholic faith and from the power of the Church, and in teaching exclusively, or at least primarily, the knowledge of natural things and the earthly ends of social life alone, may be approved by Catholics. Epist. ad Archiep. Friburg. Quum non sine 14 julii 1864. Letter to the Archbishop of Fribourg, Quum non sine, 14th July, 1864. 49. Civilis auctoritas potest impedire quominus sacrorum antistites et fideles populi cum Romano Pontifice libere ac mutuo communicent. 49. The civil power has the right to prevent ministers of religion, and the faithful, from communicating freely and mutually with each other, and with the Roman Pontiff. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 50. Laica auctoritas habet per se jus præsentandi episcopos et potest ab illis exigere, ut ineant dioecesium procurationem, antequam ipsi canonicam at S. Sede institutionem 50. The secular authority possesses, as inherent in itself, the right of presenting bishops, and may require of them that they take possession of their dioceses before having received canonical institution

 et apostolicas litteras accipiant. and the apostolic letters from the Holy See. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. 51. Immo laicum gubernium habet jus deponendi ab exercitio pastoralis ministerii episcopos, neque tenetur obedire Romano Pontifici in iis quæ episcopatuum et episcoporum respiciunt institutionem. 51. And, further, the secular government has the right of deposing bishops from their pastoral functions, and it is not bound to obey the Roman Pontiff in those things which relate to episcopal sees and the institution of bishops. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852. 52. Gubernium potest suo jure immutare ætatem ab Ecclesia præscriptam pro religiosa tam mulierum quam virorum professione, omnibusque religiosis familiis indicere, ut neminem sine suo permissu ad solemnia vota nuncupanda admittant. 52. The government has of itself the right to alter the age prescribed by the Church for the religious profession, both of men and women; and it may enjoin upon all religious establishments to admit no person to take solemn vows without its permission. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocution Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. 53. Abrogandæ sunt leges quæ ad religiosarum familiarum statum tutandum, earumque jura et officia pertinent; immo potest civile gubernium iis omnibus auxilium præstare, qui a suscepto religiosæ vitæ instituto deficere ac solemnia vota frangere velint; pariterque potest religiosas easdem familias perinde ac collegiatas Ecclesias, et beneficia simplicia etiam juris patronatus penitus extinguere, illorumque bona et reditus 53. The laws for the protection of religious establishments, and securing their rights and duties, ought to be abolished: nay, more, the civil government may lend its assistance to all who desire to quit the religious life they have undertaken, and break their vows. The government may also suppress religious orders, collegiate churches, and simple benefices, even those belonging to private patronage, and submit their goods and revenues to the administration

 civilis potestatis administrationi et arbitrio subjicere et vindicare. and disposal of the civil power. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852. Alloc. Probe memineritis 22 januarii 1855. Allocution Probe memineritis, 22d Jan., 1855. Alloc. Cum sæpie 26 julii 1855. Allocution Cum sæpe, 26th July, 1855. 54. Reges et principes non solum ab Ecclesiæ jurisdictione eximuntur, verum etiam in quæstionibus jurisdiotionis dirimendis superiores sunt Ecclesia. 54. Kings and princes are not only exempt from the jurisdiction of the Church, but are superior to the Church, in litigated questions of jurisdiction. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. 55. Ecclesia a Statu, Statusque ab Ecclesia sejungendus est. 55. The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852.



  56. Morum leges divina haud egent sanctione, minimeque opus est ut humanæ leges ad naturæ jus confirmentur aut obligandi vim a Deo accipiant. 56. Moral laws do not stand in need of the divine sanction, and there is no necessity that human laws should be conformable to the law of nature, and receive their sanction from God. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 57. Philosophicarum rerum morumque scientia, itemque civiles leges possunt et debent a divina et ecclesiastica auctoritate declinare. 57. Knowledge of philosophical things and morals, and also civil laws, may and must depart from divine and ecclesiastical authority. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 58. Aliæ vires non sunt agnoscendæ nisi illæ quæ in materia positæ sunt, et omnis morum disciplina honestasque collocari 58. No other forces are to be recognized than those which reside in matter; and all moral teaching and moral excellence ought to be

 debet in cumulandis et augendis quovis modo divitiis ac in voluptatibus explendis. made to consist in the accumulation and increase of riches by every possible means, and in the enjoyment of pleasure. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. Epist. encycl. Quanta conficiamur 10 augusti 1863. Encyclical Letters, Quanto conficiamur, 10th August, 1863. 59. Jus in materiali facto consistit, et omnia hominum officia sunt nomen inane, et omnia humana facta juris vim habent. 59. Right consists in the material fact, and all human duties are but vain words, and all human acts have the force of right. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 60. Auctoritas nihil aliud est nisi numeri et materialium virium summa. 60. Authority is nothing else but the result of numerical superiority and material force. Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. Allocution Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862. 61. Fortunata facti injustitia nullum juris sanctitati detrimentum affert. 61. An unjust act, being successful, inflicts no injury upon the sanctity of right. Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861. 62. Proclamandum est et observandum principium quod vocant de non-interventu. 62. The principle of non-intervention, as it is called, ought to be proclaimed and adhered to. Alloc. Novos et ante 28 septembris 1860. Allocution Novos et ante, 28th Sept., 1860. 63. Legitimis principibus obedientiam detrectare, immo et rebellare licet. 63. It is allowable to refuse obedience to legitimate princes: nay, more, to rise in insurrection against them. Epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846. Encyclical Letters, Qui pluribus, 9th November, 1846. Alloc. Quisque vestrum 4 octobris 1847. Allocution Quisque vestrum, 4th Oct., 1847. Epist. encycl. Noscitis et Nobiscum 8 decembris 1849. Encyclical Letters, Noscitis et Nobiscum, 8th December, 1849. Litt. Apost. Cum catholica 26 martii 1860. Apostolic Letter, Cum catholica, 26th March, 1860. 64. Tum cujusque sanctissimi 64. The violation of a solemn

 juramenti violatio, tum quælibet scelesta flagitiosaque actio sempiternæ legi repugnans, non solum haud est improbanda, verum etiam omnino licita, summisque laudibus efferenda, quando id pro patriæ amore agatur. oath, even every wicked and flagitious action repugnant to the eternal law, is not only not blamable, but quite lawful, and worthy of the highest praise, when done for the love of country. Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocation Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849.



65. Nulla ratione ferri potest, Christum evexisse matrimonium ad dignitatem sacramenti. 65. It can not be by any means tolerated, to maintain that Christ has raised marriage to the dignity of a sacrament. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 66. Matrimonii sacramentum non est nisi quid contractui accessorium ab eoque separabile, ipsumque sacramentum in una tantum nuptiali benedictione situm est. 66. The sacrament of marriage is only an adjunct of the contract, and separable from it, and the sacrament itself consists in the nuptial benediction alone. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 67. Jure naturæ matrimonii vinculum non est indissolubile et in variis casibus divortium proprie dictum auctoritate civili sanciri potest. 67. By the law of nature, the marriage tie is not indissoluble, and in many cases divorce, properly so called, may be pronounced by the civil authority. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept. 1852. 68. Ecclesia non habet potestatem impedimenta matrimonium dirimentia inducendi, sed ea potestas civili auctoritati competit, 68. The Church has not the power of laying down what are diriment impediments to marriage. The civil authority does possess such a

 a qua impedimenta existentia tollenda sunt. power, and can do away with existing impediments to marriage. Litt. Apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851. Apostolic Letter, Multiplices inter, 10th June, 1851. 69. Ecclesia sequioribus sæcutis dirimentia impedimenta inducere coepit, non jure proprio, sed illo jure usa, quod a civili potestate mutuata erat. 69. The Church only commenced in later ages to bring in diriment impediments, and then availing herself of a right not her own, but borrowed from the civil power. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 70. Tridentini canones, qui anathematis censuram illis inferunt, qui facultatem impedimenta dirimentia inducendi Ecclesiæ negare audeant, vel non sunt dogmatici vel de hac mutuata potestate intelligendi sunt. 70. The canons of the Council of Trent, which pronounce censure of anathema against those who deny to the Church the right of laying down what are diriment impediments, either are not dogmatic, or must be understood as referring only to such borrowed power. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 71. Tridentini forma sub infirmitatis poena non obligat, ubi lex civilis aliam formam præstituat, et velit hac nova forma interveniente matrimonium valere. 71. The form of solemnizing marriage prescribed by the said Council, under penalty of nullity, does not bind in cases where the civil law has appointed another form, and where it decrees that this new form shall effectuate a valid marriage. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. 72. Bonifacius VIII. votum castitatis in ordinatione emissum nuptias nullas reddere primus asseruit. 72. Boniface VIII. is the first who declared that the vow of chastity pronounced at ordination annuls nuptials. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ 22d August, 1851.

 73. Vi contractus mere civilis potest inter Christianos constare veri nominis matrimonium; falsumque est, aut contractum matrimonii inter Christianos semper esse sacramentum, aut nullum esse contractum, si sacramentum excludatur. 73. A merely civil contract may, among Christians, constitute a true marriage; and it is false, either that the marriage contract between Christians is always a sacrament, or that the contract is null if the sacrament be excluded. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. Lettera di S. S. PIO IX. al Re di Sardegna 9 settembre 1852. Letter to the King of Sardinia, 9th September, 1852. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852. Alloc. Multis gravibusque 17 decembris 1860. Allocution Multis gravibusque, 17th December, 1860. 74. Caussæ matrimoniales et sponsalia suapte natura ad forum civile pertinent. 74. Matrimonial causes and espousals belong by their very nature to civil jurisdiction. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852. N. B.--Huc facere possunt duo alii errores de clericorum cælibatu abolendo et de statu matrimonii statui virginitatis anteferendo. (Confodiuntur, prior in epist. encycl. Qui pluribus 9 novembris 1846, posterior in litteris apost. Multiplices inter 10 junii 1851.) N. B.--Two other errors may tend in this direction, those upon the abolition of the celibacy of priests, and the preference due to the state of marriage over that of virginity. These have been proscribed; the first in the Encyclical Qui pluribus, Nov. 9, 1846; the second in the Apostolic Letter Multiplices inter, June 10th, 1851.



75. De temporalis regni cum spirituali compatibilitate disputant inter se Christianæ et Catholicæ Ecclesiæ filii. 75. The children of the Christian and Catholic Church are not agreed upon the compatibility of the temporal with the spiritual power. Litt. Apost. Ad apostolicæ 22 augusti 1851. Apostolic Letter, Ad apostolicæ, 22d August, 1851.

 76. Abrogatio civilis imperii, quo Apostolica Sedes potitur, ad Ecclesiæ libertatem felicitatemque vel maxime conduceret. 76. The abolition of the temporal power, of which the Apostolic See is possessed, would contribute in the greatest degree to the liberty and prosperity of the Church. Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849. Allocution Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849. N. B.--Præter hos errores explicite notatos, alii complures implicite reprobantur, proposita et asserta doctrina, quam Catholici omnes firmissime retinere debeant, de civili Romani Pontificis principatu. (Ejusmodi doctrina luculenter traditur in Alloc. Quibus quantisque 20 aprilis 1849; in Alloc. Si semper antea 20 maii 1850; in Litt. apost. Quum Catholica Ecclesia 26 martii 1860; in Alloc. Novos 28 sept. 1860; in Alloc. Jamdudum 18 martii 1861; in Alloc. Maxima quidem 9 junii 1862. N. B.--Besides these errors, explicitly noted, many others are impliedlv rebuked by the proposed and asserted doctrine, which all Catholics are bound most firmly to hold, touching the temporal sovereignty of the Roman Pontiff. These doctrines are clearly stated in the Allocutions Quibus quantisque, 20th April, 1849, and Si semper antea, 20th May, 1850; Apost. Letter Quum Catholica Ecclesia, 26th March, 1860; Allocutions Novos, 28th Sept., 1860; Jamdudum, 18th March, 1861; and Maxima quidem, 9th June, 1862.



77. Ætate hac nostra non amplius expedit, religionem Catholicam haberi tamquam unicam Status religionem, ceteris quibuscumque cultibus exclusis. 78. In the present day, it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion shall be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other modes of worship. Alloc. Nemo vestrum 26 julii 1855. Allocution Nemo vestrum, 26th July, 1855. 78. Hinc laudabiliter in quibusdam Catholici nominis regionibus lege cautum est, ut hominibus illuc immigrantibus liceat publicum proprii cujusque cultus exercitium habere. 78. Whence it has been wisely provided by law, in some countries called Catholic, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own worship. Alloc. Acerbissimum 27 septembris 1852. Allocution Acerbissimum, 27th Sept., 1852. 79. Enimvero falsum est, civilem cujusque cultus libertatem, 79. Moreover, it is false that the civil liberty of every mode of worship,

 itemque plenam potestatem omnibus attributam quaslibet opiniones cogitationesque palam publiceque manifestandi conducere ad populorum mores animosque facilius corrumpendos ac indifferentismi pestem propogandam. and the full power given to all of overtly and publicly manifesting their opinions and their ideas, of all kinds whatsoever, conduce more easily to corrupt the morals and minds of the people, and to the propagation of the pest of indifferentism. Alloc. Nunquam fore 15 decembris 1856. Allocation Nunquam fore, 15th Dec., 1856. 80. Romanus Pontifex potest ac debet cum progressu, cum liberalismo et cum recenti civilitate sese reconciliare et componere. 80. The Roman Pontiff can and ought to reconcile himself to, and agree with, progress, liberalism, and civilization as lately introduced. Alloc. Jamdudum cernimus 18 martii 1861. Allocution Jamdudum cernimus, 18th March, 1861.   





 [The Latin text from Acta et Decreta sacrosancti et oecumenici Concilii Vaticani, etc., cum permissione superiorum, Friburgi Brisgoviæ, 1871, Fasc. II. pp. 170-179, and 181-187. The English translation from Archbishop Manning: Petri Privilegium, London, 1871, Part III. pp. 192-203, and 211-219. On the Vatican Council, see Vol. I. §§ 31-34, pp. 134 sqq.]

 Constitutio Dogmatica de Fide Catholica Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith. Sessio III. Habita die 24 Aprilis 1870. Published in the Third Session held April 24, 1870. PIUS EPISCOPUS, SERVUS SERVORUM DEI, SACRO APPROBANTE CONCILIO, AD PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM. PIUS, BISHOP, SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD, WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE SACRED COUNCIL, FOR PERPETUAL REMEMBRANCE. Dei Filius et generis humani Redemptor, Dominus Noster Jesus Christus, ad Patrem coelestem rediturus, cum Ecclesia sua in terris militante omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem sæculi futurum se esse promisit. Quare dilectæ sponsæ præsto esse, adsistere docenti, operanti benedicere, periclitanti opem ferre nullo unquam tempore destitit. Hæc vero salutaris ejus providentia, cum ex aliis beneficiis innumeris continenter apparuit, tum iis manifestissime comperta est fructibus, qui orbi Christiano e Conciliis oecumenicis, ac nominatim Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and Redeemer of Mankind, before returning to his heavenly Father, promised that he would be with the Church Militant on earth all days, even to the consummation of the world. Therefore, he has never ceased to be present with his beloved Spouse, to assist her when teaching, to bless her when at work, and to aid her when in danger. And this his salutary providence, which has been constantly displayed by other innumerable benefits, has been most manifestly proved by the abundant good results which Christendom has derived from oecumenical Councils,

 e Tridentino, iniquis licet temporibus celebrato, amplissimi provenerunt. Hinc enim sanctissima religionis dogmata pressius definita uberiusque exposita, errores damnati atque cohibiti; hinc ecclesiastica disciplina restituta firmiusque sancita, promotum in clero scientiæ et pietatis studium, parata adolescentibus ad sacram militiam educandis collegia, Christiani denique populi mores et accuratiore fidelium eruditione et frequentiore sacramentorum usu instaurati. Hinc præterea arctior membrorum cum visibili Capite communio, universoque corpori Christi mystico additus vigor; hinc religiosæ multiplicatæ familiæ aliaque Christianæ pietatis instituta; hinc ille etiam assiduus et usque ad sanguinis effusionem constans ardor in Christi regno late per orbem propagando. and particularly from that of Trent, although it was held in evil times. For, as a consequence, the sacred doctrines of the faith have been defined more closely, and set forth more fully, errors have been condemned and restrained, ecclesiastical discipline has been restored and more firmly secured, the love of learning and of piety has been promoted among the clergy, colleges have been established to educate youth for the sacred warfare, and the morals of the Christian world have been renewed by the more accurate training of the faithful, and by the more frequent use of the sacraments. Moreover, there has resulted a closer communion of the members with the visible head, an increase of vigor in the whole mystical body of Christ, the multiplication of religious congregations, and of other institutions of Christian piety, and such ardor in extending the kingdom of Christ throughout the world as constantly endures, even to the sacrifice of life itself. Verumtamen hæc aliaque insignia emolumenta, quæ per ultimam maxime oecumenicam Synodum divina clementia Ecclesiæ largita est, dum grato, quo par est, animo recolimus, acerbum compescere haud possumus dolorem ob mala gravissima, inde But while we recall with due thankfulness these and other signal benefits which the divine mercy has bestowed on the Church, especially by the last oecumenical Council, we can not restrain our bitter sorrow for the grave evils, which are principally

 potissimum orta, quod ejusdem sacrosanctæ Synodi apud permultos vel auctoritas contempta, vel sapientissima neglecta fuere decreta. due to the fact that the authority of that sacred Synod has been contemned, or its wise decrees neglected, by many. Nemo enim ignorat, hæreses, quas Tridentini Patres proscripserunt, dum, rejecto divino Ecclesiæ magisterio, res ad religionem spectantes privati cujusvis judicio permitterentur, in sectas paullatim dissolutas esse multiplices, quibus inter se dissentientibus et concertantibus, omnis tandem in Christum fides apud non paucos labefactata est. Itaque ipsa Sacra Biblia, quæ antea Christianæ doctrinæ unicus fons et judex asserebantur, jam non pro divinis haberi, imo mythicis commentis accenseri coeperunt. No one is ignorant that the heresies proscribed by the Fathers of Trent, by which the divine magisterium of the Church was rejected, and all matters regarding religion were surrendered to the judgment of each individual, gradually became dissolved into many sects, which disagreed and contended with one another, until at length not a few lost all faith in Christ. Even the Holy Scriptures, which had previously been declared the sole source and judge of Christian doctrine, began to be held no longer as divine, but to be ranked among the fictions of mythology. Tum nata est et late nimis per orbem vagata illa rationalismi seu naturalismi doctrina, quæ religioni Christianæ utpote supernaturali instituto per omnia adversans, summo studio molitur, ut Christo, qui solus Dominus et Salvator noster est, a mentibus humanis, a vita et moribus populorum excluso, meræ quod vocant rationis vel naturæ regnum stabiliatur. Relicta autem projectaque Christiana religione, negato vero Deo Then there arose, and too widely overspread the world, that doctrine of rationalism, or naturalism, which opposes itself in every way to the Christian religion as a supernatural institution, and works with the utmost zeal in order that, after Christ, our sole Lord and Saviour, has been excluded from the minds of men, and from the life and moral acts of nations, the reign of what they call pure reason or nature may be established. And after forsaking and rejecting the Christian religion, and

 et Christo ejus, prolapsa tandem est multorum mens in Pantheismi, Materialismi, Atheismi barathrum, ut jam ipsam rationalem naturam, omnemque justi rectique normam negantes, ima humanæ societatis fundamenta diruere connitantur. denying the true God and his Christ, the minds of many have sunk into the abyss of Pantheism, Materialism, and Atheism, until, denying rational nature itself, and every sound rule of right, they labor to destroy the deepest foundations of human society. Hac porro impietate circumquaque grassante, infeliciter contigit, ut plures etiam e Catholicæ Ecclesiæ filiis a via veræ pietatis aberrarent, in iisque, diminutis paullatim veritatibus, sensus Catholicus attenuaretur. Variis enim ac peregrinis doctrinis abducti, naturam et gratiam, scientiam humanam et fidem divinam perperam commiscentes, genuinum sensum dogmatum, quem tenet ac docet sancta mater Ecclesia, depravare, integritatemque et sinceritatem fidei in periculum adducere comperiuntur. Unhappily, it has yet further come to pass that, while this impiety prevailed on every side, many even of the children of the Catholic Church have strayed from the path of true piety, and by the gradual diminution of the truths they held, the Catholic sense became weakened in them. For, led away by various and strange doctrines, utterly confusing nature and grace, human science and divine faith, they are found to deprave the true sense of the doctrines which our holy Mother Church holds and teaches, and endanger the integrity and the soundness of the faith. Quibus omnibus perspectis, fieri qui potest, ut non commoveantur intima Ecclesiæ viscera? Quemadmodum enim Deus vult omnes homines salvos fieri, et ad agnitionem veritatis venire; quemadmodum Christus venit, ut salvum faceret, quod perierat, et filios Dei, qui erant dispersi, congregaret in unum: ita Ecclesia, a Deo populorum Considering these things, how can the Church fail to be deeply stirred? For, even as God wills all men to be saved, and to arrive at the knowledge of the truth, even as Christ came to save what had perished, and to gather together the children of God who had been dispersed, so the Church, constituted by God the mother and teacher of nations, knows its own office as debtor to all,

 mater et magistra constituta, omnibus debitricem se novit, ac lapsos erigere, labantes sustinere, revertentes amplecti, confirmare bonos et ad meliora provehere parata semper et intenta est. Quapropter nullo tempore a Dei veritate, quæ sanat omnia, testanda et prædicanda quiescere potest, sibi dictum esse non ignorans: Spiritus meus, qui est in te, et verba mea, quæ posui in ore tuo, non recedent de ore tuo amodo et usque in sempiternum. and is ever ready and watchful to raise the fallen, to support those who are falling, to embrace those who return, to confirm the good and to carry them on to better things. Hence, it can never forbear from witnessing to and proclaiming the truth of God, which heals all things, knowing the words addressed to it: 'My Spirit that is in thee, and my words that I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, from henceforth and forever.' [268] Nos itaque, inhærentes prædecessorum nostrorum vestigiis, pro supremo nostro Apostolico munere veritatem Catholicam docere ac tueri perversasque doctrinas reprobare nunquam intermissimus. Nunc autem, sedentibus nobiscum et judicantibus universi orbis Episcopis, in hanc oecumenicam Synodum auctoritate nostra in Spiritu Sancto congregatis, innixi Dei verbo scripto et tradito, prout ab Ecclesia Catholica sancte custoditum et genuine expositum accepimus, ex hoc Petri Cathedra, in conspectu omnium, salutarem Christi doctrinam profiteri et declarare constituimus, adversis erroribus potestate nobis a Deo tradita proscriptis atque damnatis. We, therefore, following the footsteps of our predecessors, have never ceased, as becomes our supreme Apostolic office, from teaching and defending Catholic truth, and condemning doctrines of error. And now, with the Bishops of the whole world assembled round us, and judging with us, congregated by our authority, and in the Holy Spirit, in this oecumenical Council, we, supported by the Word of God written and handed down as we received it from the Catholic Church, preserved with sacredness and set forth according to truth, have determined to profess and declare the salutary teaching of Christ from this Chair of Peter, and in sight of all, proscribing and condemning, by the power given to us of God, all errors contrary thereto.

 Caput I. Chapter I. De Deo rerum omnium Creatore. Of God, the Creator of all Things. Sancta Catholica Apostolica Romana Ecclesia credit et confitetur, unum esse Deum verum et vivum, Creatorem ac Dominum coeli et terræ, omnipotentem, æternum, immensum, incomprehensibilem, intellectu, ac voluntate omnique perfectione infinitum; qui cum sit una singularis, simplex omnino et incommutabilis substantia spiritualis, prædicandus est re et essentia a mundo distinctus, in se et ex se beatissimus, et super omnia, quæ præter ipsum sunt et concipi possunt, ineffabiliter excelsus. The holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church believes and confesses that there is one true and living God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, almighty, eternal, immense, incomprehensible, infinite in intelligence, in will, and in all perfection, who, as being one, sole, absolutely simple and immutable spiritual substance, is to be declared as really and essentially distinct from the world, of supreme beatitude in and from himself, and ineffably exalted above all things which exist, or are conceivable, except himself. Hic solus verus Deus bonitate sua et omnipotenti virtute non ad augendam suam beatitudinem, nec ad acquirendam, sed ad manifestandam perfectionem suam per bona, quæ creaturis impertitur, liberrimo consilio simul ab initio temporis utramque de nihilo condidit creaturam, spiritualem et corporalem, angelicam videlicet et mundanam, ac deinde humanam quasi communem ex spiritu et corpore constitutam. This one only true God, of his own goodness and almighty power, not for the increase or acquirement of his own happiness, but to manifest his perfection by the blessings which he bestows on creatures, and with absolute freedom of counsel, created out of nothing, from the very first beginning of time, both the spiritual and the corporeal creature, to wit, the angelical and the mundane, and afterwards the human creature, as partaking, in a sense, of both, consisting of spirit and of body. Universa vero, quæ condidit, Deus providentia sua tuetur atque gubernat, attingens a fine God protects and governs by his providence all things which he hath made, 'reaching from end to end

 usque ad finem fortiter, et disponens omnia suaviter. Omnia enim nuda et aperta sunt oculis ejus, ea etiam, qua libera creaturarum actione futura sunt. mightily, and ordering all things sweetly.' [269] For 'all things are bare and open to his eyes,' [270] even those which are yet to be by the free action of creatures. Caput II. Chapter II. De Revelatione. Of Revelation. Eadem sancta mater Ecclesia tenet et docet, Deum, rerum omnium principium et finem, naturali humanæ rationis lumine e rebus creatis certo cognosci posse; invisibilia enim ipsius, a creatura mundi, per ea quæ facta sunt, intellecta, conspiciuntur: attamen placuisse ejus sapientiæ et bonitati, alia, eaque supernaturali via se ipsum ac æterna voluntatis suæ decreta humano generi revelare, dicente Apostolo: Multifariam, multisque modis olim Deus loquens patribus in Prophetis: novissime, diebus istis locutus est nobis in Filio. The same holy Mother Church holds and teaches that God, the beginning and end of all things, may be certainly known by the natural light of human reason, by means of created things; 'for the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made,' [271] but that it pleased his wisdom and bounty to reveal himself, and the eternal decrees of his will, to mankind by another and a supernatural way: as the Apostle says, 'God, having spoken on divers occasions, and many ways, in times past, to the Fathers by the Prophets; last of all, in these days, hath spoken to us by his Son.' [272] Huic divinæ revelationi tribuendum quidem est, ut ea, quæ in rebus divinis humanæ rationi per se impervia non sunt, in præsenti quoque generis humani conditione ab omnibus expedite, firma certitudine et nullo admixto errore cognosci possint. It is to be ascribed to this divine revelation, that such truths among things divine as of themselves are not beyond human reason, can, even in the present condition of mankind, be known by every one with facility, with firm assurance, and with no admixture of error.

 Non hac tamen de causa revelatio absolute necessaria dicenda est, sed quia Deus ex infinita bonitate sua ordinavit hominem ad finem supernaturalem, ad participanda scilicet bona divina, quæ humanæ mentis intelligentiam omnino superant; siquidem oculus non vidit, nec auris audivit, nec in cor hominis ascendit, quæ præparavit Deus iis, qui diligunt illum. This, however, is not the reason why revelation is to be called absolutely necessary; but because God of his infinite goodness has ordained man to a supernatural end, viz., to be a sharer of divine blessings, which utterly exceed the intelligence of the human mind; for 'eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love him.' [273] Hæc porro supernaturalis revelatio, secundum universalis Ecclesiæ fidem, a sancta Tridentina Synodo declaratam, continetur in libris scriptis et sine scripto traditionibus, quæ ipsius Christi ore ab Apostolis acceptæ, aut ab ipsis Apostolis Spiritu Sancto dictante quasi per manus traditæ, ad nos usque pervenerunt. Qui quidem veteris et Novi Testamenti libri integri cum omnibus suis partibus, prout in ejusdem Concilii decreto recensentur, et in veteri vulgata latina editione habentur, pro sacris et canonicis suscipiendi sunt. Eos vero Ecclesia pro sacris et canonicis habet, non ideo, quod sola humana industria concinnati, sua deinde Further, this supernatural revelation, according to the universal belief of the Church, declared by the sacred Synod of Trent, is contained in the written books and unwritten traditions which have come down to us, having been received by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ himself; or from the Apostles themselves, by the dictation of the Holy Spirit, have been transmitted, as it were, from hand to hand. [274] And these books of the Old and New Testament are to be received as sacred and canonical, in their integrity, with all their parts, as they are enumerated in the decree of the said Council, and are contained in the ancient Latin edition of the Vulgate. These the Church holds to be sacred and

 auctoritate sint approbati; nec ideo dumtaxat, quod revelationem sine errore contineant, sed propterea, quod Spiritu Sancto inspirante conscripti Deum habent auctorem, atque ut tales ipsi Ecclesiæ traditi sunt. canonical, not because, having been carefully composed by mere human industry, they were afterwards approved by her authority, nor merely because they contain revelation, with no admixture of error; but because, having been written by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, they have God for their author, and have been delivered as such to the Church herself. Quoniam vero, quæ sancta Tridentina Synodus de interpretatione divinæ Scripturæ ad coërcenda petulantia ingenia salubriter decrevit, a quibusdam hominibus prave exponuntur, nos, idem decretum renovantes, hanc illius mentem esse declaramus, ut in rebus fidei et morum, ad ædificationem doctrinæ Christianæ pertinentium, is pro vero sensu sacræ Scripturæ habendus sit, quem tenuit ac tenet sancta mater Ecclesia, cujus est judicare de vero sensu et interpretatione Scripturarum sanctarum; atque ideo nemini licere contra hunc sensum aut etiam contra unanimem consensum Patrum ipsam Scripturam sacram interpretari. And as the things which the holy Synod of Trent decreed for the good of souls concerning the interpretation of Divine Scripture, in order to curb rebellious spirits, have been wrongly explained by some, we, renewing the said decree, declare this to be their sense, that, in matters of faith and morals, appertaining to the building up of Christian doctrine, that is to be held as the true sense of Holy Scripture which our holy Mother Church hath held and holds, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Holy Scripture; and therefore that it is permitted to no one to interpret the Sacred Scripture contrary to this sense, nor, likewise, contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers. Caput III. Chapter III. De Fide. On Faith. Quum homo a Deo tamquam Creatore et Domino suo totus Man being wholly dependent upon God, as upon his Creator and

 dependeat, et ratio creata increatæ veritati penitus subjecta sit, plenum revelanti Deo intellectus et voluntatis obsequium fide præstare tenemur. Hanc vero fidem, quæ humanæ salutis initium est, Ecclesia Catholica profitetur, virtutem esse supernaturalem, qua, Dei aspirante et adjuvante gratia, ab eo revelata vera esse credimus, non propter intrinsecam rerum veritatem naturali rationis lumine perspectam, sed propter auctoritatem ipsius Dei revelantis, qui nec falli nec fallere potest. Est enim fides, testante Apostolo, sperandarum substantia rerum, argumentum non apparentium. Lord, and created reason being absolutely subject to uncreated truth, we are bound to yield to God, by faith in his revelation, the full obedience of our intelligence and will. And the Catholic Church teaches that this faith, which is the beginning of man's salvation, is a supernatural virtue, whereby, inspired and assisted by the grace of God, we believe that the things which he has revealed are true; not because of the intrinsic truth of the things, viewed by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God himself, who reveals them, and who can neither be deceived nor deceive. For faith, as the Apostle testifies, is 'the substance of things hoped for, the conviction of things that appear not.' [275] Ut nihilominus fidei nostræ obsequium rationi consentaneum esset, voluit Deus cum internis Spiritus Sancti auxiliis externa jungi revelationis suæ argumenta, facta scilicet divina, atque imprimis miracula et prophetias, quæ cum Dei omnipotentiam et infinitam scientiam luculenter commonstrent, divinæ revelationis signa sunt certissima et omnium intelligentiæ accommodata. Quare tum Moyses et Prophetæ, tum ipse maxime Nevertheless, in order that the obedience of our faith might be in harmony with reason, God willed that to the interior help of the Holy Spirit there should be joined exterior proofs of his revelation; to wit, divine facts, and especially miracles and prophecies, which, as they manifestly display the omnipotence and infinite knowledge of God, are most certain proofs of his divine revelation, adapted to the intelligence of all men. Wherefore, both Moses and the Prophets,

 Christus Dominus multa et manifestissima miracula et prophetias ediderunt; et de Apostolis legimus: Illi autem profecti prædicaverunt ubique, Domino cooperante et sermonem confirmante sequentibus signis. Et rursum scriptum est: Habemus firmiorem propheticum sermonem, cui bene facitis attendentes quasi lucernæ 1ucenti in caliginoso loco. most especially, Christ our Lord himself, showed forth many and most evident miracles and prophecies; and of the Apostles we read: 'But they going forth preached every where, the Lord working withal, and confirming the word with signs that followed.' [276] And again, it is written: 'We have the more firm prophetical word, whereunto you do well to attend, as to a light shining in a dark place.' [277] Licet autem fidei assensus nequaquam sit motus animi cæcus nemo tamen evangelicæ prædicationi consentire potest, sicut oportet ad salutem consequendam, absque illuminatione et inspiratione Spiritus Sancti, qui dat omnibus suavitatem in consentiendo et credendo veritati. Quare fides ipsa in se, etiamsi per caritatem non operetur, donum Dei est, et actus ejus est opus ad salutem pertinens, quo homo liberam præstat ipsi Deo obedientiam, gratiæ ejus, cui resistere posset, consentiendo et cooperando. But though the assent of faith is by no means a blind action of the mind, still no man can assent to the Gospel teaching, as is necessary to obtain salvation, without the illumination and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, who gives to all men sweetness in assenting to and believing in the truth. [278] Wherefore, faith itself, even when it does not work by charity, is in itself a gift of God, and the act of faith is a work appertaining to salvation, by which man yields voluntary obedience to God himself, by assenting to and co-operating with his grace, which he is able to resist. Porro fide divina et Catholica ea omnia credenda sunt, quæ in verbo Dei scripto vel tradito continentur, et ab Ecclesia Further, all those things are to be believed with divine and Catholic faith which are contained in the Word of God, written or handed

 sive solemni judicio sive ordinario et universali magisterio tamquam divinitus revelata credenda proponuntur. down, and which the Church, either by a solemn judgment, or by her ordinary and universal magisterium, proposes for belief as having been divinely revealed. Quoniam vero sine fide impossibile est placere Deo, et ad filiorum ejus consortium pervenire; ideo nemini unquam sine illa contigit justificatio, nec ullus, nisi in ea perseveraverit usque in finem, vitam æternam assequetur. Ut autem officio veram fidem amplectendi, in eaque constanter perseverandi satisfacere possemus, Deus per Filium suum unigenitum Ecclesiam instituit, suæque institutionis manifestis notis instruxit, ut ea tamquam custos et magistra verbi revelati ab omnibus posset agnosci. Ad solam enim Catholicam Ecclesiam ea pertinent omnia, quæ ad evidentem fidei Christianæ credibilitatem tam multa et tam mira divinitus sunt disposita. Quin etiam Ecclesia per se ipsa, ob suam nempe admirabilem propagationem, eximiam sanctitatem et inexhaustam in omnibus bonis fæcunditatem, ob Catholicam unitatem, invictamque stabilitatem, magnum quoddam et perpetuum est motivum credibilitatis et divinæ suæ legationis testimonium irrefragabile. And since, without faith, it is impossible to please God, and to attain to the fellowship of his children, therefore without faith no one has ever attained justification, nor will any one obtain eternal life unless he shall have persevered in faith unto the end. And, that we may be able to satisfy the obligation of embracing the true faith, and of constantly persevering in it, God has instituted the Church through his only-begotten Son, and has bestowed on it manifest notes of that institution, that it may be recognized by all men as the guardian and teacher of the revealed Word; for to the Catholic Church alone belong all those many and admirable tokens which have been divinely established for the evident credibility of the Christian faith. Nay, more, the Church by itself, with its marvelous extension, its eminent holiness, and its inexhaustible fruitfulness in every good thing, with its Catholic unity and its invincible stability, is a great and perpetual motive of credibility, and an irrefutable witness of its own divine mission.

 Quo fit, ut ipsa veluti signum levatum in nationes, et ad se invitet, qui nondum crediderunt, et filios suos certiores faciat, firmissimo niti fundamento fidem, quam profitentur. Cui quidem testimonio efficax subsidium accedit ex superna virtute. Etenim benignissimus Dominus et errantes gratia sua excitat atque adjuvat, ut ad agnitionem veritatis venire possint, et eos, quos de tenebris transtulit in admirabile lumen suum, in hoc eodem lumine ut perseverent, gratia sua confirmat, non deserens, nisi deseratur. Quocirca minime par est conditio eorum, qui per coeleste fidei donum Catholicæ veritati adhæserunt, atque eorum, qui ducti opinionibus humanis, falsam religionem sectantur; illi enim, qui fidem sub Ecclesiæ magisterio susceperunt, nullam unquam habere possunt justam causam mutandi, aut in dubium fidem eamdem revocandi. Quæ cum ita sint, gratias agentes Deo Patri, qui dignos nos fecit in partem sortis sanctorum in lumine, tantam ne negligamus salutem, sed aspicientes in auctorem fidei et consummatorem Jesum, teneamus spei nostræ confessionem indeclinabilem. And thus, like a standard set up unto the nations, [279] it both invites to itself those who do not yet believe, and assures its children that the faith which they profess rests on the most firm foundation. And its testimony is efficaciously supported by a power from on high. For our most merciful Lord gives his grace to stir up and to aid those who are astray, that they may come to a knowledge of the truth; and to those whom he has brought out of darkness into his own admirable light he gives his grace to strengthen them to persevere in that light, deserting none who desert not him. Therefore there is no parity between the condition of those who have adhered to the Catholic truth by the heavenly gift of faith, and of those who, led by human opinions, follow a false religion; for those who have received the faith under the magisterium of the Church can never have any just cause for changing or doubting that faith. Therefore, giving thanks to God the Father who has made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the Saints in light, let us not neglect so great salvation, but with our eyes fixed on Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering. [280]

 Caput IV. Chapter IV. De Fide et Ratione. On Faith and Reason. Hoc quoque perpetuus Ecclesiæ Catholicæ consensus tenuit et tenet, duplicem esse ordinem cognitionis, non solum principio, sed objecto etiam distinctum: principio quidem, quia in altero naturali ratione, in altero fide divina cognoscimus; objecto autem, quia præter ea, ad quæ naturalis ratio pertingere potest, credenda nobis proponuntur mysteria in Deo abscondita, quæ, nisi revelata divinitus, innotescere non possunt. Quocirca Apostolus, qui a gentibus Deum per ea, quæ facta sunt, cognitum esse testatur, disserens tamen de gratia et veritate, quæ per Jesum Christum facta est, pronunciat: Loquimur Dei sapientiam in mysterio, quæ abscondita est, quam prædestinavit Deus ante sæcula in gloriam nostram, quam nemo principum hujus sæculi cognovit: nobis autem revelavit Deus per Spiritum suum: Spiritus enim omnia scrutatur, etiam profunda Dei. Et ipse Unigenitus confitetur Patri, quia abscondit hæc a sapientibus et prudentibus, et revelavit ea parvulis. The Catholic Church, with one consent, has also ever held and does hold that there is a twofold order of knowledge distinct both in principle and also in object; in principle, because our knowledge in the one is by natural reason, and in the other by divine faith; in object, because, besides those things to which natural reason can attain, there are proposed to our belief mysteries hidden in God, which, unless divinely revealed, can not be known. Wherefore, the Apostle, who testifies that God is known by the Gentiles through created things, still, when discoursing of the grace and truth which come by Jesus Christ, [281] says: 'We speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, a wisdom which is hidden, which God ordained before the world unto our glory; which none of the princes of this world knew ... but to us God hath revealed them by his Spirit. For the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.' [282] And the only-begotten Son himself gives thanks to the Father, because he has hid these things from the wise and prudent, and has revealed them to little ones. [283] Ac ratio quidem, fide illustrata, Reason, indeed, enlightened by

 cum sedulo, pie et sobrie quærit, aliquam, Deo dante, mysteriorum intelligentiam eamque fructuosissimam assequitur, tum ex eorum, quæ naturaliter cognoscit, analogia, tum e mysteriorum ipsorum nexu inter se et cum fine hominis ultimo; nunquam tamen idonea redditur ad ea perspicienda instar veritatum, quæ proprium ipsius objectum constituunt. Divina enim mysteria suapte natura intellectum creatum sic excedunt, ut etiam revelatione tradita et fide suscepta, ipsius tamen fidei velamine contecta et quadam quasi caligine obvoluta maneant, quamdiu in hac mortali vita peregrinamur a Domino: per fidem enim ambulamus, et non per speciem. faith, when it seeks earnestly, piously, and calmly, attains by a gift from God some, and that a very fruitful, understanding of mysteries; partly from the analogy of those things which it naturally knows, partly from the relations which the mysteries bear to one another and to the last end of man; but reason never becomes capable of apprehending mysteries as it does those truths which constitute its proper object. For the divine mysteries by their own nature so far transcend the created intelligence that, even when delivered by revelation and received by faith, they remain covered with the veil of faith itself, and shrouded in a certain degree of darkness, so long as we are pilgrims in this mortal life, not yet with God; 'for we walk by faith and not by sight.' [284] Verum etsi fides sit supra rationem, nulla tamen unquam inter fidem et rationem vera dissensio esse potest: cum idem Deus, qui mysteria revelat et fidem infundit, animo humano rationis lumen indiderit; Deus autem negare seipsum non possit, nec verum vero unquam contradicere. Inanis autem hujus contradictionis species inde potissimum oritur, quod vel fidei But although faith is above reason, there can never be any real discrepancy between faith and reason, since the same God who reveals mysteries and infuses faith has bestowed the light of reason on the human mind; and God can not deny himself, nor can truth ever contradict truth. The false appearance of such a contradiction is mainly due, either to the dogmas of faith not having been understood

 dogmata, ad mentem Ecclesiæ intellecta et exposita non fuerint, vel opinionum commenta pro rationis effatis habeantur. Omnem igitur assertionem veritati illuminatæ fidei contrariam omnino falsam esse definimus. Porro Ecclesia, quæ una cum apostolico munere docendi, mandatum accepit fidei depositum custodiendi, jus etiam et officium divinitus habet falsi nominis scientiam proscribendi, ne quis decipiatur per philosophiam et inanem fallaciam. Quapropter omnes Christiani fideles hujusmodi opiniones, quæ fidei doctrinæ contrariæ esse cognoscuntur, maxime si ab Ecclesia reprobatæ fuerint, non solum prohibentur tanquam legitimas scientiæ conclusiones defendere, sed pro erroribus potius, qui fallacem veritatis speciem præ se ferant, habere tenentur omnino. and expounded according to the mind of the Church, or to the inventions of opinion having been taken for the verdicts of reason. We define, therefore, that every assertion contrary to a truth of enlightened faith is utterly false. [285] Further, the Church, which, together with the Apostolic office of teaching, has received a charge to guard the deposit of faith, derives from God the right and the duty of proscribing false science, lest any should be deceived by philosophy and vain fallacy. [286] Therefore all faithful Christians are not only forbidden to defend, as legitimate conclusions of science, such opinions as are known to be contrary to the doctrines of faith, especially if they have been condemned by the Church, but are altogether bound to account them as errors which put on the fallacious appearance of truth. Neque solum fides et ratio inter se dissidere nunquam possunt, sed opem quoque sibi mutuam ferunt, cum recta ratio fidei fundamenta demonstret, ejusque lumine illustrata rerum divinarum scientiam excolat; fides vero rationem ab erroribus And not only can faith and reason never be opposed to one another, but they are of mutual aid one to the other; for right reason demonstrates the foundations of faith, and, enlightened by its light cultivates the science of things divine; while faith frees and guards

 liberet ac tueatur, eamque multiplici cognitione instruat. Quapropter tantum abest, ut Ecclesia humanarum artium et disciplinarum culturæ obsistat, ut hanc multis modis juvet atque promoveat. Non enim commoda ab iis ad hominum vitam dimanantia aut ignorat aut despicit; fatetur imo, eas, quemadmodum a Deo, scientiarum Domino, profectæ sunt, ita si rite pertractentur, ad Deum, juvante ejus gratia, perducere. Nec sane ipsa vetat, ne hujusmodi disciplinæ in suo quæque ambitu propriis utantur principiis et propria methodo; sed justam hanc libertatem agnoscens, id sedulo cavet, ne divinæ doctrinæ repugnando errores in se suscipiant, aut fines proprios transgressæ, ea, quæ sunt fidei, occupent et perturbent. reason from errors, and furnishes it with manifold knowledge. So far, therefore, is the Church from opposing the cultivation of human arts and sciences, that it in many ways helps and promotes it. For the Church neither ignores nor despises the benefits of human life which result from the arts and sciences, but confesses that, as they came from God, the Lord of all science, so, if they be rightly used, they lead to God by the help of his grace. Nor does the Church forbid that each of these sciences in its sphere should make use of its own principles and its own method; but, while recognizing this just liberty, it stands watchfully on guard, lest sciences, setting themselves against the divine teaching, or transgressing their own limits, should invade and disturb the domain of faith. Neque enim fidei doctrina, quam Deus revelavit, velut philosophicum inventum proposita est humanis ingeniis perficienda, sed tanquam divinum depositum Christi Sponsæ tradita, fideliter custodienda et infallibiliter declaranda. Hinc sacrorum quoque dogmatum is sensus perpetuo est retinendus, quem semel declaravit sancta mater Ecclesia, nec unquam ab eo sensu, For the doctrine of faith which God hath revealed has not been proposed, like a philosophical invention, to be perfected by human ingenuity, but has been delivered as a divine deposit to the Spouse of Christ, to be faithfully kept and infallibly declared. Hence, also, that meaning of the sacred dogmas is perpetually to be retained which our holy mother the Church has once declared; nor is that meaning

 altioris intelligentiæ specie et nomine, recedendum. Crescat igitur et multum vehementerque proficiat, tam singulorum, quam omnium, tam unius hominis, quam totius Ecclesiæ, ætatem ac sæculorum gradibus, intelligentia, scientia, sapientia; sed in suo dumtaxat genere, in eodem scilicet dogmate, eodem sensu, eademque sententia. ever to be departed from, under the pretense or pretext of a deeper comprehension of them. Let, then, the intelligence, science, and wisdom of each and all, of individuals and of the whole Church, in all ages and all times, increase and flourish in abundance and vigor; but simply in its own proper kind, that is to say, in one and the same doctrine, one and the same sense, one and the same judgment. [287] Canones. Canons. I. I. De Deo rerum omnium Creatore. Of God, the Creator of all things. 1. Si quis unum verum Deum visibilium et invisibilium Creatorem et Dominum negaverit: anathema sit. 1. If any one shall deny one true God, Creator and Lord of things visible and invisible: let him be anathema. 2. Si quis præter materiam nihil esse affirmare non erubuerit: anathema sit. 2. If any one shall not be ashamed to affirm that, except matter, nothing exists: let him be anathema. 3. Si quis dixerit, unam eandemque esse Dei et rerum omnium substantiam vel essentiam: anathema sit. 3. If any one shall say that the substance and essence of God and of all things is one and the same: let him be anathema. 4. Si quis dixerit, res finitas, tum corporeas tum spirituales aut saltem spirituales, e divina substantia emanasse; aut divinam essentiam sui manifestatione vel evolutione fieri omnia; aut denique Deum esse ens universale 4. If any one shall say that finite things, both corporeal and spiritual, or at least spiritual, have emanated from the divine substance; or that the divine essence by the manifestation and evolution of itself becomes all things; or, lastly, that God is

 seu indefinitum, quod sese determinando constituat rerum universitatem in genera, species et individua distinctam: anathema sit. universal or indefinite being, which by determining itself constitutes the universality of things, distinct according to genera, species, and individuals: let him be anathema. 5. Si quis non confiteatur, mundum, resque omnes, quæ in eo continentur, et spirituales et materiales, secundum totam suam substantiam a Deo ex nihilo esse productas; aut Deum dixerit non voluntate ab omni necessitate libera, sed tam necessario creasse, quam necessario amat seipsum; aut mundum ad Dei gloriam conditum esse negaverit: anathema sit. 5. If any one confess not that the world, and all things which are contained in it, both spiritual and material, have been, in their whole substance, produced by God out of nothing; or shall say that God created, not by his will, free from all necessity, but by a necessity equal to the necessity whereby he loves himself; or shall deny that the world was made for the glory of God: let him be anathema. II. II. De Revelatione. Of Revelations. 1. Si quis dixerit, Deum unum et verum, Creatorem et Dominum nostrum, per ea, quæ facta sunt, naturali rationis humanæ lumine certo cognosci non posse: anathema sit. 1. If any one shall say that the one true God, our Creator and Lord, can not be certainly known by the natural light of human reason through created things: let him be anathema. 2. Si quis dixerit, fieri non posse, aut non expedire ut per revelationem divinam homo de Deo cultuque ei exhibendo edoceatur: anathema sit. 2. If any one shall say that it is impossible or inexpedient that man should be taught by divine revelation concerning God and the worship to be paid to him: let him be anathema. 3. Si quis dixerit, hominem ad cognitionem et perfectionem, quæ naturalem superet, divinitus evehi non posse, sed ex seipso 3. If any one shall say that man can not be raised by divine power to a higher than natural knowledge and perfection, but can and ought,

 ad omnis tandem veri et boni possessionem jugi profectu pertingere posse et debere: anathema sit. by a continuous progress, to arrive at length, of himself, to the possession of all that is true aud good: let him be anathema. 4. Si quis sacræ Scripturæ libros integros cum omnibus suis partibus, prout illos sancta Tridentina Synodus recensuit, pro sacris et canonicis non susceperit, aut eos divinitus inspiratos esse negaverit: anathema sit. 4. If any one shall not receive as sacred and canonical the books of Holy Scripture, entire with all their parts, as the holy Synod of Trent has enumerated them, or shall deny that they have been divinely inspired: let him be anathema. III. III. De Fide. On Faith. 1. Si quis dixerit, rationem humanam ita independentem esse, ut fides ei a Deo imperari non possit: anathema sit. 1. If any one shall say that human reason is so independent that faith can not be enjoined upon it by God: let him be anathema. 2. Si quis dixerit, fidem divinam a naturali de Deo et rebus moralibus scientia non distingui, ac propterea ad fidem divinam non requiri, ut revelata veritas propter auctoritatem Dei revelantis credatur: anathema sit. 2. If any one shall say that divine faith is not distinguished from natural knowledge of God and of moral truths, and therefore that it is not requisite for divine faith that revealed truth be believed because of the authority of God, who reveals it: let him be anathema. 3. Si quis dixerit, revelationem divinam externis signis credibilem fieri non posse, ideoque sola interna cujusque experientia aut inspiratione privata homines ad fidem moveri debere: anathema sit. 3. If any one shall say that divine revelation can not be made credible by outward signs, and therefore that men ought to be moved to faith solely by the internal experience of each, or by private inspiration: let him be anathema. 4. Si quis dixerit, miracula nulla fieri posse, proindeque omnes de iis narrationes, etiam 4. If any one shall say that miracles are impossible, and therefore that all the accounts regarding

 in sacra Scriptura contentas, inter fabulas vel mythos ablegandas esse; aut miracula certo cognosci nunquam posse, nec iis divinam religionis Christianæ originem rite probari: anathema, sit. them, even those contained in Holy Scripture, are to be dismissed as fabulous or mythical; or that miracles can never be known with certainty, and that the divine origin of Christianity can not be proved by them: let him be anathema. 5. Si quis dixerit, assensum fidei Christianæ non esse liberum, sed argumentis humanæ rationis necessario produci; aut ad solam fidem vivam, quæ per caritatem operatur, gratiam Dei necessariam esse: anathema sit. 5. If any one shall say that the assent of Christian faith is not a free act, but inevitably produced by the arguments of human reason; or that the grace of God is necessary for that living faith only which worketh by charity: let him be anathema. 6. Si quis dixerit, parem esse conditionem fidelium atque eorum, qui ad fidem unice veram nondum pervenerunt, ita ut Catholici justam causam habere possint, fidem, quam sub Ecclesiæ magisterio jam susceperunt, assensu suspenso in dubium vocandi, donec demonstrationem scientificam credibilitatis et veritatis fidei suæ absolverint: anathema sit. 6. If any one shall say that the condition of the faithful, and of those who have not yet attained to the only true faith, is on a par, so that Catholics may have just cause for doubting, with suspended assent, the faith which they have already received under the magisterium of the Church, until they shall have obtained a scientific demonstration of the credibility and truth of their faith: let him be anathema. IV. IV. De Fide et Ratione. On Faith and Reason. 1. Si quis dixerit, in revelatione divina nulla vera et proprie dicta mysteria contineri, sed universa fidei dogmata posse per rationem rite excultam e naturalibus principiis intelligi et demonstrari: anathema sit. 1. If any one shall say that in divine revelation there are no mysteries, truly and properly so called, but that all the doctrines of faith can be understood and demonstrated from natural principles, by properly cultivated reason: let him be anathema.

 2. Si quis dixerit, disciplinas humanas ea cum libertate tractandas esse, ut earum assertiones, etsi doctrinæ revelatæ adversentur, tanquam veræ retineri, neque ab Ecclesia proscribi possint: anathema sit. 2. If any one shall say that human sciences are to be so freely treated that their assertions, although opposed to revealed doctrine, are to be held as true, and can not be condemned by the Church: let him be anathema. 3. Si quis dixerit, fieri posse, ut dogmatibus ab Ecclesia propositis, aliquando secundum progressum scientiæ sensus tribuendus sit alius ab eo, quem intellexit et intelligit Ecclesia: anathema sit. 3. If any one shall assert it to be possible that sometimes, according to the progress of science, a sense is to be given to doctrines propounded by the Church different from that which the Church has understood and understands: let him be anathema. Itaque supremi pastoralis Nostri officii debitum exeguentes, omnes Christi fideles, maxime vero eos, qui præsunt vel docendi munere funguntur, per viscera Jesu Christi obtestamur, necnon ejusdem Dei et Salvatoris nostri auctoritate jubemus, ut ad hos errores a Sancta Ecclesia arcendos et eliminandos, atque purissimæ fidei lucem pandendam studium et operam conferant. Therefore, we, fulfilling the duty of our supreme pastoral office, entreat, by the mercies of Jesus Christ, and, by the authority of the same, our God and Saviour, we command, all the faithful of Christ, and especially those who are set over others, or are charged with the office of instruction, that they earnestly and diligently apply themselves to ward off and eliminate these errors from holy Church, and to spread the light of pure faith. Quoniam vero satis non est, hæreticam pravitatem devitare, nisi ii quoque errores diligenter fugiantur, qui ad illam plus minusve accedunt; omnes officii monemus, servandi etiam Constitutiones et Decreta, quibus pravæ ejusmodi opiniones, quæ isthic And since it is not sufficient to shun heretical pravity, unless those errors also be diligently avoided which more or less nearly approach it, we admonish all men of the further duty of observing those constitutions and decrees by which such erroneous opinions as are not here

 diserte non enumerantur, ab hac Sancta Sede proscriptæ et prohibitæ sunt. specifically enumerated, have been proscribed and condemned by this Holy See. Datum Romæ in publica Sessione in Vaticana Basilica, solemniter celebrata, anno Incarnationis Dominicæ millesimo octingentesimo septuagesimo, die vigesima quarto, Aprilis. Pontificatus Nostri anno vigesimo quarto. Given at Rome in public Session solemnly held in the Vatican Basilica in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, on the twenty-fourth day of April, in the twenty-fourth year of our Pontificate. Constitutio Dogmatica Prima de Ecclesia Christi. First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ.

 Edita in Sessione Quarta Sacrosancti OEcumenici Concilii Vaticani.

 Published in the Fourth Session of the holy OEcumenical Council of the Vatican.


Pastor æternus et Episcopus animarum nostrarum, ut salutiferum Redemptionis opus perenne redderet, sanctam ædificare Ecclesiam decrevit, in qua veluti in domo Dei viventis fideles omnes unius fidei et caritatis vinculo continerentur. Quapropter, priusquam clarificaretur, rogavit Patrem non pro Apostolis tantum, sed et pro eis, qui credituri erant per verbum eorum in ipsum, ut omnes unum The eternal Pastor and Bishop of our souls, in order to continue for all time the life-giving work of his Redemption, determined to build up the holy Church, wherein, as in the house of the living God, all who believe might be united in the bond of one faith and one charity. Wherefore, before he entered into his glory, he prayed unto the Father, not for the Apostles only, but for those also who through their preaching should

 essent, sicut ipse Filius et Pater unum sunt. Quemadmodum igitur Apostolos, quos sibi de mundo elegerat, misit, sicut ipse missus erat a Patre: ita in Ecclesia sua pastores et doctores usque ad consummationem sæculi esse voluit. Ut vero episcopatus ipse unus et indivisus esset, et per cohærentes sibi invicem sacerdotes credentium multitudo universa in fidei et communionis unitate conservaretur, beatum Petrum cæteris Apostolis præponens in ipso instituit perpetuum utriusque unitatis principium ac visibile fundamentum, super cujus fortitudinem æternum exstrueretur templum, et Ecclesiæ coelo inferenda sublimitas in hujus fidei firmitate consurgeret. Et quoniam portæ inferi ad evertendam, si fieri posset, Ecclesiam, contra ejus fundamentum divinitus positum majori in dies odio undique insurgunt, Nos ad Catholici gregis, custodiam, incolumitatem, augmentum, necessarium esse judicamus, sacro approbante Concilio, doctrinam de institutione, perpetuitate, ac come to believe in him, that all might be one even as he the Son and the Father are one. [288] As then he sent the Apostles whom he had chosen to himself from the world, as he himself had been sent by the Father: so he willed that there should ever be pastors and teachers in his Church to the end of the world. And in order that the Episcopate also might be one and undivided, and that by means of a closely united priesthood the multitude of the faithful might be kept secure in the oneness of faith and communion, he set blessed Peter over the rest of the Apostles, and fixed in him the abiding principle of this twofold unity, and its visible foundation, in the strength of which the everlasting temple should arise, and the Church in the firmness of that faith should lift her majestic front to Heaven. [289] And seeing that the gates of hell, with daily increase of hatred, are gathering their strength on every side to upheave the foundation laid by God's own hand, and so, if that might be, to overthrow the Church: we, therefore, for the preservation, safe-keeping, and increase of the Catholic flock, with

 natura sacri Apostolici primatus, in quo totius Ecclesiæ vis ac soliditas consistit, cunctis fidelibus credendam et tenendam, secundum antiquam atque constantem universalis Ecclesiæ fidem, proponere, atque contrarios, dominico gregi adeo perniciosos, errores proscribere et condemnare. the approval of the sacred Council, do judge it to be necessary to propose to the belief and acceptance of all the faithful, in accordance with the ancient and constant faith of the universal Church, the doctrine touching the institution, perpetuity, and nature of the sacred Apostolic Primacy, in which is found the strength and solidity of the entire Church, and at the same time to proscribe and condemn the contrary errors, so hurtful to the flock of Christ. Caput IV. Chapter IV. De Apostolici Primatus in beato Petro institutione. Of the Institution of the Apostolic Primacy in blessed Peter. Docemus itaque et declaramus, juxta Evangelii testimonia primatum jurisdictionis in universam Dei Ecclesiam immediate et directe beato Petro Apostolo promissum atque collatum a Christo Domino fuisse. Unum enim Simonem, cui jam pridem dixerat: Tu vocaberis Cephas, postquam ille suam edidit confessionem inquiens: Tu es Christus, Filius Dei vivi, solemnibus his verbis allocutus est Dominus: Beatus es, Simon Bar-Jona, quia caro et sanguis non revelavit tibi, sed Pater meus, qui in coelis est: et ego We therefore teach and declare that, according to the testimony of the Gospel, the primacy of jurisdiction over the universal Church of God was immediately and directly promised and given to blessed Peter the Apostle by Christ the Lord. For it was to Simon alone, to whom he had already said: 'Thou shalt be called Cephas,' [290] that the Lord after the confession made by him, saying: 'Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God,' addressed these solemn words: 'Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona, because flesh and blood have not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven.

 dico tibi, quia tu es Petrus, et super hanc Petram ædificabo Ecclesiam meam, et portæ inferi non prævalebunt adversus eam: et tibi dabo claves regni coelorum: et quodcumque ligaveris super terram, erit ligatum et in coelis: et quodcumque solveris super terram, erit solutum et in cælis. Atque uni Simoni Petro contulit Jesus post suam resurrectionem summi pastoris et rectoris jurisdictionem in totum suum ovile dicens: Pasce agnos meos: Pasce oves meas. Huic tam manifestæ sacrarum Scripturarum doctrinæ, ut ab Ecclesia Catholica semper intellecta est, aperte opponuntur pravæ eorum sententiæ, qui, constitutam a Christo Domino in sua Ecclesia regiminis formam pervertentes, negant, solum Petrum præ cæteris Apostolis, sive seorsum singulis sive omnibus simul, vero proprioque jurisdictionis primatu fuisse a Christo instructum; aut qui affirmant, eundem primatum non immediate directeque ipsi beato Petro, sed Ecclesiæ, et per hanc illi ut ipsius Ecclesiæ ministro delatum fuisse. And I say to thee that thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, it shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven.' [291] And it was upon Simon alone that Jesus after his resurrection bestowed the jurisdiction of chief pastor and ruler over all his fold in the words: 'Feed my lambs; feed my sheep.' [292] At open variance with this clear doctrine of Holy Scripture as it has been ever understood by the Catholic Church are the perverse opinions of those who, while they distort the form of government established by Christ the Lord in his Church, deny that Peter in his single person, preferably to all the other Apostles, whether taken separately or together, was endowed by Christ with a true and proper primacy of jurisdiction; or of those who assert that the same primacy was not bestowed immediately and directly upon blessed Peter himself, but upon the Church, and through the Church on Peter as her minister. Si quis igitur dixerit, beatum If any one, therefore, shall say

 Petrum Apostolum non esse a Christo Domino constitutum Apostolorum omnium principem et totius Ecclesiæ militantis visibile caput; vel eundem honoris tantum, non autem veræ propri que jurisdictionis primatum ab eodem Domino nostro Jesu Christo directe et immediate accepisse: anathema sit. that blessed Peter the Apostle was not appointed the Prince of all the Apostles and the visible Head of the whole Church Militant; or that the same directly and immediately received from the same our Lord Jesus Christ a primacy of honor only, and not of true and proper jurisdiction: let him be anathema. Caput II. Chapter II. De perpetuitate Primatus beati Petri in Romanis Pontificibus. On the Perpetuity of the Primacy of blessed Peter in the Roman Pontiffs. Quod autem in beato Apostolo Petro princeps pastorum et pastor magnus ovium Dominus Christus Jesus in perpetuam salutem ac perenne bonum Ecclesiæ instituit, id eodem auctore in Ecclesia, quæ fundata super petram ad fidem sæculorum usque firma stabit, jugiter durare necesse est. Nulli sane dubium, imo sæculis omnibus notum est, quod sanctus beatissimusque Petrus, Apostolorum princeps et caput fideique columna, et Ecclesiæ Catholicæ fundamentum, a Domino nostro Jesu Christo, Salvatore humani generis ac Redemptore, claves regni accepit: qui ad hoc usque tempus et semper in suis successoribus, episcopis sanctæ Romanæ Sedis, ab ipso fundatæ, That which the Prince of Shepherds and great Shepherd of the sheep, Jesus Christ our Lord, established in the person of the blessed Apostle Peter to secure the perpetual welfare and lasting good of the Church, must, by the same institution, necessarily remain unceasingly in the Church; which, being founded upon the Rock, will stand firm to the end of the world. For none can doubt, and it is known to all ages, that the holy and blessed Peter, the Prince and Chief of the Apostles, the pillar of the faith and foundation of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour and Redeemer of mankind, and lives, presides, and judges, to this day and always, in his successors the Bishops of the Holy See of

 ejusque consecratæ sanguine, vivit et præsidet et judicium exercet. Unde quicumque in hac Cathedra Petro succedit, is secundum Christi ipsius institutionem primatum Petri in universam Ecclesiam obtinet. Manet ergo dispositio veritatis, et beatus Petrus, in accepta fortitudine petræ perseverans, suscepta Ecclesiæ gubernacula non reliquit. Hac de causa ad Romanam Ecclesiam propter potentiorem principalitatem necesse semper fuit omnem convenire Ecclesiam, hoc est, eos, qui sunt undique fideles, ut in ea Sede, e qua venerandæ communionis jura in omnes dimanant, tamquam membra in capite consociata, in unam corporis compagem coalescerent. Rome, which was founded by him, and consecrated by his blood. [293] Whence, whosoever succeeds to Peter in this See, does by the institution of Christ himself obtain the Primacy of Peter over the whole Church. The disposition made by Incarnate Truth therefore remains, and blessed Peter, abiding through the strength of the Rock in the power that he received, has not abandoned the direction of the Church. [294] Wherefore it has at all times been necessary that every particular Church--that is to say, the faithful throughout the world--should agree with the Roman Church, on account of the greater authority of the princedom which this has received; that all being associated in the unity of that See whence the rights of communion spread to all, might grow together as members of one Head in the compact unity of the body. [295] Si quis ergo dixerit, non esse ex ipsius Christi Domini institutione, seu jure divino, ut beatus Petrus in primatu super universam Ecclesiam habeat perpetuos If, then, any should deny that it is by the institution of Christ the Lord, or by divine right, that blessed Peter should have a perpetual line of successors in the Primacy over

 successores; aut Romanum Pontificem non esse beati Petri in eodem primatu successorem: anathema sit. the universal Church, or that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of blessed Peter in this primacy: let him be anathema. Caput III. Chapter III. De vi et ratione Primatus Romani Pontificis. On the Power and Nature of the Primacy of the Roman Pontiff. Quapropter apertis innixi sacrarum litterarum testimoniis, et inhærentes tum Prædecessorum Nostrorum, Romanorum Pontificum, tum Conciliorum generalium disertis perspicuisque decretis, innovamus oecumenici Concilii Florentini definitionem, qua credendum ab omnibus Christi fidelibus est, sanctam Apostolicam Sedem, et Romanum Pontificem in universum orbem tenere primatum, et ipsum Pontificem Romanum successorem esse beati Petri, principis Apostolorum, et verum Christi Vicarium, totiusque Ecclesiæ caput, et omnium Christianorum patrem ac doctorem existere; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi ac gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Jesu Christo plenam potestatem traditam esse; quemadmodum etiam in gestis oecumenicorum Conciliorum et sacris canonibus continetur. Wherefore, resting on plain testimonies of the Sacred Writings, and adhering to the plain and express decrees both of our predecessors, the Roman Pontiffs, and of the General Councils, we renew the definition of the oecumenical Council of Florence, in virtue of which all the faithful of Christ must believe that the holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff possesses the primacy over the whole world, and that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and is true vicar of Christ, and head of the whole Church, and father and teacher of all Christians; and that full power was given to him in blessed Peter to rule, feed, and govern the universal Church by Jesus Christ our Lord; as is also contained in the acts of the General Councils and in the sacred Canons. Docemus proinde et declaramus, Ecclesiam Romanam, disponente Hence we teach and declare that by the appointment of our Lord the

 Domino, super omnes alias ordinariæ potestatis obtinere principatum, et hanc Romani Pontificis jurisdictionis potestatem, quæ vere episcopalis est, immediatam esse: erga quam cujuscumque ritus et dignitatis pastores atque fideles, tam seorsum singuli quam simul omnes, officio hierarchicæ subordinationis veræque obedientiæ obstringuntur, non solum in rebus, quæ ad fidem et mores, sed etiam in iis, quæ ad disciplinam et regimen Ecclesiæ per totum orbem diffusæ pertinent; ita ut, custodita cum Romano Pontifice tam communionis, quam ejusdem fidei professionis unitate, Ecclesiæ Christi sit unus grex sub uno summo pastore. Hæc est Catholicæ veritatis doctrina, a qua deviare salva fide atque salute nemo potest. Roman Church possesses a superiority of ordinary power over all other churches, and that this power of jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff, which is truly episcopal, is immediate; to which all, of whatever rite and dignity, both pastors and faithful, both individually and collectively, are bound, by their duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, to submit not only in matters which belong to faith and morals, but also in those that appertain to the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world, so that the Church of Christ may be one flock under one supreme pastor through the preservation of unity both of communion and of profession of the same faith with the Roman Pontiff. This is the teaching of Catholic truth, from which no one can deviate without loss of faith and of salvation. Tantum autem abest, ut hæc Summi Pontificis potestas officiat ordinariæ ac immediatæ illi episcopalis jurisdictionis potestati, qua Episcopi, qui positi a Spiritu Sancto in Apostolorum locum successerunt, tamquam veri pastores assignatos sibi greges, singuli singulos, pascunt et regunt, ut eadem a supremo et But so far is this power of the Supreme Pontiff from being any prejudice to the ordinary and immediate power of episcopal jurisdiction, by which Bishops, who have been set by the Holy Ghost to succeed and hold the place of the Apostles, [296] feed and govern, each his own flock, as true pastors, that this their episcopal authority is really

 universali Pastore asseratur, roboretur ac vindicetur, secundum illud sancti Gregorii Magni: Meus honor est honor universalis Ecclesiæ. Meus honor est fratrum meorum solidus vigor. Tum ego vere honoratus sum, cum singulis quibusque honor debitus non negatur, asserted, strengthened, and protected by the supreme and universal Pastor; in accordance with the words of St. Gregory the Great: 'My honor is the honor of the whole Church. My honor is the firm strength of my brethren. I am truly honored when the honor due to each and all is not withheld. [297] Porro ex suprema illa Romani Pontificis potestate gubernandi universam Ecclesiam jus eidem esse consequitur, in hujus sui muneris exercitio libere communicandi cum pastoribus et gregibus totius Ecclesiæ, ut iidem ab ipso in via salutis doceri ac regi possint. Quare damnamus ac reprobamus illorum sententias, qui hanc supremi capitis cum pastoribus et gregibus communicationem licite impediri posse dicunt, aut eandem reddunt sæculari potestati obnoxiam, ita ut contendant, quæ ab Apostolica Sede vel ejus auctoritate ad regimen Ecclesiæ constituuntur, vim ac valorem non habere, nisi potestatis sæcularis placito confirmentur. Further, from this supreme power possessed by the Roman Pontiff of governing the universal Church, it follows that he has the right of free communication with the pastors of the whole Church, and with their flocks, that these may be taught and ruled by him in the way of salvation. Wherefore we condemn and reject the opinions of those who hold that the communication between this supreme head and the pastors and their flocks can lawfully be impeded; or who make this communication subject to the will of the secular power, so as to maintain that whatever is done by the Apostolic See, or by its authority, for the government of the Church, can not have force or value unless it be confirmed by the assent of the secular power. Et quoniam divino Apostolici primatus jure Romanus Pontifex universæ Ecclesiæ præest, And since by the divine right of Apostolic primacy the Roman Pontiff is placed over the universal

 docemus etiam et declaramus, eum esse judicem supremum fidelium, et in omnibus causis ad examen ecclesiasticum spectantibus ad ipsius posse judicium recurri; Sedis vero Apostolicæ, cujus auctoritate major non est, judicium a nemine fore retractandum, neque cuiquam de ejus licere judicare judicio. Quare a recto veritatis tramite aberrant, qui affirmant, licere ab judiciis Romanorum Pontificum ad oecumenicum Concilium tamquam ad auctoritatem Romano Pontifice superiorem appellare. Church, we further teach and declare that he is the supreme judge of the faithful, [298] and that in all causes, the decision of which belongs to the Church, recourse may be had to his tribunal, [299] and that none may re-open the judgment of the Apostolic See, than whose authority there is no greater, nor can any lawfully review its judgment. [300] Wherefore they err from the right course who assert that it is lawful to appeal from the judgments of the Roman Pontiffs to an oecumenical Council, as to an authority higher than that of the Roman Pontiff. Si quis itaque dixerit, Romanum Pontificem habere tantummodo officium inspectionis vel directionis, non autem plenam et supremam potestatem jurisdictionis in universam Ecclesiam, non solum in rebus, quæ ad fidem et mores, sed etiam in iis, quæ ad disciplinam et regimen Ecclesiæ per totum orbem diffusæ pertinent; aut eum habere tantum potiores partes, non vero totam plenitudinem hujus supremæ potestatis; aut hanc ejus potestatem non esse ordinariam et immediatam sive in omnes If, then, any shall say that the Roman Pontiff has the office merely of inspection or direction, and not full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the universal Church, not only in things which belong to faith and morals, but also in those which relate to the discipline and government of the Church spread throughout the world; or assert that he possesses merely the principal part, and not all the fullness of this supreme power; or that this power which he enjoys is not ordinary and immediate, both over each and all the

 ac singulas ecclesias, sive in omnes et singulos pastores et fideles: anathema sit. churches, and over each and all the pastors and the faithful: let him be anathema. Caput IV. Chapter IV. De Romani Pontificis infallibili magisterio. Concerning the Infallible Teaching of the Roman Pontiff. Ipso autem Apostolico primatu, quem Romanus Pontifex, tamquam Petri principis Apostolorum successor, in universam Ecclesiam obtinet, supremam quoque magisterii potestatem comprehendi, hæc Sancta Sedes semper tenuit, perpetuus Ecclesiæ usus comprobat, ipsaque oecumenica Concilia, ea imprimis, in quibus Oriens cum Occidente in fidei caritatisque unionem conveniebat, declaraverunt. Patres enim Concilii Constantinopolitani quarti, majorum vestigiis inhærentes, hanc solemnem ediderunt professionem: Prima salus est, rectæ fidei regulam custodire. Et quia non potest Domini nostri Jesu Christi prætermitti sententia dicentis: Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram ædificabo Ecclesiam meam, hæc, quæ dicta sunt, rerum probantur effectibus, quia in Sede Apostolica immaculata est semper Catholica reservata religio, et sancta celebrata Moreover, that the supreme power of teaching is also included in the Apostolic primacy, which the Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter, Prince of the Apostles, possesses over the whole Church, this Holy See has always held, the perpetual practice of the Church confirms, and oecumenical Councils also have declared, especially those in which the East with the West met in the union of faith and charity. For the Fathers of the Fourth Council of Constantinople, following in the footsteps of their predecessors, gave forth this solemn profession: The first condition of salvation is to keep the rule of the true faith. And because the sentence of our Lord Jesus Christ can not be passed by, who said: 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church,' [301] these things which have been said are approved by events, because in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion and her holy and well-known doctrine has always been kept undefiled. Desiring

 doctrina. Ab hujus ergo fide et doctrina separari minime cupientes, speramus, ut in una communione, quam Sedes Apostolica prædicat, esse mereamur, in qua est integra et vera Christianæ religionis soliditas. Approbante vero Lugdunensi Concilio secundo, Græci professi sunt: Sanctum Romanam Ecclesiam summum et plenum primatum et principatum super universam Ecclesiam Catholicam obtinere, quem se ab ipso Domino in beato Petro, Apostolorum principe sive vertice, cujus Romanus Pontifex est successor, cum potestatis plenitudine recepisse veraciter et humiliter recognoscit; et sicut præ cæteris tenetur fidei veritatem defendere, sic et, si quæ de fide subortæ fuerint quæstiones, suo debent judicio definiri. Florentinum denique Concilium definivit: Pontificem Romanum, verum Christi Vicarium, totiusque Ecclesiæ caput et omnium Christianorum patrem ac doctorem existere; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi ac gubernandi universalem therefore, not to be in the least degree separated from the faith and doctrine of that See, we hope that we may deserve to be in the one communion, which the Apostolic See preaches, in which is the entire and true solidity of the Christian religion. [302] And, with the approval of the Second Council of Lyons, the Greeks professed that the holy Roman Church enjoys supreme and full primacy and preeminence over the whole Catholic Church, which it truly and humbly acknowledges that it has received with the plenitude of power from our Lord himself in the person of blessed Peter, Prince or Head of the Apostles, whose successor the Roman Pontiff is; and as the Apostolic See is bound before all others to defend the truth of faith, so also, if any questions regarding faith shall arise, they must be defined by its judgment. [303] Finally, the Council of Florence defined: [304] That the Roman Pontiff is the true vicar of Christ, and the head of the whole Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians; and that to him in blessed Peter was delivered by

 Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Jesu Christo plenam potestatem traditam esse. our Lord Jesus Christ the full power of feeding, ruling, and governing the whole Church. [305] Huic pastorali muneri ut satisfacerent, Prædecessores Nostri indefessam semper operam dederunt, ut salutaris Christi doctrina apud omnes terræ populos propagaretur, parique cura vigilarunt, ut, ubi recepta esset, sincera et pura conservaretur. Quocirca totius orbis Antistites, nunc singuli, nunc in Synodis congregati, longam ecclesiarum, consuetudinem et antiguæ regulæ formam sequentes, ea præsertim pericula, quæ in negotiis fidei emergebant, ad hanc Sedem Apostolicam retulerunt, ut ibi potissimum resarcirentur damna fidei, ubi fides non potest sentire defectum. Romani autem Pontificis, prout temporum et rerum conditio suadebat, nunc convocatis oecumenicis Conciliis aut explorata Ecclesiæ per orbem disperæ sententia, nunc per Synodos particulares, nunc aliis, quæ divina suppeditabat providentia, adhibitis auxiliis, ea tenenda definiverunt, To satisfy this pastoral duty, our predecessors ever made unwearied efforts that the salutary doctrine of Christ might be propagated among all the nations of the earth, and with equal care watched that it might be preserved genuine and pure where it had been received. Therefore the Bishops of the whole world, now singly, now assembled in Synod, following the long-established custom of churches, [306] and the form of the ancient rule, [307] sent word to this Apostolic See of those dangers especially which sprang up in matters of faith, that there the losses of faith might be most effectually repaired where the faith can not fail. [308] And the Roman Pontiffs, according to the exigencies of times and circumstances, sometimes assembling oecumenical Councils, or asking for the mind of the Church scattered throughout the world, sometimes by particular Synods, sometimes using other helps which Divine Providence supplied, defined

 quæ sacris Scripturis et apostolicis traditionibus consentanea, Deo adjutore, cognoverant. Neque enim Petri successoribus Spiritus Sanctus promissus est, ut eo revelante novam doctrinam patefacerent, sed ut, eo assistente, traditam per Apostolos revelationem seu fidei depositum sancte custodirent et fideliter exponerent. Quorum quidem apostolicam doctrinam omnes venerabiles Patres amplexi et sancti doctores orthodoxi venerati atque secuti sunt; plenissime scientes, hanc sancti Petri Sedem ab omni semper errore illibatam permanere, secundum Domini Salvatoris nostri divinam pollicitationem discipulorum suorum principi factam: Ego rogavi pro te, ut non deficiat fides tua, et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos. as to be held those things which with the help of God they had recognized as conformable with the sacred Scriptures and Apostolic traditions. For the Holy Spirit was not promised to the successors of Peter, that by his revelation they might make known new doctrine; but that by his assistance they might inviolably keep and faithfully expound the revelation or deposit of faith delivered through the Apostles. And, indeed, all the venerable Fathers have embraced, and the holy orthodox doctors have venerated and followed, their Apostolic doctrine; knowing most fully that this See of holy Peter remains ever free from all blemish of error according to the divine promise of the Lord our Saviour made to the Prince of his disciples: 'I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not, and, when thou art converted, confirm thy brethren.' [309] Hoc igitur veritatis et fidei numquam deficientis charisma Petro ejusque in hac Cathedra successoribus divinitus collatum est, ut excelso suo munere in omnium salutem fungerentur, ut universus Christi grex per eos ab erroris venenosa esca aversus, coelestis doctrinæ pabulo nutriretur, This gift, then, of truth and never-failing faith was conferred by heaven upon Peter and his successors in this chair, that they might perform their high office for the salvation of all; that the whole flock of Christ, kept away by them from the poisonous food of error, might be nourished with the pasture

 ut, sublata schismatis occasione, Ecclesia tota una conservaretur, atque suo fundamento innixa, firma adversus inferi portas consisteret. of heavenly doctrine; that the occasion of schism being removed, the whole Church might be kept one, and, resting on its foundation, might stand firm against the gates of hell. At vero cum hoc ipsa ætate, qua salutifera Apostolici muneris efficacia vel maxime requiritur, non pauci inveniantur, qui illius auctoritati obtrectant; necessarium omnino esse censemus, prærogativam, quam unigenitus Dei Filius cum summo pastorali officio conjungere dignatus est, solemniter asserere. But since in this very age, in which the salutary efficacy of the Apostolic office is most of all required, not a few are found who take away from its authority, we judge it altogether necessary solemnly to assert the prerogative which the only-begotten Son of God vouchsafed to join with the supreme pastoral office. Itaque Nos traditioni a fidei Christianæ exordio perceptæ fideliter inhærendo, ad Dei Salvatoris nostri gloriam, religionis Catholicæ exaltationem et Christianorum populorum salutem, sacro approbante Concilio, docemus et divinitus revelatum dogma esse definimus: Romanum Pontificem, cum ex Cathedra loquitur, id est, cum omnium Christianorum pastoris et doctoris munere fungens pro suprema sua Apostolica auctoritate doctrinam de fide vel moribus ab universa Ecclesia tenendam definit, per assistentiam divinam, ipsi in beato Petro promissam, ea infallibilitate pollere, qua divinus Redemptor Therefore faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, for the glory of God our Saviour, the exaltation of the Catholic religion, and the salvation of Christian people, the sacred Council approving, we teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in discharge of the office of pastor and doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, is possessed of that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer

 Ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit; ideoque ejusmodi Romani Pontificis definitiones ex sese, non autem ex consensu Ecclesiæ, irreformabiles esse. willed that his Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals; and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable [310] of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church. Si quis autem huic Nostræ definitioni contradicere, quod Deus avertat, præsumpserit: anathema sit. But if any one--which may God avert--presume to contradict this our definition: let him be anathema. Datum Romæ, in publica Sessione in Vaticana Basilica, solemniter celebrata, anno Incarnationis Dominicæ millesimo octingentesimo septuagesimo, die decima octava Julii. Pontificatus Nostri anno vigesimo quinto. Given at Rome in public Session solemnly held in the Vatican Basilica in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, on the eighteenth day of July, in the twenty-fifth year of our Pontificate.   


 [268] Isaiah lix. 21.

 [269] Wisd. viii. 1.

 [270] Heb. iv. 13.

 [271] Rom. i. 20.

 [272] Heb. i. 1, 2.

 [273] 1 Cor. ii. 9.

 [274] Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Session the Fourth. Decree concerning the Canonical Scriptures.

 [275] Heb. i. 11.

 [276] Mark xvi. 20.

 [277] 2 Peter i. 19.

 [278] Canons of the Second Council of Orange, confirmed by Pope Boniface II., A.D. 529, against the Semipelagians, Canon VII. See Denzinger's Enchiridion Symbolorum, p. 53 (Würzburg, 1865).

 [279] Isaiah xi. 12.

 [280] Heb. xii. 2, and x. 23.

 [281] John i. 17.

 [282] 1 Cor. ii. 7-9.

 [283] Matt. xi. 25.

 [284] 2 Cor. v. 7.

 [285] From the Bull of Pope Leo X., Apostolici regiminis, read in the Eighth Session of the Fifth Lateran Council, A.D. 1513. See Labbe's Councils, Vol. XIX. p. 842 (Venice, 1732).

 [286] Coloss. ii. 8.

 [287] Vincent. of Lerins, Common. n. 28.

 [288] John xvii. 21.

 [289] From Sermon IV. chap. ii. of St. Leo the Great, A.D. 440, Vol. I. p. 17 of edition of Ballerini, Venice, 1753; read in the eighth lection on the Feast of St. Peter's Chair at Antioch, February 22.

 [290] John i. 42.

 [291] Matt. xvi. 16-19.

 [292] John xxi. 15-17.

 [293] From the Acts (Session Third) of the Third General Council of Ephesus, A.D. 431, Labbe's Councils, Vol. III. p. 1154, Venice edition of 1728. See also letter of St. Peter Chrysologus to Eutyches, in life prefixed to his works, p. 13, Venice, 1750.

 [294] From Sermon III. chap. iii. of St. Leo the Great, Vol. I. p. 12.

 [295] From St. Irenæus against Heresies, Book III. cap. iii. p. 175, Benedictine edition, Venice, 1734; aad Acts of Synod of Aquileja, A.D. 381, Labbe's Councils, Vol.II. p. 1185, Venice, 1728.

 [296] From chap. iv. of Twenty-third Session of Council of Trent, 'Of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy.'

 [297] From the letters of St. Gregory the Great, Book VIII. 30, Vol. II. p. 919, Benedictine edition, Paris, 1705.

 [298] From a Brief of Pius VI. Super soliditate, of Nov. 28, 1786.

 [299] From the Acts of the Fourteenth General Council of Lyons, A.D. 1274 (Labbe's Councils, Vol. XIV. p. 512).

 [300] From Letter VIII. of Pope Nicholas I., A.D. 858, to the Emperor Michael (Labbe's Councils, Vol. IX. pp. 1339 and 1570).

 [301] Matt. xvi. 18.

 [302] From the Formula of St. Hormisdas, subscribed by the Fathers of the Eighth General Council (Fourth of Constantinople), A.D. 869 (Labbe's Councils, Vol. V. pp. 583, 622).

 [303] From the Acts of the Fourteenth General Council (Second of Lyons), A.D. 1274 (Labbe, Vol. XIV. p. 512).

 [304] From the Acts of the Seventeenth General Council of Florence, A.D. 1438 (Labbe, Vol. XVIII. p. 526).

 [305] John xxi. 15-17.

 [306] From a letter of St. Cyril of Alexandria to Pope St. Celestine I., A.D. 422 (Vol. VI. Part II. p. 36, Paris edition of 1638).

 [307] From a Rescript of St. Innocent I. to the Council of Milevis, A.D. 402 (Labbe, Vol. III. p. 47).

 [308] From a letter of St. Bernard to Pope Innocent II. A.D. 1130 (Epist. 191, Vol. IV. p. 433, Paris edition of 1742).

 [309] Luke xxii. 32. See also the Acts of the Sixth General Council, A.D. 680 (Labbe, Vol. VII. p. 659).

 [310] That is, in the words used by Pope Nicholas I., note 13, and in the Synod of Quedlinburg, A.D. 1085, 'It is allowed to none to revise its judgment, and to sit in judgment upon what it has judged' (Labbe, Vol. XII. p. 679).   







 [The Orthodox Confession of Faith of the Catholic and Apostolic Church of the East (also called Catechism from its method) was drawn up by Peter Mogilas, Metropolitan of Kieff, the father of Russian theology (d. 1647), or under his direction, and was revised and adopted by the Græco-Russian Synod at Jassy, 1643, signed by the Eastern Patriarchs, and approved again by the Synod of Jerusalem, 1672. It sets forth the faith of the Eastern Church in distinction both from the Latin and Protestant Churches. We print the introduction and doctrinal part in full, but omit Parts II. and III., which contain an exposition of the Lord's Prayer, the Beatitudes, and the Ten Commandments, and belong to Ethics rather than Symbolics. In the division of the Decalogue the Greek Church sides with the Reformed against the Roman and the Lutheran. Comp. History, pp. 58 sqq.

 The modern Greek text, with the semiofficial Latin translation of Panaglota, appeared first at Amsterdam, 1662. It is here reprinted from Kimmel's Monumenta Fidei Ecclesiæ Orientalis, Pars I. pp. 56-203. On other editions and textual variations, see his Prolegomena, p. lxii.]

 Orthodoxos homologia tes pisteos tes katholikes kai apostolikes ekklesias tes anatolikes.

 Orthodoxa Confessio Fidei Catholicæ et Apostolicæ Ecclesiæ Orientalis. Erotesis a Quæstio I.

 O anthpopos ho christianos ho orthodoxos kai katholikos ti chreostei na phulatte, dia na kleronomese ten zoen ten aionion;

 Quid tenere atque observare Orthodoxus et Catholicus homo Christianus debet, ut æternæ olim vitæ heres fiat?

 Apokrisis Pistin orthen kai erga kala. Diati hopoios ta duo tauta kratei, einai kalos christianos, kai echei bebaian elpida tes aioniou soterias; marturouses tes hagias Graphes (Iak. b'. kd'.); horate, hoti ex ergon dikaioutai anthropos, kai ouk ek pisteos monon; kai ho logos katoteron (stich. ks'.); hosper gar to soma choris pneumatos nekron estin, houto kai he pistis choris ton ergon nekra esti; kai allachou ho Paulos ho theios legei to auto (a. Tim. a. ith'.); echon pistin kai

 Responsio. Rectam fidem et bona opera. Qui enim hæc duo servat, ille bonus Christianus est, certamque æternæ salutis spem habet teste Sacra scriptura (Jac. ii. 24): 'Videtis, quod ex operibus justificetur homo non autem ex fide tantum.' Tum paullo post (v. 26): 'Nam quemadmodum corpus sine spiritu mortuum est: ita et fides sine operibus mortua est.' Idem alibi divinus ille Paulus adstruit (1 Tim. i. 19): 'Habens fidem et bonam conscientiam: qua

 agathen suneidesin; hen tines aposamenoi peri ten pistin enauagesan; kai allachou (a. Tim. g. th.); echontes to musterion tes pisteos en kathara suneidesei. repulsa nonnulli fidei naufragium fecerunt.' Et alio idem loco (1 Tim. iii. 9): 'Habentes mysterium fidei in pura conscientia.' Erotesis b'. Quæstio II.

 Diati chreostei ho christianos na pisteue proton, kai hustera na kame ta kala erga;

 Quid vero prius credere, tum deinde bona opera efficere debet Christianus?

 Ap. Epeide einai adunaton na aresse tinas tou Theou choris pistin, kata ton Paulon legonta (Hebr. ia'. s'.) choris pisteos adunaton euarestesai; pisteusai gar dei ton proserchomenon to Theo, hoti esti, kai tois ekzetousin auton misthapodotes ginetai. Dia na aresse loipon ho christianos to Theo, kai ta erga tou na einai eis auton euprosdekta, proton prepei na eche pistin eis ton Theon, kai deuteron na euthene ten zoen tou kata ten pistin.

 Resp. Quoniam sine fide nemo Deo placere potest, secundum dictum Pauli (Hebr. xi. 6): 'Fieri non potest, ut sine fide quisquam placeat; nam qui ad Deum accedit, hunc credere oportet, et esse Deum, et remuneratorem iis esse, qui illum sedulo quærunt.' Ut acceptus igitur Deo homo Christianus sit, ut illique grata ejus sint opera; primum fidem in Deum habeat oportet: postmodum ut vitam etiam suam ad fidei regulam componat ac conformet. Erotesis g'. Quæstio III.

 Ta duo tauta eis ti stekountai;

 Quibus in rebus hæc duo consistunt?

 Ap. Eis tas treis theologikas aretas; egoun eis ten pistin; eis ten elpida; kai eis ten agapen; kata tas hopoias thelomen merisein kai ta tria mere tes Homologias, hoste eis to proton na homologesomen peri ton arthron tes pisteos, eis to deuteron peri elpidos, kai tes

 Resp. In tribus hisce virtutibus theologicis: in Fide, in Spe, in Caritate, secundum quas etiam tres Confessionis hujus partes distribuere nobis animus est; nimirum ut in prima parte concordi concessione de Articulis Fidei agamus; in secunda, de Spe et Oratione Dominica,

 proseuches tes Kuriakes, kai peri ton makarismon, eis de to triton, peri ton theion entolon, en hais periechetai he pros Theon kai ton plesion agape. et Beatitudinibus Evangelicis: in tertia denique, de Præceptis Divinis, quibus Caritas in Deum et Proximum continetur. Proton meros Orthodoxæ Confessionis tes orthodoxou homologias, PARS PRIMA, en o peri Pisteos. DE FIDE. Erotesis d'. Quæstio IV.

 Ti esti Pistis;

 Quid est Fides?

 Ap. Pistis esti (kata ton makarion Paulon Hebr. ia. a.) elpizomenon hupostasis, pragmaton elenchos ou blepomenon; en taute gar emarturethesan hoi presbuteroi; e houto; pistis orthodoxos, katholike te kai apostolike esti, kardia pisteuein kai stomati homologein hena Theon trisupostaton, kata ten autou tou Paulou didaskalian, legontos; (Rom. i. i.) kardia gar pisteuetai eis dikaiosunen, stomati de homologeitai eis soterian. Pros touto prepei na krate dia bebaion kai anamphibolon ho orthodoxos christianos (s. Sunod. kan. pb.), pos hola ta arthra tes pisteos tes katholikes kai orthodoxou ekklesias einai paradedomena apo ton Kurion hemon Iesoun Christon me to meson ton apostolon tou eis ten ekklesian, kai hai oikoumenikai sunodoi ta hermeneuousan kai ta hedokimasan, kai na pisteue eis auta kathos prostassei

 Resp. 'Fides (secundum beatum Paulum (Heb. xi. 1) est substantia earum rerum quæ sperantur, earumque quæ non videntur demonstratio; per hanc enim testimonium consecuti sunt seniores.' Aut hunc in modum: Fides Orthodoxa, Catholica et Apostolica est corde credere et ore profiteri unum Deum, personis trinum; idque secundum Pauli ipsius doctrinam (Rom. x. 10): 'Corde creditur ad justitiam: ore fit confessio ad salutem.' Ad hæc pro certo atque indubitato tenere debet orthodoxus Christianus (Synod. VI. Can. LXXXII.), omnes fidei Articulos, quos Catholica et Orthodoxa credit Ecclesia, a Domino nostro Jesu Christo per Apostolos Ecclesiæ traditos: atque ab oecumenicis conciliis expositos approbatosque fuisse. Quos et ipse vera fide complecti debet, secundum præceptum

 ho Apostolos, legon (b. Thess. b. ie.); ara oun, adelphoi, stekete kai krateite tas paradoseis, has edidachthete, eite dia logou eite di epistoles hemon; kai allachou (a. Kor. ia. b.); epaino de humas, adelphoi, hoti panta mou memnesthe, kai kathos paredoka humin tas paradoseis, katechete. Apo ta hopoia logia einai phaneron, pos ta arthra tes pisteos echousi to kuros kai ten dokimasian, meros apo ten hagian graphen, meros apo ten ekklesiastiken, paradosin, kai apo ten didaskalian ton sunodon kai ton hagion pateron. To hopoion phaneronontas to ho hieros Dionusios legei (ekkl. Hier. a.) houtos; ousia gar kat' hemas hierarchias esti ta theoparadota logia; septotata de logia tauta phamen, hosa pros ton entheon hemon hieroteleston en hagiographois hemin kai theologikais dedoretai deltois, kai men hosa pros ton hieron andron aulotera muesei, kai geitoni pos ede tes ouranias hierarchias ek noos eis noun, dia mesou logou somatikou men auloterou de homos, graphes ektos, hoi kathegemones hemon emuethesan, egoun pos duo logion einai ta dogmata. Alla paradidei he graphe, ta hopoia periechontai eis ta theologika biblia tes hagias graphes; kai alla einai dogmata paradedomena ek stomatos apo tous Apostolous, kai touta hermeneuthesan apo tas sunodous kai Apostoli (2 Thess. ii. 15): 'Vos igitur, fratres, perstate traditionesque tenete, quas sive ex sermone nostro sive epistola didicistis.' Rursus alibi (1 Cor. xi. 2): 'Collaudo ego vos, fratres, quod mea omnia memoria tenetis; quodque traditiones, prout illas vobis tradidi, retinetis.' Ex hisce manifestum est, Articulos Fidei auctoritatem approbationemque suam partim sacræ scripturæ partim traditioni Ecclesiasticæ atque doctrinæ Conciliorum sanctorumque Patrum acceptam referre. Quam rem hunc in modum clarius illustrat S. Dionysius (Hierarch. Eccles. cap. i. p. 108, Morell.): 'Quippe essentia Hierarchiæ hujus nostræ tradita divinitus oracula sunt, quorum ea quam maxime venerabilia ducimus, quæcunque a divinis doctoribus nostris (Apostolis) in sacris ac theologicis codicibus nobis data sunt: itemque illa, in quibus a sanctissimis istis hominibus immateriali quadam initiatione, et coelesti Hierarchiæ jam quodammodo vicina, de mente in mentem facta, ope quidem corporeæ sermocinationis, sed minus tamen materiatæ, nec ullis literis proditæ, præceptores et duces nostri initiati institutique fuere. Scilicet quod gemina ac duplicia Ecclesiæ dogmata sunt: alia literis mandata, quæ divinis sacræ scripturæ

 tous hagious pateras; kai eis ta duo tauta he pistis einai tethemeliomene. Kai den einai prepon, na steketai monon phulagmene eis to krupton tes kardias, ma kai me to stoma na keruttetai he aute, kai na homologatai aphobos kai anamphibolos; kathos kai ho hieros Psaltes legei (Psal. ris. i. b. Kor. d. ig.); episteusa, dio elalesa, kai hemeis pisteuomen, dio kai laloumen. libris comprehensa habentur; alia viva voce ab Apostolis tradita. Atque hæc ipsa sunt, quæ postmodum a Concilis sanctisque Patribus plenius declarata fuerunt; binisque hisce fundamentis fides superstructa exstat. Quam neutiquam arcanis pectorum claustris duntaxat abstrudi oportet: verum etiam confessione oris intrepide atque indubitanter prædicari ac proferri. Quemadmodum et sacer Psaltes loquitur (Psa. cxvi. 10 et 2 Cor. iv. 13): 'Credidi, propterea et locutus sum. Nos quoque credimus, ideoque etiam loquimur.' Erotesis e. Quæstio V.

 Posa einai ta arthra tes katholikes kai orthodoxou pisteos;

 Quot Catholicæ atque Orthodoxæ fidei Articuli sunt?

 Ap. Ta arthra tes orthodoxou kai katholikes pisteos einai dodeka, kata to sumbolon tes en Nikaia protes sunodou, kai ten en Konstantinoupolei deuteran; eis tais hopoiais houtos ephanerothesan hola, hopou sunteinousi pros ten hemeteran pistin, hopou oute pleiotera prepei na pisteuomen, oute oligotera, oute alloios para hopou egroikesan hoi pateres ekeinoi. Monon kapoia ap' auta ta arthra einai phanera, kai kath' heauta gnorima, kai alla perikratousi mustika eis heauta, kai ap' auta noountai kai ta alla.

 Resp. Orthodoxæ et Catholicæ fidei Articuli numero duodecim sunt secundum Symbolum Concilii primi Nicææ, et secundi Constantinopoli habiti. Quibus in Conciliis ita sunt accurate exposita, quæ ad fidem nostram attinent, omnia; ut neque plura neque pauciora a nobis credi oporteat, neque alio sensu intellectuque, quam quo Patres illi intellexerunt. Verumenimvero nonnulli horumce Articulorum clari per seque manifesti sunt, alii quædam occultius complectuntur, unde cetera etiam intelliguntur.

 Erotesis s'. Quæstio VI.

 Poion einai to proton arthron tes pisteos:

 Primus Fidei Articulus quis est?

 Ap. (Sunod. a.). Pisteuo eis hena Theon Patera pantokratora, poieten ouranou kai ges, horaton te panton kai aoraton.

 Resp. (Synod. I.). Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, conditorem coeli et terræ, rerumque visibilium atque invisibilium omnium. Erotesis z'. Quæstio VII.

 Eis touto to arthron tes pisteos ti loges didaskalia perikrateitai;

 Cujusmodi in hoc Fidei Articulo continetur doctrina?

 Ap. Touto to arthron tes pisteos duo tina periechei, proton na pisteue tinas kai na homologe (Deut. s. d.), pos einai henas Theos en triadi hagia doxazomenos; kai pos eis ten theoteta he arche kai he rhiza tou Huiou kai tou hagiou Pneumatos einai ho Pater; deuteron didaskei, pos autos ho en triadi Theos epoiesen ek tou me ontos panta ta horata kai aorata; kathos ho Psalmodos marturon legei (Psal. lg. th.); hoti autos eipe, kai egenethesan, autos eneteilato kai ektisthesan.

 Resp. Hic Articulus duo quædam complectitur. Prius, ut credat quisque ac confiteatur (Deut. vi. 4), Deum esse unum, in sanctissima Trinitate adorandum, et in Divinitate originem et radicem Filii Sanctique Spiritus Patrem esse. Posterius, hunc ipsum trinunum Deum cuncta de nihilo condidisse, visibilia pariter atque invisibilia, teste sacro vate (Psa. xxxiii. 9): 'Ipse dixit, et facta sunt. Ipse jussit, et creata sunt.' Erotesis e. Quæstio VIII.

 Tina gnomen prepei na echo peri Theou;

 Quam de Deo habere debeo opinionem?

 Ap. Prepei na pisteues pos einai henas Theos en triadi hagia, kata ten graphen ten legousan (Eph. d. s.); heis Theos kai Pater panton, ho epi panton kai dia panton kai en pasin hemin; ho hopoios hos agathos

 Resp. Credere debes Deum in sancta Trinitate unum esse, secundum hæc scripturæ verba (Ephes. iv. 6): 'Unus Deus itemque omnium pater: qui super omnes, per omnes, in nobisque omnibus est.'

 kai huperagathos, me holon hopou einai kath' heauton huperteles kai dedoxasmenos, me holon touto dia na metechousi kai alla onta ten agathoteta tou, doxazonta auton, epoiesen ek tou me ontos ton kosmon. Ma ti na einai ho Theos eis ten phusin tou, touto einai adunaton na gnoristhe apo kan hena ktisma, ochi monon horaton, alla kai aoraton, egoun kai ap' autous tous angelous, diati den einai oude mia sunkrisis katholou anameson tou ktistou kai ktismatos. Kai ex hepomenou phthanei mas pros eusebeian (kathos marturei ho Hierosolum. Kurillos Katech. s.), na exeuromen, pos echomen Theon hena, Theon onta, kai aei onta, homoion kai tauton pantote me ton heauton tou; exo apo ton hopoion allos Theos den einai. Kathos legei ho autos Theos dia tou prophetou (Es. md'. z'.); ego (eimi Theos) protos, kai ego meta tauta, kai plen emou ouk estin Theos; kai ho Mouses pros ton Israeletikon laon meta protropes houto legei (Deut. s'. d'.); akoue Israel, Kurios ho Theos hemon Kurios heis estin. Qui ut bonus, immo plus quam summe bonus, quamvis in semet ipso longe perfectissimus gloriosissimusque esset, quo tamen et alia Entia, gloriam ipsius celebrando, bonitatem ejusdem participarent, totum hunc mundum ex nihilo effinxit. Ceterum quidnam omnino in natura sua Deus sit, id ipsum res creata nulla satis assequi ac percipere potest: non visibilis modo sed ne invisibilis quidem, sive Angeli ipsimet, quoniam nulla penitus inter creatorem et rem creatam comparatio proportioque intercedit. Sed illud denique nobis ad pietatem satis esse potest (teste Cyrillo Hierosolymitano, Catechesi VI. p. 40, Morell.). Si recte tenemus, Deum nos habere, Deum unum, eumque sempiternum; atque similem semper et eundem sibimet ipsi: præterque illum, Deum exsistere neminem, quemadmodum idem ille Deus per Prophetam (Jes. xliv. 7) fatur: 'Ego (sum Deus) primus, et ego postea; et præter me non est Deus.' In quam sententiam et Moses, cum adhortatione, ita populum Israëliticum alloquitur (Deut. vi. 4): 'Audi Israël, Dominus Deus noster, Dominus unus est.' Erotesis th'. Quæstio IX.

 An isos kai ho Theos einai henas

 Atqui si unus Deus est, necesse

 phainetai, pos na eton ananke, na eton kai hena prosopon; videtur, illum etiam unicam tantumodo personam esse?

 Ap. Den einai ananke; diati ho Theos einai henas eis ten phusin kai ten ousian, ma trisupostatos, kathos einai phaneron apo ten didaskalian autou tou Soteros hemon, hopou eipen pros tous Apostolous tou (Matth. ke. ith'.); poreuthentes matheteusate panta ta ethne; baptizontes autous eis to onoma tou Patros, kai tou Huiou, kai tou hagiou Pneumatos. Apo ta hopoia logia phaneronetai, pos eis ten mian Theoteta na einai tria prosopa, ho Pater, ho Huios, to Pneuma to hagion, Pater ho hopoios pro aionon genna ton huion apo ten idian tou ousian, kai to hagion Pneuma proiesin. Huios ek Patros gennetheis pro aionon homoousios auto; Pneuma hagion ap' aionos ekporeuomenon ek Patros, homoousion to Patri kai to huio; touto hermeneuon ho theios Damaskenos legei houtos (a. Bib. keph. ia.); ho Huios kai to Pneuma to hagion, eis mian aitian, ton Patera, anapherontai. Kai allachou (keph. i.) ho autos; ho huios ek tou Patros esti me tropon genneseos; to Pneuma to hagion kai auto ek tou Patros einai, ma ochi me tropon genneseos, all' ekporeuseos. Kai ho theologos Gregorios eis ta logia tou Apostolou ta pros Rhomaious (keph. ia. ls'.), hoti ex autou, kai di autou, kai eis auton, ta panta, legei

 Resp. Nihil necesse est. Quippe secundum naturam et essentiam Deus unus est; at personis trinus. Quod ex ipsius Servatoris nostri, ad Apostolos suos loquentis, doctrina satis claret (Matt. xxviii. 19): 'Euntes docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.' Unde patet, in una et eadem Divinitate tres omnino esse personas; Patrem, Filium et Spiritum Sanctum; Patrem, qui ante secula, de propria essentia sua, Filium gignit, ac Spiritum Sanctum emittit; Filium, a Patre ante secula genitum, illique consubstantialem; Spiritum Sanctum, ab omni æternitate de Patre procedentem, Patrique ac Filio coëssentialem. Quam rem hisce verbis exponit divinus Damascenus (Lib. I. c. xi.): Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus ad caussam unam, nempe Patrem, referuntur. Idem alio loco (cap. x.): Filius a Patre per modum generationis exsistit: Spiritus Sanctus itidem a Patre est; at non per modum generationis verum processionis. Porro et Gregorius Theologus, in verba Apostoli ad Romanos (xi. 36): 'Ex illo, et per illum, et in illum omnia;' sic loquitur (de Spiritu

 ohoto; to proton (egoun to ex autou) prepei na apodosomen eis ton Patera, to deuteron, eis ton Huion, kai to triton, eis to hagion Pneuma; dia na gnoristhe, pos einai trias eis ten theoteta. Kai pros toutois diati homoios kai aparalaktos, choris tinos exaireseos, baptizometha eis to onoma tou Patros, kai tou Huiou, kai tou hagiou Pneumatos; Loipon ho, ti einai ho Pater eis ten phusin, to auto einai kai ho Huios kai to hagion Pneuma. Alla men ho Pater einai Theos kata phusin alethes kai aionios, kai panton poietes ton horaton kai aoraton, toioutos loipon einai kai ho Huios kai to hagion Pneuma. Kai einai homoousia allelois, kata ten didaskalian tou Euangelistou Ioannou, hopou legei (a. Ioan. e. z'.); hoti treis eisin hoi marturountes en to ourano, ho Pater, ho Logos kai to hagion Pneuma; kai houtoi hoi treis hen eisin. Eis ta hopoia logia touto monon exaireitai, hopou ho Pater einai aitios eis ten Theoteta tou Huiou kai tou hagiou Pneumatos; tauta de ta duo prosopa einai ex ekeinou, ekeinos de ex oudenos. Houtos edidachthemen ap' autes tes aioniou aletheias, ton Iesoun ton Sotera mas, houtos apo tous hagious apostolous parelabomen. Kai hai oikoumenikai kai topikai Sunodoi, homoios kai hoi didaskaloi tes ekklesias alloias loges oute edidaxan, oute eparadokasin, e ekurosasi para houto; S. f. 64, Ald. p. 604, Par. adde p. 431): Primum (nimirum ex illo), Patri reddemus: secundum Filio: tertium Spiritui Sancto: ut inde palam fiat, exsistere re vera in Divinitate Trinitatem. Tum præterea quare æquali ratione nullaque differentia ant exceptione in nomen Patris, Filii et Spiritus Sancti baptizemur? Quapropter quod secundum naturam Pater est: id ipsum et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus est. Atqui Pater natura verus et æternus Deus est, rerumque omnium, quæ sub adspectum veniunt aut non veniunt, conditor; talis igitur omnino tum Filius est, tum Spiritus Sanctus, sibique invicem consubstantiales sunt, docente ita Joanne Evangelista (1 Joh. v. 7): 'Tres sunt, qui testificantur in cælo, Pater, Verbum et Spiritus Sanctus: et hi tres unum sunt.' Unum illud tamen his in verbis singillatim excipiendum, quod in essentia divina Filii Sanctique Spiritus caussa Pater est, quod ambæque hac personæ ab illo originem habent: at ipsemet ab nemine. Hunc in modum ab ipsa æterna Veritate, Jesu Servatore nostro, edocti sumus: hunc in modum de sanctis Apostolis accepimus: hunc omnino in modum, et non alium, universales particularesque Synodi una

 kai touto kratei homoios he orthodoxos hemon kai katholike ekklesia. Dia ten pistin tauten hoi hagioi martures echusan to haima ton, kai allaxasi ten zoen tauten me ton thanaton. Tetoias loges kai hemeis chreostoumen na pisteuomen ex holes mas tes kardias anamphibolos, kai na phulattomen ten pistin tauten asphalos kai stereos, kai di auten na apothneskomen (hotan he chreia to kalese) dia ten elpida tes soterias mas, sunergounton kai ton agathon hemon ergon, hon tas ameibas thelomen echein en ouranois aionious. cum doctoribus Ecclesiæ docuerunt, tradiderunt, sanxerunt. Idemque consimiliter Orthodoxa ac Catholica Ecclesia nostra tenet docetque. Hanc eandem ob fidem sanguinem suum sancti Martyres profuderunt, mortemque cum vita præsente commutarunt. Hoc plane et nos modo, ex toto corde nostro, sine ulla titubatione credere, atque hanc firmam et inconcussam servare fidem, illiusque caussa, si necesse sit, mortem oppetere debemus; ob spem nimirum æternæ salutis nostræ, adminiculantibus etiam bonis operibus nostris, quorum præmia fructusque sempiternos in cælo percepturi sumus. Erotesis i. Quæstio X.

 Epethumoun me phaneroteron tropon na katanoeso to musterion tes hagias triados.

 Vellem sane paullo clarius distinctiusque isthoc sacræ Trinitatis mysterium percipere.

 Ap. Me oude kan mian homoioteta einai dunaton na phanerothe teleios to pragma touto, kai na paraste eis ton noun mas phanera, me tina tropon einai ho Theos henas eis ten ousian, kai treis eis tas hupostaseis. Kai pos me oudemian homoioteta emporei na gnoristhe, to martura ho autos Theos, onomazomenos Iechoba, dia tou prophetou legontos (Es. ms'. e.), tini me homoiosate kai me exisasete kai eparabalete me, kai eperomoiasete me, dia na eimai homoios met' ekeinon; hoste hopou oudenas

 Resp. Atqui nulla profecto similitudine fieri potest, ut plene perfecteque res illustretur; ut evidenterque apud animum nostrum proponatur, quonam tandem pacto Deus essentia unus, idemque personis trinus sit. Quod nulla penitus imagine, nullo exemplo, satis declarari posse, Deus ipsemet, cui Jehovæ nomen est, per Prophetam testificatur (Jes. xlvi. 5): 'Cui me adsimilastis? cui me æquastis? et cui comparavistis me, consimilemque fecistis, ut illi similis sim?'

 nous ochi monon anthropinos, alla oute angelikos emporei na katalabe, e glossa na to hermeneuse. Dia touto prepei na eipoumen mazi me ton Apostolon (b. Kor. i. e.); logismous kathairountes, kai pan hupsoma epairomenon kata tes gnoseos tou Theou, kai aichmalotizontes pan noema eis ten hupakoen tou Christou. Pisteuomen bebaios, hoti ho Theos kai Pater huparchon ap' aionos, kai ep' aiona, kai eti ap' oudenos paragomenos genna ton Huion kai proagei to Pneuma to hagion. Peri hou ho megas Athanasios platuteron didaskontas eis to sumbolon tou eipe, kai houto pisteuontes peraitero den ereunoumen. Diati ho suzetetes kai exetaktes tes theias megaloprepeias koluetai apo ten Graphen ten legousan (Seir. g'. k'.); chalepotera sou me zetei, kai ischurotera sou me exetaze. Haprosetage soi, tauta dianoou, ou gar esti soi chreia ton krupton. En tois perissois ton ergon sou me periergazou. Phthanei mas loipon toson, pos he hagia Graphe tou palaiou nomou proballomene hena Theon mas hermeneuei tria prosopa, legousa (Gen. a. ks'.); eipe Kurios ho theos, poiesomen anthropon kat' eikona hemeteran kai kath' homoiosin; kai (Gen. g'. kb'.); idou Adam gegonen hos heis ex hemon; kai (Gen. ia. z'.); deute katabantes auton tas Adeo ut nullus intellectus, non modo humanus, sed ne angelicas quidem hoc comprehendere, nulla eloqui valeat lingua. Quamobrem rectissime cum Apostolo dixerimus (2 Cor. x. 5): 'Destruentes ratiocinationes, omnemque celsitudinem, quæ attollitur adversus cognitionem Dei, et captivam ducentes omnem cogitationem in obedientiam Christi.' Firma fide credimus, Deum Patrem, ab æterno, et in æternum reapse exsistentem, eundemque a nullo prorsus oriundum generare Filium, Spiritumque Sanctum producere. Qua de re plenius uberiusque in Symbolo suo magnus Athanasius tractat. Hac fidei simplicitate contenti nihil ulterius exquirimus ac scrutamur. Scrutator enim disputatorque divinæ majestatis vetatur a scriptura dicente (Sirach. iii. 20): 'Difficiliora quam pro tuo captu ne require: et viribus tuis fortiora ne scrutare. Quæ tibi mandata sunt, ea meditare. Non enim indiges iis, quæ occulta sunt. In iis, quæ supervacua tibi sunt, ne curiosus esto.' Hoc igitur nobis satis sit, quod sacra legis antiquæ Scriptura, dum Deum unum proponit, simul nobis trinitatem personarum exponit (Gen. i. 26): 'Dixit Dominus Deus, faciamus hominem ad imaginem nostram et ad similitudinem;' et (cap. iii. 22):

 glossas suncheomen ekei, hina me akousosin hekastos ten phonen tou plesiou; to auto kai ho Prophetes legon edelosen (Es. s'. g'.); kai ekekragen heteros (angelos) pros ton heteron, kai elegon; Hagios, hagios, hagios, Kurios Sabbaoth, pleres pasa he ge tes doxes autou; kai ho Hieropsaltes ephede (Psal. lb'. s'.); to logo Kuriou hoi ouranoi estereothesan, kai to Pneumati tou stomatos autou pasa he dunamis auton; peri hou phesi platuteron kai he hagia Graphe kai hoi didaskaloi tes Ekklesias. 'Ecce Adam ut unus nostrum jam factus est;' et (cap. xi. 7): 'Age, descendamus et confundamus illic linguas eorum: ut ne alii aliorum voces exaudiant.' Declarat id ipsum manifeste et Propheta, qui ait (Jes. vi. 3): 'Et clamabat alter (Angelus) alteri, dixitque: Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Zebaoth. Plena est omnis terra gloria illius.' Pariter et sacer Psalmista (Psa. xxxiii. 6): 'Verbo Domini coeli firmati sunt, et Spiritu oris ejus omnis exercitus eorum.' De quo fusius latiusque sacræ literæ Doctoresque ecclesiastici agunt. Erotesis ia. Quæstio XI.

 Poia einai ta idiomata tou Theou;

 Quænam Dei Proprietates sunt?

 Ap. Kathos ho Theos einai akataleptos, etze kai ta idiorata tou einai akatalepta. Ma hoson hemporoumen hemeis na sunaxomen apo ten hagian Graphen kai apo tous didaskalous tes ekklesias, toson echomen exousian, kai na nooumen, kai na legomen. Kai dia touto prepei na exeuromen, pos ta theia idiomata alla einai prosopika kai alla ousiode.

 Resp. Quemadmodum Deus ipse incomprehensibilis est, sic etiam incomprehensibiles proprietates illius sunt. Veruntamen quantum cum e Scriptura tum Doctoribus ecclesiæ colligere ac conducere poterimus: tantum item fas nobis est, et animo concipere, et ore proferre. Scire itaque licet proprietatum Divinarum alias Personales esse alias Essentiales. Erotesis ib'. Quæstio XII.

 Poia einai ta prosopika idiomata tou Theou;

 Personales Dei proprietates quæ sunt?

 Ap. Ta prosopika idiomata eis ta theia einai ekeina, meta hopoia ta

 Resp. Proprietates personales in Divinis illæ sunt, quibus ita ab se

 prosopa tes hagias triados houto diairountai pros allela, hoste hopou to hena einai men empore na einai to allo; egoun to prosopon tou Patros; den einai prosopon tou Huiou, diati ho Pater den einai gennetos apo tinos, ma ho Huios einai gegennemenos hapo ton Patera kata phusin pro ton aionon, kata ten Graphen ten legousan (Psal. ri. g'.); ek gastros pro heosphorou egennesa se. To, Pater loipon, kai to, Huios, kai to, Pneuma to hagion; to agenneton, kai to genneton, kai to ekporeuton diairei ta prosopa en tois theiois, ma ochi ten ousian, he hopoia pote den diaireitai eis heauten, monon chorizetai apo ten ktisin. To de hena kai to auto prosopon den emporei na einai gennetou mazi kai agennetou. Homoios prepei na groikoumen kai dia to Pneuma to hagion, to hopoion ekporeuetai apo ten ousian kai phusin tou Patros anarchos eitoun aionios, kai einai homoousion me ton Patera kai ton Huion. Ma diaireitai apo ton Patera me to idioma to prosopikon, diati ap' ekeinon ekporeuetai. Kai palin apo ton huion chorizetai, diati den einai apo ton Patera me tropon genneseos, kathos einai ho Huios, ma me tropon ekporeuseos, ek tou autou Patros; kai einai homoousioi allelois kai ho Huios kai to Pneuma to hagion, diati apo ten auten idian phusin tou Patros einai kai ta duo touta prosopa; invicem sanctissimæ Trinitatis personæ distinguuntur, ut quod una est, alia esse nequeat. Scilicet persona Patris haudquaquam Filii persona est, quoniam Pater a nullo genitus est; sed Filius ante ævum omne essentialiter a Patre genitus est; dicente Scriptura (Psa. cx. 3): Ex utero ante luciferum genui te, Pater itaque et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus: et rursus ingenitum et genitum et procedens: hæc sunt, quæ personas divinas discriminant; non vero essentiam, quæ in semet ipsam haud unquam distinguitur: verum a rebus creatis duntaxat secernitur. Iam vero nullo modo una et eadem geniti pariter et ingeniti esse potest persona. Idem de Spiritu Sancto sentiendum est, qui de essentia et natura Patris absque ullo temporali principio hoc est ab æterno procedit, patrique ac Filio consubstantialis est; sed sua personali proprietate, quod a Patre emanat, ab eodem distinguitur. Uti rursus a Filio; quod non ut Filius per modum generationis, verum per modum processionis, ab eodem illo Patre exsistit. Sunt igitur sibi mutuo coëssentiales Filius ac Spiritus Sanctus: quod ab eadem illa Patris natura ambæ hæ personæ sunt. Patri vero omnino consubstantiales

 kai me ton Patera einai homoousia, hestontas kai na einai apo ten phusin tou; dia to hopoion ho Gregorios ho thenlogos (log. kg'.) legei houtos; touto einai koinon eis ton Huion kai to Pneuma to hagion, diati kai to hena kai to allo prosopon apo ta duo touta einai apo ton Patera; to de idioma tou Patros einai touto, egoun to na einai agennetos; kai tou Huiou, to na einai gennetos; kai tou Pneumatos tou hagiou, to na einai ekporeuton. Akomi prosopikon idioma tou Huiou einai kai he ensarkos pasa oikonomia, ten hopoian den aneilephe mete ho Pater mete to Pneuma to hagion. Tetoias loges didaskei, na pisteuomen kai na homologoumen, he hagia ekklesia he katholike kai apostolike, hena Theon te phusei, en triadi prosopon, peri ou anagnothi ten proten en Nikaia Sunodon kai ten deuteran ten en Konstantinoupolei ten oikoumeniken. sunt; quandoquidem de ipsa illius natura ortum ducunt. Qua de re ita disserit Gregorius Theologus (Orat. XXIII. eis Herona , p. 422): Commune hoc equidem Filio ac Spiritui Sancto est, quod utraque persona a Patre oritur. Sed illud Patri proprium, quod genitus est: et Spiritui Sancto, quod procedit. Præterea etiam personalis Filii proprietas universa adsumtæ humanitatis oeconomia est, quam neque Pater neque Spiritus Sanctus in se suscepit. Hoc pacto unum natura Deum in trinitate personarum credere nos et confiteri, Sancta, Catholica et Apostolica docet Ecclesia. De quo lege primam Synodum Nicænam ac secundam eamque oecumenicam Constantinopolitanam. Erotesis ig'. Quæstio XIII.

 Poia einai ta ousiode idiomata tou Theou;

 Quænam Essentiales Dei Proprietates sunt?

 Ap. Ousiode idiomata tou Theou einai ekeina, hopou harmozousin homoios kai eis ton Patera, kai eis ton Huion, kai heis to hagion Pneuma; hoion to einai Theon, to einai aidion, anarchon, ateleuteton, agathon, pantodunamon, poieten, pronoeten, pantepiskopon, pasi paronta, kai ta panta plerounta;

 Resp. Essentiales Dei Proprietates illæ sunt, quæ in Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum æqualiter conveniunt. Nimirum esse Deum, esse æternum, carere omni et principio et fine, bonum esse, omnipotentem, creatorem, futuri providum, perspectare res

 aperigrapton, gnosten panton, ton te krupton kai phaneron. Kai dia na to eipo suntomos, exo ap' ekeina ta prosopika idiomata, hopou eipamen, to agenneton, e to Pater, kai aitian einai; to genneton, e to Huios, kai logos sesarkomenos, to ekporeuton e Pneuma hagion; ho, ti pragma legetai peri Theou, hola einai idiomata tes theias ousias koina homoios kai ton trion prosopon choris tinos diaphoras. cunctas, cunctis præsentem adesse, cunctas implere, infinitum esse et incircumscriptum, omniumque tum occultorum tum manifestorum gnarum. Atque ut paucis rem verbis complectar, præter personales, quas diximus, proprietates: ingenitum esse, sive Patrem, ceterarumque personarum causam: genitum esse, sive Filium, verbumque carne vestitum: atque procedere, sive Spiritum Sanctum esse; quidquid sane de Deo dicitur, id omne proprium naturæ divinæ attributum est: et æqualiter, nulloque prorsus discrimine, tribus commune personis. Erotesis id'. Quæstio XIV.

 Diati eis to proton arthron tes pisteos, aphenontes ta alla idiomata, ebalasi monon to, pantokratora;

 Quamobrem omissis ceteris, unum hoc Omnipotentiæ Attributum, in primo Fidei Articulo positum est?

 Ap. Diati me ton logon touton hermeneuetai akribesteron to idioma tou Theou, epeide oudena ktisma emporei na onomasthe pantodunamon; kai touto dia duo aitias. Proton diati den echei aph' heautou ten phusin tou, ma apo ton ktisten tou. Deuteron diati den emporei kai ekeino na kame kan hena ktisma apo to medame medamos einai. Ta hopoia duo touta monon harmozousin eis to pantodunamon tou Theou. Hoti de ho Theos einai pantodunamos, deiknusi touto ho autos, legon en te Apokalupsei (Keph.

 Resp. Quoniam illud Essentiæ Divinæ proprietatem quam accuratissime exprimit. Nulla namque res creata omnipotens appellari duas præcipue ob caussas potest: tum quod nihil a se ipso naturam suam habet, sed a creatore suo: tum quod nihil ex mero nihilo quidquam creatum producere ac creare potest: quæ res duæ soli omnipotentiæ divinæ conveniunt. Quod vero omnipotens Deus est, ipsemet in Apocalypsi demonstrat (i. 8): 'Ego sum Alpha, et ego

 a. e'.); ego eimi to Alpha, kai to Omega, arche kai telos; legei Kurios ho on, kai ho en kai ho erchomenos, pantokrator; homoios legei kai ho Archangelos (Louk. a. lz'.); hoti ouk adunatesei para to Theo pan rhema. Kai toute he pantokratoria kai pantodunamia tou Theou einai diorismene apo ten idian thelesin kai ten eudokian tou, hoste delade na men kame ekeinon holon, hopou emporei, ma ekeino monon, hopou thelei, ekeino kai emporei, ekeino kai kamei. Kathos legei ho hieros Psaltes (Psal. rie. g'.); ho Theos hemon en to ourano kai en te ge, panta hosa ethelesen epoiesen. Emporei na kame muriadas kosmon, hos an touton, ma den ethelesen. Epeita prepei na groikatai to pantodunamon touto tou Theou, pos einai eis ten teleioteta, makran apo pasan, ateleioteta e adunamian, hos delon me paradeigma. Ho Theos den emporei na einai kakos, e na hamarte e pseusasthai heauton, e arnesasthai, hos phe Paulos (b'. Tim. b'. ig'.; Hebr. s'. ie.), diati touto einai ateleioteton pragma. Kai an ho Theos ethelen einai kakos, e na esphallen, e na erneito ton heauton tou, den ethelen einai pantodunamos. Diati touta aph' heautou tos einai semadia ton atelon pragmaton. Einai loipon ho Theos pantodunamos kata ten thelesin kai teleiotaten tou agathoteta, kathos ton exumna ho melodos Prophetes (Psal. oe. Omega, principium et finis, ait Dominus, qui est, qui fuit, qui venturus est, omnipotens.' Idem ait et Archangelus Gabriel (Luc. i. 37): 'Quoniam non impossibile erit Deo ullum verbum.' Verum enimvero secreta et distincta universalis hæcce potestas Dei atque omnipotentia a voluntate illius et arbitrio est, ita ut non illud omne efficiat, quod efficere potis est; verum id solum, quod vult, et possit et efficiat; teste sacro cantore (Psa. cxv. 3): 'Deus noster in coelo et in terra, fecit omnia, quæ voluit.' Ille quidem certe sexcenta mundorum millia æque ac nostrum hunc fabricari potuit at noluit. Porro eadem divina omnipotentia summæ perfectioni conjuncta longissimoque intervallo ab imperfectione ac impotentia omni sejuncta existimanda est: ut hoc patescet exemplo. Deus malus esse non potest, non peccare, non mentiri, aut abnegare semet ipsum, teste Paulo (2 Tim. ii. 13; Heb. vi. 18), quia hæ meræ imperfectiones sunt. Quod si aut improbus Deus foret, aut peccando laberetur, aut se ipse inficiaretur: haudquaquam omnipotens esset. Sunt ista enim per se rerum imperfectarum signa. Est itaque plane omnipotens Deus, ex voluntate ac perfectissima bonitate sua; quemadmodum illum

 ig'. id'.), legon; tis Theos megas hos ho Theos hemon; su ei ho Theos, ho poion thaumasia monos; egnorisas en tois laois ten dunamin sou. Kai telos panton pantodunamos e pantokrator onomazetai, diati hola einai eis ten dunamin tou, kai ton kosmon epoiese choris kan mian duskolian, kai choris kan hena kopon, monon me ten thelesin tou. concelebrat Propheta, Psalmorum auctor (lxxvii. 13, 14): 'Ecquis ita magnus Deus est, ut Deus noster? Tu es Deus, qui mirabilia solus efficis. Notam fecisti in populis potentiam tuam.' Ad extremum ideo etiam omnipotens sive rerum omnium arbiter moderatorque Deus nuncupatur, quod omnia in potestate et imperio illius sunt, et quod mundum universum nulla difficultate nullo labore ac molimine, solo arbitrio suo, architectatus fuit. Erotesis ie. Quæstio XV.

 Kai an einai ho Theos aperigraptos kai pantachou paresti, pos legetai, hoti en ouranois katoika, kai eis allous tinas topous tes ges exairetoteros;

 Siquidem vero nullo Deus loco circumscribitur et ubique præsto est: quo quæso modo in coelo certisque quibusdam terræ locis potissimum habitare dicitur?

 Ap. Ochi hos an tacha ho ouranos e he Sion e allos tinas topos na periorize ten aulon kai asomaton theoteta, diati ho Theis den echei kan hena topon, ma einai topos autos heautou. Ma diati energei eis autous tous topous perissotera, kai phainontai phanerotera kai sunechesteron hai energeiai tou kai he charis tou, dia touto legetai na katoika eis autous. Hoion eis tous ouranous (hos legei ho hieros Damaskenos Bib. a'. keph. is'.), en autois gar eisin hoi poiountes to thelema autou angeloi, kai aei doxazontes auton; eis ten gen; en aute gar dia sarkos tois anthropois sunanestraphe;

 Resp. Minime istuc quidem, quasi immaterialem et incorpoream illam Divinitatem, coelum fortasse, aut Zijon, aut quicunque locus alius circumscribat. Nullum enim Deus occupat locum; sed ipse sibi locus est. Verum quoniam iis in locis, illustriora quædam magisque insignia efficit, ibique opera ipsius et gratiæ vestigia clarius sæpiusque emicant; ideo illic habitare fertur. Velut in coelo (sicut sanctus ait Damascenus Orthod. Fid. Lib. I. cap. xvi.), quoniam ibi sunt, qui jussa atque arbitria illius capessunt, illumque

 eis ten agian ekklesian; diati ekei me xechoriston tropon he charis tou didetai eis tous pistous, kai he doxa tou katangelletai; homoios kai katha topos, eis ton hopoion na phainetai me kan hena tropon he charis tou Theou, legetai topos autou. perpetuo concelebrant Angeli. In terra, quoniam illic in carne cum hominibus versabatur. In sancta Ecclesia, quoniam illic modo peculiari et gratia ipsius fidelibus datur, et prædicatur gloria. Similiter et locus quilibet alius, in quo aliqua gratiæ Dei significatio ostenditur, locus illius appellatur. Erotesis is'. Quæstio XVI.

 Kai an leges, pos einai idioma tou Theou monou, to eidenai panta, ta kruphia delade kai phanera, pos kai hoi anthropoi, hoi prophetai, kai hoi angeloi ta exeurasi;

 Quando autem Dei solius hoc esse adfirmas, nosse omnia, occulta videlicet et aperta: quo igitur pacto tum Angeli tum inter mortales Prophetæ eadem cognoverunt?

 Ap. Ho Theos exeurei aph' heautou tou panta ta apokrupha kai ta bathea ton anthropon kai ton angelon; ochi monon hotan ta logiazousi, ma kai pro ktiseos kosmou, kathos he Graphe (Seir. kg'. kth'.) legei; ophthalmoi Kuriou murioplasios heliou photeinoteroi, epiblepontes pasas hodous anthropon, kai katanoountes eis apokrupha mere; kai allachou (Seir. mb'. ith'. k'.); egno ho Kurios pasan eidesin, kai eneblepsen eis semeion aionos, apangellon ta pareleluthota, kai epesomena, kai apokalupton ichne apokruphon; kai ho Ioannes eis ten Apokalupsin (keph. b'. kg'.); Ego eimi ho ereunon nephrous kai kardias; kai doso humin ekasto kata ta erga humon. Ma hoi angeloi kai hoi anthropoi an exeurousi

 Resp. Deus per se ipsum abdita et arcana omnia, profundasque hominum Angelorumque cogitationes cognoscit: non illo solum momento, quo cogitantur; sed et ante orbem conditum. Sic enim Scriptura (Sirach. xxiii. 29): 'Oculi Domini millies sole lucidiores sunt; intuentur omnes vias hominum; partesque abstrusas contemplantur.' Itemque loco alio (Sirach. xlii. 19, 20): 'Novit Dominus scientiam omnem, ac intuetur signum seculi. Enunciat præterita et futura; et vestigia rerum occultarum manifestat.' Et Ioannes in Apocalypsi (ii. 23): 'Ego sum, qui corda ac renes perscrutor; et dabo cuique vestrum secundum opera sua.' Si quando autem Angelis ac hominibus

 kan mian phoran ta apokrupha mellonta, ta exeurousin ek theias apokalupseos. hos martura he Graphe, legousa (Dan. b', kb'.); ho Theos apokaluptei bathea kai apokrupha. Kathos apekalupsen eis ton Helissaion ekeino, hopou ho doulos tou ho Gieze epere krupha eis ton dromon apo ton Neeman (b'. Bas. e'. ks'.); kai eis ton Petron ton Apostolon, peri tou Ananiou kai Sappheiras (Prax. e'.). Kai toiauten epistemen eichasin akomi kai holoi hoi prophetai. occulta futura prænoscere contingit; utique eadem ex divina patefactione cognoscunt, teste Scriptura (Dan. ii. 22): 'Deus est, qui profunda ac abscondita detegit.' Quomodo Elisæo patefecit, id quod servus illius Gehasi clanculum in via a Naëmane abstulerat (2 Reg. v. 26); pariterque Petro apostolo factum Ananiæ et Sapphiræ (Act. v.). Cujusmodi rerum futurarum præsensione Prophetæ omnes instructi fuerunt. Erotesis iz'. Quæstio XVII.

 Einai tacha alla idiomata monou tou Theou idia?

 Suntne vero et aliæ quædam Dei solius Proprietates?

 Ap. Ta idiomata tou Theou einai anarithmeta. Ma touta, hopou eproeipamen, hos an ophelema pros ten soterian phthanousi na mas, deixousi, poian gnomen na echomen peri Theou. Dia touto aphenontas esu ta alla, pisteue statheros kai ametakinetos, pos einai henas Theos en triadi prosopon, pantodunamos, pantachou paron kai ta panta eidos; ametabletos eis ten phusin kai aidios.

 Resp. Proprietates divinæ sane innumerabiles sunt; quæ tamen ut ad salutem utiles hactenus recensuimus; illæ satis demonstrant nobis, quam de Deo habere conveniat sententiam. Tu itaque, reliquis sepositis, firma immotaque fide crede, unum in trinitate personarum Deum esse, omnipotentem, omnipræsentem, omniscium, natura immutabilem atque sempiternum. Erotesis ie. Quæstio XVIII.

 Epeide kai eis touto to arthron ballousi ton logon touton, poieten, tacha ho Theos holonon ton pragmaton einai poietes?

 Quando autem nomen Creatoris in hoc Articulo positum est, num igitur rerum omnino omnium conditor Deus est?

 Ap. Choris kan mian amphibolian

 Resp. Rerum profecto creatarum

 ho Theos einai poietes panton ton horaton kai aoraton ktismaton; kai protetera apo hola ekame pasas tas dunameis tou ouranou ek tou me ontos me to noema tou, hos an humnetas exairetous tes doxes tou. Kai ektise ton noeron ekeinon kosmon, hopou egnorisasi kala ton Theon, kata ten charin ten dotheisan autois, kai hupotassontai holos diolou eis ten thelesin tou. Epeita ho kosmos houtos, ho horatos kai hulikos, ektistheken apo to me einai ek Theou. Kai husteron ho Theos ton anthropon eplase, suntheton apo aulon kai logiken psuchen kai apo hulikon soma, dia na gnoristhe me ton hena suntheton anthropon, pos ho idios toutos einai ho poietes kai ton duo kosmon, tou aulou kai hulikou. Kai dia ten aphormen touten ho anthropos onomazetai kosmos mikros, diati basta eis ton heauton tou to papadeigma holou tou megalou kosmou (Dam. Bib. b'. keph. g'. ib'.). omnium, tum visibilium, tum invisibilium sine ulla controversia creator Deus est. Atque ante cetera quidem omnia, cælestes omnes Exercitus, ut præcipuos gloriæ majestatisque suæ præcones, sola cogitatione, de nihilo effinxit; mundumque illum intellectualem condidit, qui secundum concessam sibi gratiam Deum pulchre cognoscunt, penitusque ac perpetuo voluntati illius morem gerunt. Tum vero postea aspectabilem atque materiatum hunc orbem item ex nihilo Deus fabricatus est. Ad ultimum denique et hominem fecit, immateriali mentisque compote anima et materiato corpore compositum, ut vel ex uno homine hunc in modum coagmentato constaret, eundem illum Deum, mundi utriusque, immaterialis puta atque materialis, opificem auctoremque esse. Ideoque haud abs re homo pusillus mundus appellatur; quippe qui universi mundi majoris expressam in sese imaginem circumfert (Damasc. ii. 3 et 12). Erotesis ith'. Quæstio XIX.

 Epeide kai ho Theos eplase proton tous angelous, tina gnomen prepei na echomen di autous?

 Iam quoniam primo loco Angelos creavit Deus, dic quæso quidnam de iis statuendum habemus?

 Ap. Hoi angeloi einai pneumata, plasthentes apo to me einai eis to einai ek Theou, dia na humnousi ton

 Resp. Angeli sunt Spiritus, ex non ente, in ens verum, ea fini a Deo conformati, ut et ipsum hymnis

 Theon, kai na tou douleuousin, epeita kai na diakonousi kai eis ton kosmon touton ton anthropon, hodegountes tous eis ten basileian tou Theou. Didontai akomi eis phulaxin poleon, basileion, choron, monasterion, ekklesion kai anthropon pneumatikon kai kosmikon. Tou hopoiou pragmatos paradeigma echomen eis tas praxeis ton Apostolon, hopou graphei (keph. e. ith.); angelos de Kuriou dia tes nuktos enoixe tas thuras tes phulakes, exagagon te autous eipe; poreuesthe, kai stathentes laleite en to hiero to lao panta ta rhemata tes zoes tautes; kai palin (Prax. ib. e.); angelos Kuriou epeste, kai eipe to Petro, perizosai kai hupodesai ta sandalia sou; peribalou to himation sou kai akolouthei moi. Kai met' oliga (stoich. ib); kai ho Petros genomenos en heauto eipe, nun oida alethos, hoti exapesteile Kurios ton angelon hautou, kai exeileto me ek cheiros Herodou kai pases tes prosdokias tou laou ton Hioudaion. Homoios phulattousi kai ta mikra paidia, kata ten didaskalian tou Soteros hemonten legousan (Matth. ie. i.); lego gar humin, hoti hoi angeloi auton en ouranois dia pantos blepousi to prosopon tou Patros mou tou en ouranois. Akomi prospherousin eis ten theian megaleioteta tas proseuchas kai eleemosunas mas, kai tas loipas agathoergias; ochi diati tacha suis concelebrent illique appareant: et præterea hoc in orbe suo ministerio hominibus adsint, illisque in regnum Dei viam præeant. Est illis etiam urbium, regnorum, regionum, monasteriorum, ecclesiarum, hominumque item, tum religiosorum, tum secularium cura et tutela commissa. Cujus rei luculentum in Actibus Apostolicis commemoratur exemplum (cap. v. 19), Angelus autem Domini noctu forea carceris reclusit, illisque eductis dixit: 'Ite, et in templo consistentes omnia vitæ hujus verba populo exponite.' Et rursus (xii. 8): 'Ecce vero subito adstabat Angelus Domini, dixitque Petro: accinge te ocius, indue soleas, circumda tibi pallium et sequere me.' Et mox (v. 12): 'Verum ut ad se rediit Petrus, dixit: nunc vero plane scio, emisisse Dominum Angelum suum, meque eripuisse de manu Herodis, et de omni exspectatione populi Iudæorum.' Pari modo parvulorum infantum curam agunt, docente ipso Servatore nostro (Matt. xviii. 10): 'Dico enim vobis, quod Angeli illorum in coelis perpetuo vultum patris mei, qui in coelis est, intuentur.' Iidem preces et eleemosynas nostræ et benefacta reliqua ad divinam majestatem perferunt. Minime istuc quidem, quasi eleemosynas non animadverteret

 ho Theos na men theore tas eleemosunas mas, e na me groika tais proseuchais mas, ma diati ekeinoi mesiteuousi dia mas. Kai eis ton palaion nomon, prin dothe ho nomos tou Mouseos, edidaskasi hoi angeloi ton nomon, kai ten thelesin tou Theou eis tous propatoras mas, kai tous edeichnasi ten hodon tes soterias; kathos to martura ho hieros Dionusios. Kai husteron, aph' hou edotheken ho nomos, edidaskasin hodegontas) tous eis to agathon. Kai touto he Graphe to semadeuei legousa, pos hoi angeloi ephainonto eis tous prophetas, kai tous eprolegasi ta mellonta, hos an eis ton Ioseph, hopou edoken ho angelos logon, na proseche apo ten apophasin tou Herodou, eipon (Mat. b. ig); egertheis paralabe to paidion kai ten metera autou, kai pheuge eis Aigupton, kai isthi ekei, heos an eipo soi, mellei gar Erodes zetein to paidion, tou apolesai auto. Akomi kai hotan ephobeito, na douleue tes parthenou (Matth. a. k.), ho angelos tou Kuriou ton etharrhune, kai ton edidaxen. Apokaluptousin akomi tas theias energeias, kathos eis ton kairon tes genneseos Christou apekalupsan (Louk. b.) eis tous poimenas, hoti ho Christos egennetheken eis ten Bethleem. Kai me to prostagma tou Theou, parastekontas topikos katha anthropou, mas eleutheronousin apo katha kindunon, kai diokousi to echthron nostras, aut preces non ipse satis exaudiret Deus, sed quod illi pro nobis intercedunt. Et in antiqua lege, lege Mosaica nondum lata, legem voluntatemque Dei omnen majores nostros Angeli edocebant; eisque rectum salutis iter commonstrabant, teste S. Dionysio (Hierarch. Eccl. iv. p. 26). Postea vero quam promulgata lex erat, instruebant homines ducebantque ad bonum. Prout ipsa satis Scriptura arguit, dum et apparuisse Prophetis Angelos, et futura aperuisse, prodit. Veluti quum Iosephum Angelus præmonuit, caveret sibi a sanguinario Herodis proposito (Matt. ii. 13): 'Surge, inquit, acceptoque puerulo illiusque matre, in Ægyptum effuge; et mane illic, donec dixero tibi. Certo enim puerulum ad necem quæsiturus est Herodes.' Rursus quando idem Virgini familiariter servire verebatur (Matt. i. 20); mox animum illi Angelus Domini addit, rectiusque edocet. Horum item indicio divina opera divulgantur: quemadmodum, nascente Christo (Luc. ii.), illum Bethlehemi jam modo in lucem editum esse, pastoribus nunciabant. Illi etiam, mandatu Dei localiter singulis hominibus præsto adsunt, et periculis quibuslibet nos eripiunt, animarumque nostrarum hostem propulsant, qui crudelissime

 ton psuchon hemon, hopou apenos timora ton anthropon, hotan katalabe pos ho Theos tou edoken adeian. Kai pos ho angelos na mas phulatte, to echomen phaneron apo touto, hopou legei he Graphe, dia ton elpizonta epi Kurion (Psal. ma. ia.); hoti tois angelois autou enteleitai peri sou, tou diaphulaxai se en pasais tais hodois sou. Epi cheiron arousi se, me pote proskopses pros lithon ton poda sou. discruciare hominem solet, quandocunque id sibi divino permissu licere intelligit. Iam quod sua nos custodia cælestis ille genius noster sepiat tueaturque, id ex hoc scripturæ dicto, de eo qui Domino unice confidit, satis apparet (Psa. xci. 11): 'Angelis suis de te præcipiet, ut custodiant te in omnibus viis tuis; attollent te manibus, ne ad lapidem pedem tuum offendas.' Erotesis k'. Quæstio XX.

 Eis posas taxeis diairountai hoi angeloi?

 In quot Classes distribuuntur Angeli?

 Ap. Kathos legei ho Dionusios (Ouran. hierar. keph. z.), eis ennea chorous diairountai, kai hoi ennea toutoi eis treis taxeis. Kai eis ten proten taxin heuriskountai ekeinoi, hopou einai simoteron eis ton Theon, oion Thronoi, Cheroubim, kai Seraphim; eis ten deuteran taxin Exousiai, Kuriotetes, kai Dunameis; eis ten triten, Angeloi, Archangeloi, Archai. Kai houtos einai diatetheimenoi, hopou hoi katoteroi angeloi pernousin apo tous pleon apano ten ellampsin kai tas theias euergesias. Houtoi hoi angeloi estamatisasin eis ten charin tou Theou aionios estontas, kai na me sumphonesousi me ton Heosphoron, na enantiothousi tou Theou. Kai dia touto pernontes tauten ten charin den emporousi pote na sphalousin,

 Resp. Ex sententia Dionysii (Hier. Cælest. cap. vi. et vii.) in novem distinguuntur choros, qui denuo in tres distribuuntur classes. Prima in classe ævum agitant, qui Deum propius circumstant: Throni, Cherubim et Seraphim. In secunda Potestates, Dominationes, Exercitus (sive etiam Virtutes). In tertia Angeli, Archangeli, Principatus. Sunt autem eo dispositi ordine, ut inferiores a superioribus illuminationem ac divina beneficia accipiant. Hi Angeli in gratia Dei jugiter permanent. Quippe quoniam Luciferi ad rebellionem adversus Deum incitamentis aurem non præbuerunt, hanc gratiam adepti non amplius labi possunt; non illud quidem certe ulla naturæ

 ochi apo ten phusin tous, ma apo ten charin tou Theou. Kai touta ta sesemeiomena phthanousi pros gnosin ton angelon, kath' hoson apaitei ho logos tes parouses suntomou didaskalias tes orthodoxou. Kai gnorizontes hemeis, pos mas boethousi kai mesiteuousi di hemas, eis pasan mas proseuchen tous epikaloumetha, na parakalousi di hemas ton Theon kai malista ton angelon ekeinon, hopou einai phulakas mas. suæ præstantia, sed mera Dei gratia. Hæc ita breviter annotata ad notitiam Angelorum in tantum sufficere arbitramur, quantum compendiariæ hujus Orthodoxæ doctrinæ modus exigere videatur. Itaque cognito jam satis, cum opem nobis auxiliumque Angelos ferre, tum sua nos intercessione juvare, merito omnibus in precibus nostris illos obtestamur, ut Deum nobis propitient; illumque ante alios Angelum, qui præses noster custosque est. Erotesis ka. Quæstio XXI.

 Tina gnomen prepei na echomen dia tous kakous angelous?

 Poro quid de malis Angelis sentiendum nobis?

 Ak. Pos hoi poneroi angeloi eplasthekasin apo ton Theon kaloi, diati ho, ti epoiesen ho Theos, kalon to epoiese. Ma ekeinoi me ten idian tous thelesin egenekasi kakoi, kathos martura ho Kurios hemon, dia ton archonta tous legon (Ioan. e. md'.); ekeinos anthropoktonos en ap' arches; kai en te aletheia ouch hesteken, hoti ouk estin aletheia en auto; hotan lale to pseudos, ek ton idion lalei, hoti pseustes esti, kai ho pater autou. Toutoi einai hoi archegoi pases ponerias, blasphemoi tes theias megaleiotetos, apateones ton anthropinon psuchon, kai autoi, kai ta organa ton. Kathos paradidosin he Graphe legousa (a. Petr. e. e.); nepsate,

 Resp. Ipsos quidem bonos omnino a Deo creatos fuisse: quidquid enim fecit Deus, bonum fecit; sed propria voluntate sua improbos evasisse; prout testatur Dominus noster de principe Dæmonum loquens (Ioh. viii. 44): 'Ille homicida fuit ab initio, nec in veritate stetit. Non enim est in illo veritas. Quando mendacium loquitur, de suis loquitur. Nam mendax est, illiusque pater.' Hi impietatis omnis auctores et signiferi divinæque majestatis blasphemi obtrectatores sunt; hi mentium humanarum deceptores; tum ipsimet tum instrumenta ipsorum, tradente Scriptura (1 Pet. v. 8): 'Sobrii

 gregoresate, hoti ho antidikos humon diabolos hos leon oruomenos peripatei, zeton tina katapie. Me holon touto, prepei na exeuromen, pos hoi daimones den emporousi na metacheiristhousi ten dunamin tous eis kan hena anthropon e kai allo ktisma, choris na sunchorese ho Theos. Kai toutou martus he Graphe legousa; kai parekaloun auton hoi daimones, legontes (Matth. e. la.); ei ekballeis hemas, epitrepson hemin apelthein eis ten agelen ton choiron. Kai eipen autois; hupagete. Akomi kai touto prepei kath' henas na exeure, tos den emporousi na anankasousi ton anthropon eis to na hamarte; monon me peirasmon ton exapatousi. Diati ho anthropos einai autexousios, kai eis to autexousion mete ho idios Theos phernei kan mian bian e ananken. Kai estontas na einai katakekrimenoi eis ton aiona, oudepote ginontai dektikoi tes theias charitos, kata to eiremenon (Matth. ke. ma.); poreuesthe ap' emou hoi kateramenoi eis to pur to aionion to hetoimasmenon to diabolo kai tois angelois autou. estote, vigilate. Nam adversarius vester Diabolus tanquam leo rugiens obambulat, quærens quem deglutiat.' Quæ quanquam ita comparata sunt, sciendum tamen, non posse Dæmones vim ac violentiam suam in hominem ullum ullamque rem aliam nisi Deo indulgente exercere, teste Scriptura (Matt. viii. 21): 'Rogabant vero illum Dæmones ac dicebant: siquidem nos expellis, permitte nobis abire in gregem porcorum. Ille vero dixit eis: Ite.' Porro illud etiam cuivis exploratum esse debet, minime in illorum manu positum esse, ut peccare hominem cogant, quem suis duntaxat instigationibus illecebrisque in fraudem et errorem deducunt. Est enim libertate sui arbitrii homo præditus, cui libertati nec Deus ipse vim ullam necessitatemque infert. Ceterum quoniam æternis, suppliciis poenisque multati Dæmones sunt, idcirco nullo unquam tempore divinæ gratiæ misericordiæque participes fieri possunt, ut dictum est (Matt. xxv. 41): 'Discedite a me maledicti in ignem æternum, qui Diabolo angelisque ejus præparatus est.' Erotesis kb'. Quæstio XXII.

 Tina gnomen prepei na echomen dia ten allen ktisin?

 De reliquis autem rebus creatis quid statuendum nobis est?

 Ap. Pos ho Theos apo to me einai

 Resp. Hoc nimirum, quod Deus

 ekame ta panta me to prostagma tou, kai eis to husteron eplase ton anthropon, kai ton ekamen authenten apano eis olen ten ktisin, hopou einai hupokato tou ouranou, legontas (Gen. a, ks.); poiesomen anthropon kat' eikona hemeteran kai kath' homoiosin; kai archetosan ton ichthuon tes thalasses, ton peteinon tou ouranou, ton ktenon, kai pases tes ges. To auto legei kai ho hieros Psaltes (Psal. e. s'.); katestesas auton epi ta erga ton cheiron sou; panta hupetaxas hupokato ton podon autou, probata kai boas hapasas, eti de kai ta ktene tou pediou; ta peteina tou ouranou, kai tous ichthuas tes thalasses, ta diaporeuomena tribous thalasson, kai anotero; elattosas auton brachu ti par angelous, doxe kai time estephanosas auton. Ma diati den ephulaxen ho anthropos ten entolen tou Theou eis ton paradeison, hotan eton athoos, ma apo ton apegoreumenon karpon epiase kai ephage; dia touto esteretheken apo ten azian tou kai apo ten katastasin, hopou eichen eis ton kairon tes athootetos tou. Kai diochtheis apo ton paradeison toioutos eginen, ho, ti loges ton perigraphei ho Prophetes (Psal. mth'. k'.) legontas; anthropos en time on ou suneke, parasuneblethe tois ktenesi tois anoetois, kai homoiothe autois. Kai ekousen (Gen g'. ith'.); hoti ge ei, kai eis gen apeleuse. verbo jussuque suo cuncta e nihilo fecerit; quodque post reliqua omnia hominem creaverit, illumque herum ac dominum rerum, quæ sub coelo sunt, omnium constituent, dicens (Gen. i. 26): 'Faciamus hominem ad imaginem nostram et secundum similitudinem; et dominentur piscibus maris, et volucribus coeli, et jumentis, et orbi terrarum universo.' Idem et sacer Psaltes adstruit (Psa. viii. 6): 'Præfecisti eum operibus manuum tuarum; subjecisti omnia sub pedes illius: oves et boves universas, insuper et pecora campi, volucres coeli, et pisces maris, qui semitas marinas perambulant.' Et paullo antea (v. 5): 'Paullo minorem Angelis fecisti eum, gloria et honore coronasti eum.' Quoniam vero mandatum Dei in Paradiso, quum adhuc in statu innocentiæ homo esset, neglexit de vetitoque fructu carpsit gustavitque; ea re honoribus fortunisque omnibus, queis tempore integritatis suæ ornatus fuerat, subito exutus, beatoque pulsus horto, talis omnino evasit, qualem illum Propheta depingit (Psa. xlix. 20): 'Homo quum in honore esset, non intellexit.' Comparatus est brutis jumentis, iisque similis factus est. Ideoque hanc sententiam audivit (Gen. iii. 10): 'Terra es, et in terram reverteris.'

 Erotesis kg'. Quæstio XXIII.

 Poia eton he katastasis tes anthropines athootetos, eitoun katharotetos kai anamartesias tou?

 Cujusmodi erat status Innocentiæ hominis sive puritatis et a peccando immunitatis?

 Ap. Duo logion einai he katastasis tes akakias eitoun athootetos (kata ton hagion Basileion eis ten archen ton Paroim.). He protn einai mia proairetike allotriosis apo tais hamartiais, egoun hotan leipe ho anthropos me ten idian tou proairesin apo ta hamartemata, dia ten gumnasian, hopou echei, kai makran sunetheian eis ta kaka. He deutera einai he agnoia kai he apeiria tou kakou, egoun hotan den gnorize, oute edokimase katholou to kakon e dia ten helikian tou, e di allais aitiais. Kai kata ton deuteron touton tropon eton eis ton Adam he athootes kai he akakia, prin hamarte, kata pasan teleioteta kai dikaiosunen emphuton, toson apo to meros tes dianoias, hoson kai apo to meros tes theleseos; eis ten dianoian perikleietai pasa episteme, kai eis ten thelesin pasa chrestotes kai kalosune. Diati gnorizontas ho Adam ton Theon kalotata (kath' hoson eis ton kairon ekeinon tou eton sunkechoremenon, kai kath' hoson eprepe) me touto, hopou egnorize ton Theon, egnorizen hola ta pragmata met' ekeinon. Kai toutou echomen semadia anamesa eis ta alla, hopou ephelthekasin eis ton Adam hola

 Resp. Innocentiæ integritatisque status duorum generam est (ex sententia S. Basilii, Homilia in Principium Proverbiorum pag. 184. Bas.). Prior est voluntaria quædam a peccato discessio; nimirum quum homo, cui ex diuturno vitiorum exercitio ac consuetudine (nota mala sunt), proprio deliberatoque consilio peccata deserit. Alter, simplex quædam mali inscientia et imperitia est, quando mali penitus ignarus quispiam inexpertusque est; sive per tenellam ætatulam suam, sive caussas alias. Posteriore hoc modo ante lapsum comparata innocentia Adami integritasque fuit; cunjuncta cum summa absolutaque perfectione ac justitia insita intellectus pariter voluntatisque, ita ut in intellectu scientia omnis includeretur, in voluntate probitas omnis et honestas. Quando itaque perfectissimo sane modo (quantum illo temporis habitu concessum ipsi ac decorum erat), Deum cognoscebat Adamus; ideo hoc ipso, quod Deum cognoscebat, cetera item omnia per ipsum noscitabat. Cujus rei clarum inter alia indicium habemus, quum ad Adamum

 ta zoa, dia na tous dose onoma. Kai ta onomase kath' hena ap' auta. To hopoion egennato apo to na gnorize ten phusin tous, ochi apo allen mathesin, monon apo to na meleta kai na logiaze peri Theou, kai tas ekeinou christotetas. Peri de tes theleseos, haute pantote hupetasseto eis ton logon; kala kai pantote na eton eleuthera, kai eton exousia eis ton anthropon na amarte, e na men hamarte. Kathos legetai eis ten Graphen (Seir. ie. ia.); me eipes, hoti dia Kurion apesten. Ha gar emisesen, ou poieseis. Me eipes, hoti autos me eplanesen. Ou gar chreian echei andros hamartolou. Pan bdelugma emisesen ho Kurios, kai ouk estin agapeton tois phoboumenois auton. Autos ex arches epoiesen anthropon, kai apheken auton en cheiri diabouliou autou. Ean theles, suntereseis entolas kai pistin, poiesai eudokias. Paretheke soi pur kai hudor, hou ean theles ekteneis ten cheira sou. Enanti anthropon he zoe kai ho thanatos; kai ho ean eudokese, dothesetai auto. Kai met' oliga (sich. k'.); ouk eneteilato oudeni asebein, kai ouk edoken anesin oudeni hamartanein. Eis toiauten loipon tes athootetos kai anamartesias katastasin eton ho anthropos homoios tois angelois. Ma hos an esphale me ten parabasin, pareuthus eis ton idion topon tou paradeisou, animantes omnes conveniebant, ut iis sua nomina daret, quæ ille etiam singulatim suis appellabat nominibus. Inde id autem fiebat, quod animantis cujusque naturam ac indolem perspectam haberet, non parta aliunde instructus scientia, sed ex eo, quod de Deo illiusque beneficiis secum meditaretur commentareturque. Iam quod ad voluntatem attinet; illa rationi perpetuo obtemperabat, quanquam et tum suam semper libertatem retineret, et situm plane in hominis esset potestate, sive peccaret sive non peccaret, sicut in scriptura dicitur (Sirach. xv. 11): 'Ne dixeris: propter Dominum defeci; non enim facere debes, quæ illi odiosa sunt. Ne dixeris: ipse me in errorem impulit.' Nihil enim illi homine peccatore opus est. Odit Dominus omnem abominationem, eademque illum timentibus haudquaquam accepta est. Ipse ab initio hominem fecit, eumque in manu consilii sui dimisit. Si voles, mandata et fidem servabis; faciendo, quæ illi grata, sunt. Ignem et aquam proposuit tibi; utrum voles, ad id extendes manum tuam. Vita et mors coram hominibus est; dabiturque illi, utrum ipsi placuerit. Et mox (v. 20): 'Nulli impie agere præcepit; nulli peccandi licentiam tribuit.'

 pernontas ten katastasin tes hamartias, egineke thnetos. Houto gar he hagia Graphe paradidosi (Rhom. s'. kg'.), legousa; ta opsonia tes hamartias thanatos. Kai tote pareuthus echase ten teleioteta tou logou kai tes gnoseos; kai he thelesis ekline perissoteron eis to kakon para eis to kalon. Kai houtos he katastasis tes athootetos kai akakias, estontas kai na dokimase to kakon, allaxen eis katastasin hamartias, kai ho teleios anthropos toson etapeinotheken, hoste na lege me ton Dabid (Psal. kb'. s'.); ego de eimi skolex, kai ouk anthropos. Hujusmodi igitur innocentiæ ac impeccabilitatis in statu simillimus Angelis homo erat. Simulac vero per transgressionem præcepti peccavisset, continuo eodem Paradisi loco, suscepto peccati statu, mortalis evasit, tradente ita Scriptura (Rom. vi. 23): 'Stipendium peccati mors est.' Mox amissa rationis et intelligentiæ perfectione, etiam voluntas in malum, quam in bonum, pronior facta est. Atque hoc pacto integritatis innocentiæque status, homine malum jam experto, in statum peccati transiit, illeque antea perfectus homo eo humilitatis redactus est, ut jam merito cum Davide dicat (Psa. xxii. 6): 'Ego vermis sum, non homo.' Erotesis kd'. Quæstio XXIV.

 Einai tacha holoi hoi anthropoi hupokeimenoi eis ten auten hamartian?

 Numquid vero eidem omnes homines peccato sunt obnoxii?

 Ap. Kathos holoi hoi anthropoi esan eis ten katastasin tes athootetos eis ton Adam, tetoias loges kai aph' hou esphalen, holoi esphalan eis auton, kai emeinan eis ten katastasin tes hamartias. Dia touto hochi monon eis ten hamartian hupokeintai, ma kai eis ten timorian dia ten hamartian. He hopoia timoria gnorizetai me touten ten apophasin tou Theou (Gen. b'. iz'.); hed' an hemera phagete ap' autou, thanato apothaneisthe. To auto kai ho Apostolos (Rhom. e. ib'.) anaphernontas

 Resp. Quemadmodum homines omnes durante innocentiæ statu in Adamo fuerunt; eodem modo, ex quo lapsus ille fuit, in ipso omnes collapsi, simul in statu peccati permanserunt. Quamobrem non solum peccato, sed ejus caussa, poena item tenentur. Quæ poena hoc Dei edicto promulgatur (Gen. ii. 17): 'Quacunque die de arbore ista comederitis, morte moriemini.' Refert id ipsum et Apostolus (Rom. v. 12): 'Ut per unum hominem

 legei; hosper di henos anthropou he hamartia eis ton kosmon eiselthe, kai dia tes hamartias ho thanatos, kai houtos eis pantas anthropous ho thanatos dielthen, eph' o pantes hemarton. Dia ten hopoian aphormen akomi eis ten koilian tes metros mas sullambanometha me ten hamartian touten kai gennometha, kathos legei ho hieros Psaltes (Psal. na. z'.); idou gar en anomiais sunelephthen, kai en hamartiais ekissese me he meter mou. Kai kaleitai to hamartema touto propatorikon, proton men diati protetera ap' auto ho anthropos den ethele molunthe apo kan hena allo hamartema. Kala kai ho diabolos na eton diephtharmenos me ten hamartian tou, apo tou hopoiou ten parakinesin kai eis ton anthropon eblastese to legomenon touto propatorikon hamartema, eis to hopoion kai ho Adam, hopou to ekamen, einai hupokeimenos, kai hemeis, hopou katabainomen ap' auton. Deuteron, diati ho anthropos den sullambanetai para en hamartia. peccatum in mundum introiit, et per peccatum mors; quæ hoc pacto in mortales omnes pervasit, quod in illo omnes peccaverunt.' Quapropter etiam in utero materno mox cum hoc peccato concipimur nascimurque, teste sacro Psalte (li. 7): 'Ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum, et in peccatis mea me mater concepit.' Quod peccatum Avitum (sive Originale), appellatur; primum ideo, quod ante illud nullo dum alio peccato infectus homo fuit. Tametsi jam tum per lapsum suum corruptus esset Diabolus; quo etiam instigante, pullulare in homine hoc ipsum avitum peccatum coepit cui et Adamus, auctor ejusdem effectorque, obnoxius erat, et nos omnes, qui ab illo genus ducimus. Deinde, quod nemo mortalium, nisi cum hac naturæ contagione, concipitur. Erotesis ke. Quæstio XXV.

 Epeide ho Theos egnorize ton Adam, pos emelle na sphale, diati ton eplase?

 Quando autem lapsurum Adamum norat Deus, quid ita, quæso, illum condidit?

 Ap. Ochi monon dia ten hamartian tou Adam, alla kai dia ten kakian tou Heosphorou, kai prin ton kamei, exeure kalotata; kai dia katha mikron logismon, kai dia katha kamoma,

 Resp. Non modo lapsum Adami, verum et malitiam Luciferi, priusquam utrumque conderet, planissime scivit Deus. Immo et minutissimas quasque cogitationes, actionesque

 ti emelle na logiase, kai na kame. Me holon touto den ethelesen hoti to anthropinon hamartema e tou diabolou he poneria na nikese ten theian tou agathoteta (Dam. Bib. b. keph. kz). Dia phanerosin loipon megaleteren tes agathotetos tou eplase ton angelon ekeinon kalon, kai autos me ten idian tou thelesin kai proairesin egineke kakos; homoios kai ton anthropon, hopou esphale me ten parakinesin ekeinou. Me holon touto eis ton anthropon ho Theos okonomesen, hoste me ten hamartian ekeinou perissoteron na lampse he tou Theou agathotes; epeide eiche na pempse ton monogene tou Huion eis ten koilada tauten tes ges, na pare sarka apo ten katharotaten Parthenon me ten sunergian tou hagiou Pneumatos, dia na exagorase ton anthropon, kai na ton anabase eis ten basileian tou me megaleteren doxan para hopou eton eis ton paradeison, dia aischunen tou diabolou. Kai dia touto he hamartia ekeine den empodise ton Theon na men plase ton anthropon. singulas, quas cogitaturus acturusque aliquando esset. Neque tamen aut peccato hominis, aut improbitate Diaboli, divinam bonitatem suam vinci superarique passus est (Damasc. ii. cap. 27. Adde Dialog. kata Manichaion. p. 542, 556). Itaque ut tanto illustrior illa testatiorque fieret; illum quidem Angelum bonum creabat, qui sua postmodum voluntate ac arbitrio, impius sceleratusque evasit, consimiliter et hominem, Dæmonis instinctu deinde lapsum. Verum enim vero cum homine illum in modum egit Deus, ut per lapsum illius majorem in modum sua effulgeret bonitas; quippe unigenam filium suum in terrestrem hanc vallem demittere poterat, qui carne de Virgine castissima opera Spiritus Sancti adsumta, hominem redimeret; majoreque gloria, quam olim in Paradiso habuerat, exornatum, cum infamia ac dedecore Diaboli, in coeleste regnum suum subveheret. Ideoque nec illud hominis peccatum, ab ipsius creatione Deum deducere atque revocare potuit. Erotesis ks'. Quæstio XXVI.

 An ho Theos egnorize ta panta prin ta ktise, tacha kai hola ta eproorisen homoios kala kai kaka, na me ginountai alloios, para kathos ginountai?

 Si norat igitur omnia Deus antequam conderet, an bona ac mala omnia item prædestinavit, ne aliter fiant, quam fiunt.

 Ap. Ho Theos prin tes ktiseos

 Resp. Res quidem universas ante

 tou kosmou hola ta pragmata ta eprognorize, ma mona ta agatha eproorisen (hos legei ho hieros Damaskenos Bib. b. keph. l.); diati to na proorize ta kaka, einai enantion eis ten theian agathoteta. Kakon de nomize monon ten hamartian; epeide oudena kurios kakon heurisketai eis ton kosmon, monon he hamartia, he hopoia einai he parabasis tou theiou nomou kai tes theias theleseos (Dam. eis to peri duo theleseon tou Christou.). Ta de epiloipa, hopou ho Theos mas timora dia tas hamartias mas, hoion thanatika, polemoi, astheneiai kai ta homoia, legontai kaka hos pros hemas (Basil. homil. th. hoti ouk aitios ton kakon ho Theos.), diati mas pherousin odunas kai lupas, hopou apotrepometha. Ma eis ton Theon den einai kaka; diati echousi dunamin agathou; epeide, timorontas hemas met' auta, mas parakina eis to agathon. Kai hotan legei he Graphe (Amos g. s.); ei esti kakia en polei, hen Kurios ouk epoiesen? onomazei ten dikaian paideusin tou Theou kakian. Akomi ekeina monon ho Theos proorizei kata ten sophian kai dikaiosunen tou, hopou den stekountai eis ten exousian ten ediken mas na genousi. Ma ekeina ta agatha, hopou stekountai eis ten exousian mas na genousi, ta prognorizei, suntrechon kai autos kata ten eudokian tou me ten thelesin mas; to hopoion den anelei ten phusin tou autexousiou. creationem præscivit Deus, sed bonas duntaxat prædestinavit (uti loquitur S. Damascenus, lib. II. cap. 30): nam illud divinæ bonitati repugnat, ut malas præfiniat. Malum autem non aliud existimandum est, quam peccatum. Nam præter peccatum, quæ divinæ legis voluntatisque transgressio est, si proprie loquimur, nihil in orbe mali reperitur (Idem in: de duabus Christi voluntatibus). At cetera, quibus ob noxias nostras Deus in nos animadvertit, ut pestilentia, bella, morbi, aliaque ejusmodi; respectu nostri mala dicuntur (Basil. Homil. IX. Deum non esse malorum caussam), quoniam ærumnas nobis atque dolores afferunt, quos fugimus ac aversamur. Ceterum Deo nequaquam mala sunt; siquidem vim quandam boni habent. Iis enim nos castigans ad bonum excitat. Ideoque quum dicit Scriptura (Amos iii. 6): 'Numquid ullum in civitate malum est, Dominus non fecit? tum justam Dei castigationem malum vocat.' Porro illa duntaxat prædeterminat Deus, secundum sapientiam justitiamque suam, quæ utrum fiant, nec ne, id in nostra potestate situm non est. Verum bona illa, quæ ut fiant, in nostra manu est, præcognoscit; ita vero, ut simul et ipse, ex propensa voluntate sua, cum nostra voluntate concurrat. Quod naturæ liberi Arbitrii nihil quidquam officit.

 Erotesis kz'. Quæstio XXVII.

 Ti einai to autoxousion?

 Quid est Arbitrium liberum?

 Ap. To autexousion tou anthropou einai mia thelesis eleuthera kai apolelumene. Kai gennatai apo ton logariasmon, eitoun to logikon, eis to na energa to agathon, e to kakon; epeide ta logika ktismata prepei na echousi phusin exousiastiken, kai na ten metacheirizountai eleutheros, hodegountos tou logou. Kai houtos ho logos, hotan ho anthropos eton eis ten katastasin tes athootetos, egoun prin hamarte, eton adiaphthoros eis ten teleioteta tou, kai dia ten hamartian ephthare. Ma he thelesis, kala kai na emeinen ablabes, eis to na epithuma to kalon e to kakon; eginen m' holon touto eis kapoious pleon epirrhepes kai klinei pros to kakon, kai eis allous pros to kalon. Dia to ho hopoion megas Basileios (Eis ton Es. id'.) legei houtos; "apo ten idian tou thelesin kai proairesin ho katheis emporei na einai e sperma hagion, e to enantion. Akouson tou Paulou legontos (a. Kor. d'. ie'.); en Christo Iesou dia tou euangeliou ego humas egennesa; kai ekeina ta logia, hopon (Ioan. a. ib'.) legei; hosoi de elabon auton, edoken autois exousian, tekna Theou genesthai." Deichnei ho hagios toutos didaskalos, pos, kala kai he anthropine thelesis eblabe me to propatorikon hamartema,

 Resp. Liberum hominis Arbitrium est libera et absoluta illius voluntas, orta a ratione sive rationali anima ad bonum, aut malum efficiendum. Quibus enim in rebus mens ratioque inest, eas naturam cum potestate sui arbitrii conjunctam habere, eamque duce ratione libere exercere oportet. Hæc autem ratio quamdiu in statu innocentiæ homo stetit, hoc est, antequam peccaret, incorrupta et perfecta erat; per lapsum corrupta fuit. At voluntas, etiamsi quod ad appetitum boni, aut mali, illæsa maneret; nihilominus in nonnullis haud paullo propensior atque ad malum inclinatior evasit: in aliis rursus ad bonum. De quo ita loquitur magnus Basilius (in Iesai. xiv.): 'Per voluntatem quisque suam arbitriumque, aut semen sanctum, aut contrarium esse potest.' Audi sodes Paulum dicentem (1 Cor. iv. 15): 'Ego vos in Christo Iesu per Evangelium genui.' Audi et hæc Scripturæ verba (Ioh. i. 12): 'Quotquot illum receperunt, iis potestatem dedit, ut filii Dei fierent.' Quo sane sanctus doctor declarat, quamvis et ipsa hominis voluntas peccato originis misere labefactata fuerit; nihilominus

 m' holon touto kai tora kata ton paronta kairon eis ten proairesin tou kath' henos steketai to na einai kalos kai teknon Theou, e kakos kai huios diabolou; holon touto einai eis to cheri kai exousian tou anthropou. Kai eis men to kalon he theia charis sumboetha; alla kai apo to pakon he idia gurizei ton anthropon, choris na anankase to autexousion tou anthropou. etiam præsenti hoc tempore in cujusque arbitrio positum esse, ut bonus Deique filius sit, aut e contrario improbus filiusque Diaboli. Hoc omne, inquam, in manu atque potestate hominis situm est, ita tamen, ut in bonum divina gratia homini adjutrix sit, eumque item a malo retrahat; at non ut arbitrium hominis suis ingratiis compellat. Erotesis ke. Quæstio XXVIII.

 Epeide kai hoi anthropoi genountai eis ten katastasin tes hamartias, tacha monon to soma einai apo sperma tou Adam, e mazi kai he psuche?

 Siquidem vero in statu peccati nascuntur homines, an igitur corpus solum de semine Adami est an vero etiam anima?

 Ap. To soma to anthropinon apo to sperma tou Adam katabainei; ma he psuche ginetai apo ton Theon, kathos legei he Graphe (Zach. ib'. a.); ho Kurios ekteinon ouranon, kai themelion gen, kai plasson pneuma anthropou en auto. Kai allachou (Ekkl. ib'. z'.); kai epistrepse ho chous epi ten gen, hos en; kai to pneuma epistrepse pros ton Theon, hos edoken auto. Pros toutois an he psuche ethelen einai apo to sperma tou anthropou, mazi me to kormi ethelen sunapothneskein, kai ethele dialuthe eis choun. Tou hopoiou to enantion blepomen eis ten Graphen, ekei hopou ho Christos (Louk. kg'. mg'.), homilontas tou lestou eis ton stauron, eipen; amen lego soi, semeron met' emou ese en to paradeiso.

 Resp. Corpus humanum ex semine Adami descendit, anima vero a Deo oritur, teste Scriptura (Zach. xii. 1): 'Dominus, qui expandit coelum, et fundat terram, et format Spiritum hominis in eo.' Et alibi (Eccles. xii. 7): 'Et redeat pulvis in terram, quemadmodum fuerat, et Spiritus ad Deum revertatur, qui dedit illum.' Super hæc si semine humano procrearetur anima, haud dubie item cum corpore commoreretur solvereturque in pulverem. Atqui contrarium in sacris literis, quo loco cum latrone in cruce colloquitur Christus, adstrui videmus (Luc. xxiii. 43): 'Amen dico tibi, hodie mecum eris in Paradiso.' Quippe corpus latronis in cruce remanebat,

 Diati to kormin tou emeinen eis ton stauron, he de psuche tou hos pneuma athanaton epege mati me ton Christon eis ton paradeison. Ma an ethelen einai apo to sperma tou anthropou, mazi me to kormi ethelen apothane eis ton stauron. Epeita de pos ethelasin emporesei na aletheusousi ta logia tou Kuriou hemon, hopou eipen; ouk anegnote to rhethen humin hupo tou Theou (Matth. kb'. la'.) legontos; ego eimi ho Theos Abraam, kai ho Theos Isaak, kai ho Theos Iakob; ouk estin ho Theos Theos nekron alla zonton. To hopoion prepei na groikatai ochi dia to soma, alla dia ten psuchen; diati ta somata ton nekron eis choun aneluthesan; ma aletheuei ho logos dia ten psuchen, he hopoia, estontas kai na einai zosa eis katha kairon, steketai emprosthen eis ton Theon. Ma an ethelen einai kai aute apo to idion sperma, hopou einai kai to kormi, mazi ethelasi sunapothneskein. Kai didotai apo ton Theon he psuche, aph' hou organisthe to kormi kai gene epitedeion eis ten hupodochen tes; kai hotan didotai eis auto, chunetai eis holon to kormi, hos an to pur eis to anammenon sideron. Ma me pleon exaireton logon heurisketai eis ten kephalen kai eis ten kardian. at anima, ut Spiritus immortalis, cum Christo Paradisum ingressa est. Quæ si humano satu genita fuisset, utique etiam suo cum corpore in cruce esset exstincta. Poro, quo alio pacto hisce Domini nostri verbis ratio constare possit, quum dixit (Matt. xxii. 31): 'Annon legistis, quod vobis a Deo dictum fuit: ego sum Deus Abraami, et Deus Isaaci, et Deus Iacobi; at Deus non mortuorum Deus est, verum viventium.' Quæ non de corpore verum de anima exaudienda sunt. Quippe dudum jam defunctorum patrum istorum in pulveres dissipata corpora erant; at de anima vera est oratio, quæ ut omni tempore vivit, ita semper in conspectu Dei adstat. Sin autem eodem illo seminio, unde corporis constructa erat fabrica, conflata anima fuisset; eadem haud dubie involuta ruina cum corpore suo interierat. Inseritur autem a Deo anima corpori, membris suis organisque jam performato, animæque recipiendæ accommodato inserta, continuo per totam ejusdem compagem diffunditur, more ignis, qui se in omnes ferri candentis sinus insinuat. Præcipuum tamen domicilium in capite, atque corde habet. Erotesis kth'. Quæstio XXIX.

 Epeide ho Theos einai poietes panton,

 Quoniam vero rerum omnium

 loipon prepei kai holonon na pronoatai? creator Deus est, decetne igitur illum omnibus itidem providere?

 Ap. Houtos einai he aletheia; apo mikrou heos megalou hola ta gnorizei me akribeian kai holonon pronoatai, kath' henos hosa ekame; kathos emporoumen na to gnorisomen apo ta logia tou Christou, hopou (Matth. i. kth'.) legei; ouchi duo strouthia assariou poleitai? kai hen ex auton ou peseitai epi ten gen aneu tou Patros humon. Humon de hai triches tes kephales pasai erithmemenai eisin. He pronoia toute phaneronetai kai eis ten palaian Graphen me to stoma to Dabidikon, hotan legei (Psal. rme. ie.); hoi ophthalmoi panton eis se elpizousi (Kurie) kai su didos ten trophen auton en eukairia; anoigeis su ten cheira sou, kai empiplas pan zoon eudokias.

 Resp. Ita prorsus: quippe a minimis ad usque maxima accuratissime omnia cognoscit, omniumque, quæ fecit, curam separatim singulatimque habet, ut ex verbis Christi facile intelligi licet (Matt. x. 29): 'Nonne duo passerculi asse uno veneunt? et unus tamen ex iis sine patre vestro in terram non decidet. At capitis vestri pili etiam omnes numerati sunt.' Eadem hæc Providentia in Veteri Testamento ore Davidis luculenter explicatur, quum ait (Psa. cxiv. 15): 'Oculi omnium in te sperant Domine, et tu escam illoram tempore opportuno largiris. Aperis tu manum tuam, et imples omne animal beneplacito.' Erotesis l'. Quæstio XXX.

 Tauto einai tacha eis ta Theia, prognosis, proorismos kai pronoia?

 Idemne in divinis valent vocabula Præscientiæ, Prædestinationis atque Providentiæ?

 Ap. Prognosis, proorismos kai pronoia einai diaphoretikais energeiais eis ta Theia; diati he pronoia anapheretai eis ta ktista pragmata, ma he prognosis kai ho proorismos einai eis ton Theon, prin para na genousin hola ta ktismata, kala kai me diaphoretikon tropon. He prognosis einai mia gnosis ton mellonton, choris periorismon ton eidon, egoun choris na diorize ti kai ti na gene. Ho de

 Resp. Præscientia, Prædestinatio et Providentia diversas in divinis habent potestates. Nam Providentia res jam creatas respicit; at Præscientia Prædestinatioque in Deo sunt, priusquam ullæ res creatæ exsistant, quanquam modo quodam distincto. Præscientia enim nuda rerum futurarum cognitio est, sine determinata earundem specificatione, sic nimirum, ut non necessario

 kata prognosin proorismos einai diorismos ton eidon; egoun diorizei kai ti mellei na gene, ma monon to kalon, kai ochi to kakon. Diati an ediorize kai to kakon, ethelen einai enantios eis ten phusiken agathoteta tou Theou. definiat, hoccine an illud plane futurum sit. Atqui Prædestinatio Præscientiæ juncta specierum ipsarum determinatio est, quid omnino fieri debeat definiens. Definit autem bonum duntaxat non malum. Nam si malum quoque definiret Prædestinatio, jam essentiali Dei bonitati contraria esset.

 Dia touto eulogos emporoumen na eipoumen apo ta kath' hemas, pos eis ton Theon proton einai eis ten taxin he prognosis, deuteron ho proorismos, epeita meta ten ktisin akolouthei he pronoia ton ktismaton.

 Itaque secundum nostrum concipiendi statuendique modum recte atque probabiliter etiam de Deo dici potest: ordine primam Præscientiam esse, secundam Prædestinationem, denique creatis jam rebus earum sequi Providentiam.

 To hopoion ho Apostolos (Rhom. e. kth'.) phanera mas to edidaxe legontas; hoti ohus proegno, toutous kai proorisen, ohus de proorise, toutous kai ekalese; kai ohus ekalese, toutous kai edikaiosen; ohus de edikaiose, toutous kai edoxase.

 Quod perspicue nos docet Apostolus (Rom. viii. 29): 'Quoniam quos præscivit, eos et prædestinavit: quos autem prædestinavit, eosdem etiam vocavit: quos autem prædestinavit, eosdem etiam vocavit, eos item justificavit: quos vero justificavit: eosdem et glorificavit.'

 Kai ho toioutos logismos prepei na einai dia monon ton anthropon, diati ta alla ktismata (exo apo tous angelous, hopou einai eis bebaian kai akindunon katastasin) den perikratountai eis ton proorismon; epeide den echousin autexousion, kai dia touto den einai eis auta kan hena hamartema, kai ho, ti kamnousin, holon ekeino to kamnousin apo ten phusin. Kai dia touto mete timorountai mete doxazontai.

 Sed hoc de solo homine cogitandum est. Nam reliquæ res creatas (præter Angelos, qui jam in vado salutis extra omnem aleam positi sunt), divina Prædestinatio non complectitur, quippe libertate Arbitrii destitutas, ideoque nec ullis vitiorum maculis adspersas. Quidquid enim faciunt, naturali instinctu faciunt, unde neque supplicio aliquo plectuntur, neque laudis gloriæque præmiis ornantur.

 Erotesis la. Quæstio XXXI.

 Apo touto to arthron tes pisteos ti allo manthanomen peri Theou kai ton ktismaton?

 Numquid aliud est, quod de Deo rebusque ab eo creatis ex hoc Articulo disci possit?

 Ap. Ho, ti agathon emporeis na logiases, holon touto apodos eis ton Theon, ton akros agathon, hos an eis aitian kai archen. Kai ho, ti kakon einai, touto exeure pos einai xenon kai makran ap' ekeinon, ochi kata ton topon, ma kata ten phusin; peri de ktiseos, kath' hoson ap' ekeinon eplasthe ton agathon, einai kai aute agathe; ma me touten ten diairesin hotan he logike kai autexousios ktisis apostatese apo ton Theon, einai kake; ochi diati tetoias loges eltistheke; ma dia ta paraloga tes erga. Ma he alogos ktisis, hopou den echei autexousion, einai kale me kathe tropon eis ten phusin tes.

 Resp. Quidquid boni animo atque cogitatione complecti potes, id omne Deo summe bono, ut causæ ac principio, adscribe. Contra quidquid malum est, id peregrinum longeque a Deo remotum esse non tam locali quam essentiali distantia, scito. De re creata vero sic habe: Bonam esse, quatenus ab optimo illo creatore producta est; sed cum hoc discrimine, ut mala fiat intellectu et libertate arbitrii prædita res creata, quando a Deo desciscit. Non quod ejusmodi condita fuerit; sed quod per opera rationi dissentanea talis evadat. At irrationabilis, quoniam arbitrii libertate caret, modis omnibus naturæ suæ bona est. Erotesis lb'. Quæstio XXXII.

 Poion einai to deuteron arthron tes pisteos?

 Quinam secundus fidei Articulus est?

 Ap. Kai eis hena Kurion Iesoun Christon, ton Huion tou Theou ton monogene, ton ek tou Patros gennethenta pro panton ton aionon, phos ek photos, Theon alethinon ek Theou alethinou, gennethenta, ou poiethenta, homoousion to Patri, di ohu ta panta egeneto.

 Resp. Et in unum Dominium, Iesum Christum, filium Dei unigenitum, ex Patre natum ante omnia secula, lucem de luce, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt.

 Erotesis lg'. Quæstio XXXIII.

 Ti didaskei tous orthodoxous touto to arthron tes pisteos?

 Quid hic fidei Articulus fideles docet?

 Ap. Duo pragmata hermeneuei; proton, pos ho Huios tou Theou ho Iesous Christos einai Theos aidios, gennemenos apo ten idian phusin tou Patros, homotimos kai homodoxos to Patri; hos autos (Ioan. iz'. e.) peri heautou eipe; kai nun doxason me su, Pater, para seauto te doxe eichon pro tou ton kosmon einai para soi. Deuteron eis to arthron touto he didaskalia haute heurisketai, egoun pos ho Iesous Christos einai poietes, ochi monon ton pragmaton, alla kai autou tou chronou kai tou aionos, eis ton hopoion ta onta egenekasi; kathos eipen ho Apostolos (Ebr. a. b'.); di hou kai tous aionas epoiese. Peri de ton onton legei ho Ioannes (keph. a. i.) ho euangelistes; ho kosmos di autou egeneto, kai ho kosmos auton ouk egno.

 Resp. Duo potissimum exponit. Prius, Filium Dei, Iesum Christum, esse Deum sempiternum, de propria Patris natura natum, honore ac gloria Patri æqualem, quemadmodum de se ipse dicit (Ioh. xvii. 5): 'Glorifica nunc me apud te ipsum Pater illa gloria, quam apud te habui, priusquam mundus exsisteret.' Alterum, quod hoc Articulo docetur, hoc est: Iesum Christum esse Creatorem non modo rerum ipsarum sed et temporis et ævi, in quo res ipsæ factæ sunt, dicente Apostolo (Heb. i. 2): 'Per quem et secula fecit.' Sed de rebus (permanentibus) ita loquitur Ioannes Evangelista (i. 10): 'Mundus per ipsum factus est, sed mundus illum non cognovit.' Erotesis ld'. Quæstio XXXIV.

 Ta duo logia touta hopou einai ballomena eis to arthron touto, Iesoun, Christon, ti semainousin?

 Ecquid sibi volunt duo hæcce nomina, Iesus, Christus, quæ in hoc Articulo reperiuntur?

 Ap. To Iesous semainei Soter, kathos ho archangelos hermeneuse, legon (Matth. a. ka.) pros ton Ioseph; texetai de Huion, kai kaleseis to onoma autou Iesoun; autos gar sosei ton laon autou apo ton hamartion

 Resp. Iesus Salvatorem significat, interprete Archangelo, qui Iosepho dixit (Matt. i. 21): 'Pariet autem filium, et vocabis nomen ejus Iesum, quoniam salvum ille populum suum faciet a peccatis

 auton. Kai dia touto me eulogon logariasmon to onoma touto den emporei pote na apodothe kurios eis ton kosmon touton allou tinos, para eis ton Kurion hemon kai Sotera, hopou eleutherosen holon to genos ton anthropon apo ten aionion sklabian ton daimonon. Ho de Christos semainei aleimmenos; diati eis ton palaion nomon hoi aleimmenoi onomazountai Christoi, egoun hoi hiereis, hoi basileis kai hoi prophetai; eis ta hopoia touta tria ho Christos echristhe, ochi kata tropon koinon, hos an tous allous, ma exairetos apo holous tous allous christous, hos anapherei peri autou ho Psalmodos (Psal. me. e.); egapesas dikaiosunen, kai emisesas anomian, dia touto echrise se ho Theos, ho Theos sou elaion agalliaseos para tous metochous sou. Kai toute he chrisis prepei na groikatai peri tou hagiou pneumatos, hoti echristhe me to Pneuma to hagion, kata to eiremenon dia tou prophetou Esaiou (keph. xa. a.); Pneuma Kuriou ep' eme, hou heineken echrise me, euangelisasthai ptochois apestalke me. Ta hopoia logia ho Christos ta anepherei eis ton heauton tou (Louk. d'. ka'.), legon; hoti semeron peplerotai he Graphe haute en tois osin humon. Kata treis de huperochas pai exaireta megaleia huperechei ho Christos tous metochous tou. Kai he men prote einai he hierosune kata ten taxin Melchisedek. suis.' Ideoque vere recteque alii in hoc mundo nemini tribui id nominis potest, quam Salvatori et Domino nostro, qui universum genus humanum de æterna Dæmonum servitute liberali caussa manu adseruit. Christus Unctum significat, quoniam in Antiqua lege uncti appellantur Christi, Sacerdotes scilicet, Reges et Prophetæ. In quæ tria officia inunctus Christus est: non more rituque communi, ut ceteri, sed præ unctis reliquis omnibus, prorsus singulari, ut de eo narrat Psalmorum auctor (Psa. xlv. 8): 'Amavisti justitiam, et odisti iniquitatem; propterea unxit te Deus, Deus tuus, oleo lætitiæ præ consortibus tuis.' Quæ unctio de Spiritu Sancto intelligenda est. Eo enim secundum hoc Prophetæ Iesaiæ dictum inunctus fuit (lxi. 1): 'Spiritus Domini super me est, ideo unxit me, misitque me ad annunciandum pauperibus Evangelium.' Quæ verba Christus ipse sibi vindicat (Luc. iv. 21): 'Hodie, inquit, impleta est hæc scriptura audientibus vobis.' Triplici vero excellentia eximiaque majestate consortibus suis singulariter antecellit Christus. Prima est Pontificatus secundum ordinem Melchizedeki, de quo ita Apostolus (Heb. v. 10): 'Appellatus a Deo Pontifex maximus secundum ordinem

 Peri hes phesin houtos (Ebr. e. i.) ho Apostolos; prosagoreutheis hupo tou Theou archiereus kata ten taxin Melchisedek; ho autos allachou (Ebr. th'. id'.) kalei ton Christon hierea, dioti prosepheren heauton to Theo kai Patri, kai legei; hos dia Pneumatos aioniou heauton prosenenken amomon to Theo; kai katotero; ho Christos hapax prosenechthe eis to pollon anenenkein hamartias. He deutera exairetos megaleiotes kai huperoche einai he basileia tou; ten hopoian ephanerosen ho Archangelos Gabriel, hotan edoke ta soteriode menumata pros ten katharotaten Parthenon, legon (Louk. a. lb'.); kai dosei auto Kurios ho Theos ton thronon Dabid tou Patros autou, kai basileusei epi ton oikon Iakob eis tous aionas, kai tes basileias autou ouk estai telos. Akomi kai hoi magoi eis ton kairon tes genneseos tou phernontes ta dora edokan marturian tes basileias tou, legontes (Matth. b'. b'.); pou estin ho techtheis basileus ton Ioudaion? To auto bebaionei kai ho titlos (Ioan. ith'. th'.) tes timorias tou, eis ton kairon tou thanatou tou; Iesous ho Nazaraios, ho basileus ton Ioudaion. Kai dia ten triten tou huperochen ho Mouses (Deut. ie. ie.) epropheteusen ek Theou, eipon; propheten ek ton adelphon sou hos eme anastesei Kurios ho Theos sou. He hopoia toute Melchizedeki.' Idem alibi (Heb. ix. 14). Christum sacerdotem vocat, quod semet ipsum Deo et Patri obtulit, diceus: 'Qui per Spiritum æternum obtulit semet ipsum immaculatum Deo. Et inferius (v. 28): 'Christus semel oblatus est, ut multorum peccata tolleret.' Secunda singularis majestas et excellentia officium Regium illius est, quod indicavit Gabriel Archangelus, quum salutarem conceptionis nuncium pudicissimæ virgini attulit (Luc. i. 32): Dabit illi Dominus Deus thronum Davidis, patris sui, et regnabit super domum Iacobi in æternum, et regni illius nullus erit finis.' Huc accedit, quod et Magi mox a nativitate dona illi afferentes regii ejus imperii testificationem dederint (Matt. ii. 2): 'Ubi est, inquiunt, recens natus Rex Iudæorum?' Idem affirmat et supplicii titulus, mortis illius tempore propositus (Ioh. xix. 9): 'Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudæorum.' De tertia ipsius præcellentia jam olim instinctus a Deo Moses vaticinatus est (Deut. xviii. 18): 'Dominus Deus tuus ex fratribus tuis Prophetam, qualis ego sum, suscitabit.' Quæ illius majestas satis perspecta atque comprobata fuit ex sanctissima illius doctrina, qua et divinitatem suam luculenter enarravit, et quæ præterea

 megaleiotes tou egnoristheke me ten hagian tou didaskalian, me ten hopoian hermeneuse kai ten Theoteta tou, kai hosa alla esan arketa pros ten anthropinen soterian; kathos ho idios eipen (Ioan. iz'. ks'.); egnorisa autois to onoma sou; kai anotero (sich. e.); ta rhemata ha dedokas moidedoka autois, kai autoi elabon kai egnosan alethos, hoti para sou exelthon, kai episteusan, hoti su me apesteilas. To de prophetikon axioma (hopou eton he trite huperoche) tote ho Christos to edeiken, hotan eprolege ta mellonta, ochi dia tinos apokalupseos, ma apo ten idian tou gnosin, hos Theos alethinos kai anthropos. ad salutem humanam sufficere poterant. Sicut ipse ait (Ioh.: xvii. 26): 'Notum illis feci nomen tuum.' Et superius (v. 8): 'Verba, quæ dederas mihi, dedi illis, et ipsi receperunt et revera cognoverunt, quod a te exivi, et crediderunt, quod tu me misisti.' Ceterum Prophetico hocce munere (quæ tertia præstantia erat) egregie tum Christus functus est, quum futura prædixit, non patefactione aliqua sibi cognita, sed ex propria suaque cognitione, ut qui verus idem Deus ac homo esset. Erotesis le. Quæstio XXXV.

 Dia tina aitian ho Huios tou Theou onomazetai monogenes?

 Quamobrem filius Dei vocatur Unigenitus?

 Ap. He agia Graphe phaneros didaskei, pos einai monogenes ho Huios tou Theou (Ioan. a. id'.) legousa; etheasametha ten doxan autou, doxan hos monogenous para Patros; kai katotero (sich. ie.); Huios, ho on ho monogenes, eis ton kolpon tou Patros. Kai legetai monogenes, diati henas monos einai ho kat' ousian Huios tou Theou hoi de loipoi, hosoi onomazountai Huioi Theou, echousin to onoma touto kata charin kai thetikos, ma ochi phusikos, hos pantes hoi pistoi kai eklektoi tou Theou. Kai he charis toute tes huiothesias dia mesou tou Christou charizetai,

 Resp. Filium Dei unigenam esse, id manifesto comprobat Scriptura (Ioh. i. 14): 'Vidimus gloriam ipsius, ut gloriam unigeniti a Patre.' Et paulo post (v. 18): 'Filius unigenitus, qui est in sinu Patris.' Unigena autem ea re dicitur, quod unus duntaxat natura Dei filius est; reliqui vero, quotquot Dei filii nuncupantur, per gratiam atque adoptionem, non per naturam id nominis habent; uti fideles omnes et electi Dei. Quæ filialis adoptionis gratia per Christum conceditur, teste Scriptura

 hos legei (Ioan. a. ib'.) he Graphe; hosoi elabon auton, edoken autois exousian tekna Theou genesthai. (Ioh. i. 12): 'Quotquot receperunt illum, illis potestatem fecit, ut filii Dei fierent.' Erotesis ls'. Quæstio XXXVI.

 Ti semainousi ta duo tauta logia, phos ek photos?

 Quid autem duo hæc verba, Lucem de luce, significant?

 Ap. Pros ten toutou katalepsin prepei na exeuromen, pos to phos einai ditton, allo ktiston kai allo aktiston. Kai dia to ktiston phos he Graphe (Gen. a. g'.) legei; kai eipen ho Theos, genetheto phos, kai egeneto phos; kai eiden ho Theos to phos hoti kalon, kai diechorisen ho Theos anameson tou photos kai anameson tou skotous. Peri de aktistou photos legei ho Prophetes (Es. x'. ith,.); kai ouk esmai soi eti ho helios eis phos hemeras; oude anatole selenes photiei sou ten nukta; all' estai soi Kurios phos aionion, kai ho Theos doxa sou. Ou gar dusetai ho helios soi, kai he selene soi ouk ekleipsei; estai gar soi Kurios phos aionion. Kai touto to phos eis ton topon touton groikatai dia to aktiston, kathos einai phaneron apo ta logia tou parontos arthrou, hopou legei; Theon alethinon ek Theou alethinou, gennethenta, ou poiethenta. Alla to ktiston ek tou medame medamos ektisthe, ma to genneton phos, eitoun ho Huios, einai apo ten ousian tou Patros; dia to hopoion legei ho Apostolos (Hebr. a. g'.) houtos; hos on apaugasma tes

 Resp. Ad hujus rei planiorem intellectum sciendum, geminam esse lucem; alteram creatam, alteram increatam. De creata ita loquitur Scriptura (Gen. i. 3): 'Dixit Deus: fiat lux, et facta est lux.' Et vidit Deus, lucem esse bonam, et distinxit inter lucem et tenebras. At de luce illa increata ita Propheta (Ies. lx. 19): 'Nec amplius sol tibi in lucem diurnam erit, neque exortus lunæ noctem tuam illuminabit; sed Dominus ipse erit tibi lux æterna, et Deus gloria tua. Non enim occidet sol tuus, nec deficiet luna tua: nam Dominus tibi lux æterna erit.' Atque hæc ipsa lux utpote increata hoc loco intelligitur, ut ex verbis in hoc Articulo mox sequentibus dilucide patet: Deum verum de Deo vero; genitum, non factum. Etenim lux creata, de puro puto nihilo producta fuit: at genita lux sive filius de essentia Patris emersit. Unde dicit Apostolus (Heb. i. 3): 'Qui quum sit splendor gloriæ, et expressa imago substantiæ illius, et ferat omnia verbo potentiæ

 doxes, kai charakter tes hupostaseos autou, pheron te ta panta to rhemati tes dunameos autou, di eautou katharismon poiesamenos ton hamartion hemon, ekathisen en dexia tes megalosunes en hupselois. Homoios kai autos peri heautou  (Ioan. e. ib'.) legei; ego eimi to phos tou kosmou, ho akolouthon emoi ou me peripatesei en te skotia, all' hexei to phos tes zoes. Legetai de phos ek photos, hoti pasan ten ousian tou Patros echei eis heauton, kathos hotan hena phos apo allo anaptetai, holen ten ekeinou phusin echei. Akomi ta logia touta, hopou heuriskountai eis to paron arthron, di hou ta panta egeneto, prepei na groikountai, pos kathos homoios einai homoousios me ton Theon kai Patera, houtos homoios einai kai poietes; kai ochi, di autou, hos dia tinos huperetou, e organou; hos phesin (Ioan. a. e.) he Graphe; en to kosmo en, kai ho kosmos di autou egeneto, tout' estin, ex autou. suæ, per semet ipsum purgatione peccatorura nostrorum facta, consedit in dextra majestatis in excelsis.' Eodem modo ipse de se ipso loquitur (Ioh. viii. 12): 'Ego lux mundi sum, qui me sequitur, in tenebris non ambulabit, sed habebit lumen vitæ.' Dicitur vero lux de luce, quod totam Patris essentiam in se ipso habet. Quemadmodum quum lux una de alia accenditur, totam illius naturam accipit. Iam verba, quæ in hoc eodem Articulo adduntur: per quem omnia facta sunt, hoc sensu sunt accipienda, quod, quemadmodum ejusdem naturæ æqualiter Deo Patri consors est, item ex æquo creator sit; non vero sic per ipsum, quasi per famulum aut instrumentum, docente Scriptura (Ioh. i. 10): 'In mundo fuit, et per ipsum mundus factus est, hoc est, ab ipso.' Erotesis lz'. Quæstio XXXVII.

 Pos einai to triton arthron tes Pisteos?

 Tertius fidei Articulus quomodo se habet?

 Ap. Ton di hemas tous anthropous kai dia ten hemeteran soterian katelthonta ek ton ouranon, kai sarkothenta ek Pneumatos hagiou kai Marias tes Parthenou, kai enanthropesanta.

 Resp. Qui propter nos homines et propter salutem nostram descendit de coelo, et incarnatus est ex Spiritu Sancto et Maria Virgine, et homo factus est.

 Erotesis le. Quæstio XXXVIII.

 Ti didaskei to arthron touto tes Pisteos?

 Quidnam hic Articulus docet?

 Ap. Tessera pragmata didaskei. Proton pos ho Huios tou Oeou dia ten soterian mas ekatebeken apo tous ouranous kata ten huposchesin tou eis ten gastera tes katharotates Parthenou Marias, kathos ho autos legei (Ioan. g'. ig'.) peri heautou; oudeis anabebeken eis ton ouranon, ei me ho ek tou ouranou katabas, ho Huios tou anthropou. Kai katebe apo ton ouranon, ochi dia na allaxe topon; diati estontas kai na einai Theos pantachou heurisketai, kai hola ta pragmata pleroi;  ma diati houtos eressen eis ten megaleioteta tou, na tapeinose ton heauton tou, pernontas ten anthropoteta. Deuteron didaskei to arthron touto, pos ho Kurios hemon Iesous Christos eperen alethinen anthropoteta, kai ochi phainomenen e phantasiode. Kai tote to soma tou eplastheken eis ten koilian tes makariotates parthenou, hotan ekeine pros ton Angelon apekrithe kai (Louk. a. le.) eipen; idou he doule Kuriou, genoito moi kata to rhema sou; tote pareuthus anthropos teleios egineke me hola tou ta mere kai me psuchen logiken; esmimena me ten theoteta (Dam. g'. a.). Kai kata ten mian kai ten auten hupostasin eton Theos alethinos kai anthropos

 Resp. Res quatuor. Primo, fillium Dei nostræ salutis caussa de coelo, ut olim pollicitus fuerat, in uterum purissimæ virginis Mariæ descendisse; quemadmodum de semet ipso loquitur (Ioh. iii. 13): 'Nemo adscendit in coelum, nisi qui de coelo descendit, filius hominis.' De coelo autem descendit, non ut locum mutaret, quippe qui ut verus Deus ubique locorum adest, resque omnes implet, sed quoniam sic majestati illius placuit, humiliare semet ipsum, adsumta humanitate. Secundo docet hic Articulus, dominum nostrum Iesum Christum induisse veram non apparentem quampiam aut imaginariam humanitatem. Nempe illo temporis articulo in utero beatissimæ virginis corpus illius formabatur, quo ipsa Angelo respondens (Luc. i. 38): 'Ecce me, inquit, ancillam Domini, fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum.' Tum illico perfectus homo membris omnibus animaque rationali, junctim cum divinitate, exstitit (Damascen. iii. 1). Et in una eademque persona verus Deus verusque homo erat. Sed et illibata virgo mox Deipara agnita ac comperta fuit,

 alethinos; kai he amoluntos Parthenos theotokos egnorizeto; kathos he Elisabet eipe (Louk. a. mg' ) pros auten; kai pothen moi touto, hina elthe he meter tou Kuriou mou pros me? Akomi einai anankaion kai touto na exeuromen, pos oute he theotes allaxen eis ten anthropoteta, mete he anthropotes eis ten theoteta; ma katha mia phusis emeine teleia, eis mian hupostasin, me hola ta idiomata tes; exo apo ten hamartian, hoson pros ten anthropoteta. quemadmodum ipsi Elisabeta dixit (Luc. i. 43): 'Unde vero istuc mihi, quod mater Domini mei ad me venit?' Ad hæc illud etiam scitu nobis necessarium est, quod neque divinitas in humanitatem conversa sit, neque humanitas in divinitatem; sed manserit natura utraque absoluta, cum proprietatibus suis omnibus, in persona una; peccato tamen, quod ad humanitatem attinet, excepto. Erotesis lth'. Quæstio XXXIX.

 Ti didaskei triton touto to arthron tes Pisteos?

 Quodnam tertium est eorum, quæ hoc Articulo docentur?

 Ap. Pos tou Christou he enanthropesis egineke me ten sunergian tou hagiou Pneumatos; hoste kathos he Parthenos prin tes sullepseos (Es. z'. id'.) eton Parthenos, houto kai eis ten sullepsin kai hustera apo ten sullepsin emeine parthenos, kai eis auton ton tokon; diati ap' auten egennetheke, phulaxas alobeton tes parthenias tes ten sphragida; hoste kai hustera apo ten gennesin eis aionas ateleutetous einai parthenos.

 Resp. Incarnationem Christi opera Spiritus Sancti factam fuisse, adeo ut, quemadmodum beata virgo ante conceptionem virgo erat (Ies. vii. 14); ita etiam in conceptu, post conceptum, itemque in partu ipso virgo permanserit. Sic enim de Genetricis alvo editus est Christus, ut intactum penitus inviolatumque virginitatis illius signaculum conservarit, ipsaque post partum in secula interminata virgo maneret. Erotesis m'. Quæstio XL.

 Ti allo periechetai eis to arthron touto?

 Quid præterea in hoc Articulo continetur?

 Ap. Dia ten panagnon parthenon ten theotokon Marian, ten hopoian estontas kai na axiothe na plerose

 Resp. De castissima virgine atque deipara Maria, quam, quoniam digna habita fuit, quæ tantum impleret

 toson musterion, echousi chreos holoi hoi orthodoxoi, na ten doxazousi prepoumena, kai na ten eulabountai, hos metera tou Kuriou hemon Iesou Christou, e mallon eipein, hos theotokon. Dia touto he ekklesia chairetismon tes ekame, sunthemenon apo ta logia tou Archangelou kai tes hagias Elisabet, banontas kai aute anamesa kapoia oliga eis ton tropon touton; Theotoke parthene, chaire kecharitomene Maria, ho Kurios meta sou; eulogemene su en gunaixi, kai eulogemenos ho karpos tes koilias sou, hoti Sotera etekes ton psuchon hemon. mysterium, Orthodoxi omnes, ut fas piumque est, jure ac merito collaudare venerarique debent; velut matrem Domini nostri Iesu Christi, vel potius, ut Dei genetricem. Quam etiam ob caussam Ecclesia salutationem illius ex verbis Archangeli et S. Elisabetæ, quibus et paucula quædam sua adjecit, hunc in modum concinnavit: O Deipara Virgo, ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum. Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui, quoniam Salvatorem animarum nostrarum peperisti. Erotesis ma. Quæstio XLI.

 Pos prepei na groikoumen dia ton chairetismon touton?

 Quid nobis de hac salutatione censendum?

 Ap. Proton prepei touto na pisteues, pos ho chairetismos houtos echei ten archen kai ten rhizan tou ap' auton ton Theon; kai epheltheken eis ten gen, epi tous anthropous dia tou Archangelou, diati ho Archangelos den ethelen apokotesein, na ton eipe, an ho Theos den ton ethele prostaxein. Ta de logia hopou eipen he hagia Elisabet, ta elegen ek Pneumatos hagiou; to hopoion einai phaneron, diati (Louk. a. ma.) legei ho Euangelistes; kai eplesthe Pneumatos hagiou he Elisabet, kai anephonese phone megale kai eipen; eulogemene su en gunaixi, kai eulogemenos ho karpos tes koilias sou. Ta de logia hopou eprosthesen

 Resp. Primum illud credas oportet, salutationem istam originem et radicem suam Deo ipsi debere; sed ad homines in terra degentes per Gabrielem Archangelum delatam esse, qui illam alioqui neutiquam proferre atque usurpare ausurus erat, nisi a Deo ipsi mandata fuisset: rursus, quæ Elisabeta protulit verba, ea Spiritus Sancti afflatu protulisse, satis ex narratione Evangelistæ liquet (Luc. i. 41): 'Et repleta est Spiritu Sancto Elisabeta, altaque inclamans voce dixit: benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui.' Sed et illa verba, quæ Ecclesia adjecit,

 he ekklesia, kai auta ek Pneumatos hagiou einai; kai aute he ekklesia me ten exousian, hopou echei, prostassei, na doxazomen polla sunechos ten parthenon me ton chairetismon touton eis ton kairon tes proseuches. ex Spiritu Sancto sunt. Eadem Ecclesia pro suo jure atque auctoritate, inter orandum, crebro multumque hac ipsa salutatione B. Virginem coli a nobis celebrarique jussit. Erotesis mb'. Quæstio XLII.

 Ti didaskalia heurisketai eis ton chairetismon touton?

 Quid doctrinæ in hac salutatione inest?

 Ap. Eis ton chairetismon touton heurisketai he anamnesis tes enanthropeseos tou Huiou tou Theou kai ton autou euergesion, hopou mas edoke met' auten. Akomi paradidotai kai he toiaute didaskalia (Dam. g'. keph. a. kai b'.), egoun pos ho logos tou Theou ho anarchos ex ouranou katabas den ebasta sarka me ton eauton tou, ma eis ten koilian tes panagias Parthenou, apo ta katharotata tes ahimata ten epere, tou hagiou Pneumatos sunergountos, kai ap' auten egennetheken, hos apo gnesian tou metera. Houto bebaios kai alethos prepei na pisteuomen. Tous de legontas (Kuril. Hier. Kat. ig'.), pos ekatabasen apo ton ouranon ten sarka hopou ephorese, kai ten eperasen apo ten hagian Parthenon, hos an apo solenari, he ekklesia tous ekrinen hairetikous, kai tous katekrinen. Akomi eis ton idion chairetismon einai kai toute he didaskalia, hopou mas didaskei na ten onomazomen Theotokon kata ten anthropoteta; kai ap' auten

 Resp. In hac salutatione continetur commemoratio assumtæ a filio Dei humanitatis, eorumque illius beneficiorum, quæ per humanitatem suam in nos contulit. Tum hæc etiam in ea proponitur doctrina (Damasc. III. cap. I. et II.), quod nimirum, dum coelo æternum illud et principii expers Dei verbum descenderet, nullam secum carnem attulerit; verum illam in sanctissimæ virginis utero de purissimis sanguinis illius guttis opera Spiritus Sancti assumserit, itaque de illa, ut de genuina matre sua, natus fuerit. Quod firme vereque ita nobis credendum est. Ceterum qui Servatorem coelo descendentem jam carnem gestavisse affirmant, eamque sic per S. virginem tanquam per canaliculam quampiam traduxisse (apud Cyrillum Hieros. Catech. XIII.); eos Ecclesia pro hæreticis habet damnatque. Porro et hæc doctrina salutatione ista comprehenditur, qua docemur nuncupare B.

 egennetheken ho Christos, Theos teleios kai anthropos teleios. Eti de heurisketai kai toiaute didaskalia eis ton chairetismon touton, eis ton logon, hopou onomazei ten Parthenon kecharitomenen, pos aute einai metochos tes theias charitos, perissoteron para kan hena allo ktisma; diati einai meter Theou; kai dia touto he ekklesia ten upsonei huper ta Cheroubim kai Seraphim; kai tora aute huperairei pasas tas choreias ton angelon, histamene ek dexion tou Huiou tes, en pase time kai doxe; kathos ho Psalmodos (Psal. md'. th'.) legei; pareste he basilissa ek dexion sou, en himatismo diachruso peribeblemene, pepoipilmene. Ton chairetismon touton kath' henas apo tous orthodoxous christianous prepei met' eulabeias na ton lege, zetontas ten mesiteian tes Parthenou; polla gar ischuei deesis metros pros eumeneian Huiou. Kai hopoios thelei na einai pros auten eulabes, has diabaze ton akathiston humnon, kai tas parakleseis, kai tous loipous humnous tes ekklesias tous pros doxan autes suntethentas. virginem Deiparam secundum humanam Christi naturam, natumque ex ea Christum Deum pariter hominemque perfectum fuisse. Super hæc salutatio ista, dum virginem gratia plenam vocat, docet, eandem, eo quod mater Dei est, largius multo atque abundantius divinæ gratiæ participem factam esse, quam aliam quamcunque rem creatam; eaque re illam ecclesia super Cherubim et Seraphim merito extollit. Nunc enim illa omnes Angelorum choros longe supergressa ad dextram filii sui omni cum honore atque gloria adstat, dicente Davide (Psa. xlv. 9): 'Adstat regina ad dextram tuam, in veste auro distincta, amicta versicoloribus.' Debet autem orthodoxus Christianus quilibet salutationem hanc summa cum reverentia recitare virginisque intercessionem implorare. Plurimum enim matris ad pietatem filii valet oratio. Ceterum qui devotus virginis cultor esse velit, ille hymnum akathiston dictum (quod stantibus, non vero sedentibus canatur), recitabit et supplicationes et ceteros ecclesiæ hymnos, in honorem Deiparse compositos. Erotesis mg'. Quæstio XLIII.

 Poiou einai to tetarton arthron tes pisteos?

 Quartus fidei Articulus quis est?

 Ap. Staurothenta huper hemon epi Pontiou Pilatou kai pathonta kai taphenta.

 Resp. Qui pro nobis crucifixus est sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus.

 Erotesis md'. Quæstio XLIV.

 Ti didaskei to arthron touto?

 Quid hic docet Articulus?

 Ap. Hex pragmata didaskei; proton pos kat' ekeinen ten alethinen anthropoteta, hopou eperen apo ten parthenon Marian ho Logos, kat' ekeinen epathen eis ton stauron apano di hemas, kurios kai alethos; kai apethanen alethos; to hopoion touto einai phaneron apo ten hagian Graphen, hopou (Louk. kg'. ms'.) legei; kai phonesas phone megale ho Iesous eipe; Pater, eis cheiras sou paratithemi to pneuma mou; kai tauta eipon, exepneuse; Kai to timion tou haima alethos di hemas exechee, kai met' auto mas exegorasen; hos legei (Eph. a. e. kai z'.) ho Apostolos; proorisas hemas eis huiothesian dia Iesou Christou, en tho echomen ten apolutrosin dia tou haimatos autou, ten aphesin ton paraptomaton, kata ton plouton tes charitos autou.

 Resp. Sex admodum res docet. Primo, quod secundum veram illam humanitatem, quam de Maria virgine verbum sustulit, etiam in cruce nostra caussa vere et proprie possum fuerit vereque mortem oppetierit, quod ex sacro codice manifestum est (Luc. xxiii. 46): 'Exclamans autem voce magna Iesus dicit: Pater in manus tuas depono spiritum meum; eoque dicto exspiravit.' Quod pretiosum sanguinem suum pro nobis vere profuderit eoque nos redemerit, teste Apostolo (Eph. i. 5 et 7: 'Qui prædestinavit nos in adoptionem filialem per Iesum Christum, in quo habemus redemtionem per sanguinem ipsius, remissionem peccatorum, secundum divitias gratiæ ipsius.' Erotesis me. Quæstio XLV.

 Poion einai to deuteron, hopou periechei to arthron touto?

 Secundum hoc Articulo contentum, quid est?

 Ap. Pos anamartetos epathe dia tas hemon hamartias; kathos legei ho Apostolos Petros (a. epist. a. ie.); eidotes hoti ou phthartois argurio e chrusio elutrothete ek tes mataias humon anastrophes patroparadotou, alla timio haimati, hos amnou amomou kai aspilou Christou. Akomi kai ho

 Resp. Christum sine ullo peccato peccatorum nostrorum poenas luisse, teste Petro Apostolo (1 Pet. i. 18): 'Cum sciatis vos non caducis rebus, auro argentoque, redemtos esse a vana vestra vivendi ratione per majores tradita sed pretioso sanguine Christi, velut agni immaculati et incontaminati.'

 baptistes Ioannes martura, pos estontas kai na einai athoos ho Iesous kai anamartetos epathe dia tas hamartias mas; dio (Ioan. a. kth'.) legei; ide ho amnos tou Theou, ho airon ten amartian tou kosmou; Kai epath thelematikos; kathos ho idios (Ioan. i. ie.) legei; exousian echo theinai ten psuchen mou, kai exousian echo palin labeiu auten. Similiter et Ioannes Baptista testator, Iesum, qui insons omnino et ab omni peccati contagione intactus esset, nostra ob peccata supplicium pertulisse; ita enim ille (Ioh. i. 29): 'Ecce agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi.' Pertulit vero sua plane sponte atque voluntate, quemadmodum ipse dicit (Ioh. x. 18): 'Potestatem habeo ponendi animam meam, habeo item potestatem recipiendi eam.' Erotesis ms'. Quæstio XLVI.

 Ti didaskei triton touto to arthron?

 Quidnam tertium iste docet Articulus?

 Ap. Pos ho Christos epathen eis ton stauron kata ten sarka, kai ochi kata ten theoteta; diati he theotes den epasche, mete ekarphoneto eis ton stauron, mete emtusmous e kolaphismous edecheto, mete apethneske; kai hoson pos me monen ten sarka epaschen, ho Apostolos (Kol. a. kb'.) to phaneronei legontas; nuni de apokatellaxen en to somati tes sarkos autou dia tou thanatou, parastesai hemas hagious kai amomous, kai anenkletous katenopion hautou. Alla men he theotes hos an elabe ten anthropoteta, pote den echoristheken ap' auten; oute (Damask. homil. eis to a. sabb. hagion ut 70), eis ton kairon tou pathous e tou thanatou eis ton stauron, oute meta ton thanaton; kala kai he psuche na echoristheken apo

 Resp. Christum in cruce secundum carnem non vero secundum divinitatem passum fuisse. Nihil enim perpessa fuit Divinitas: non illa cruci affixa fuit: non consputationibus, non alapis os præbuit: non vitam amisit. Quod autem carne sola cruciatus fuit, id manifeste docet Apostolus (Coloss. i. 22): 'Nunc autem reconciliavit in corpore carnis suæ per mortem; ut sisteret nos sanctos et inculpatos et irreprehensibiles coram se ipso.' Ceterum ex quo humanitatem semel assumserat divinitas, nunquam ab ea separata fuit: non tempore passionis mortisque in cruce: non etiam a morte: quamquam enim disjuncta a corpore anima esset; divinitas tamen nec a corpore nec

 to kormi; ma he theotes oute apo to kormi oute apo ten psuchen pote echoristheke. Dia touto kai eis kairon tou thanatou he hupostasis tou Christou eton mia kai he haute. ab anima unquam secessit: unde ipsa etiam in morte una eademque Christi erat persona (Damascen. Homilia in sanctum Sabbatum, p. 292, Pantin.). Erotesis mz'. Quæstio XLVII.

 Ti didaskei tetarton to arthron touto?

 Quartum in hoc Articulo, quid est?

 Ap. Pos ho thanatos tou Christou na eton me diaphoroteron tropon para hopou eton ton allon holon anthropon, dia tais aphormais toutais; proton dia to baros ton hamartion mas, kathos legei ho Prophetes (Es. ng'. d'.) peri autou; houtos tas hamartias hemon pherei, kai peri hemon odunatai; kai hemeis elogisametha, auton einai en pono kai en plege hupo Theou kai en kakosei; autos de etraumatisthe dia tas hamartias hemon, kai memalakistai dia tas anomias hemon. Kai allos Prophetes (Thren. a. ib'.) hos ek prosopou tou Christou; hoi pros humas pantes paraporeuomenoi hodon, epistrepsate, kai idete, ei estin algos kata to algos mou, ho egenethe moi. Deuteron, diati eis ton stauron apano eplerou ten hierosunen, heauton prosenenkas to Theo kai Patri eis apolutrosin tou genous ton anthropon; hos phesin ho Apostolos (a. Tim. b'. s'.) peri autou; ho dous eauton antilutron huper panton. Kai allachou (Ephes. e. b'.); ho Christos hegapesen

 Resp. Quod mors Christi præstantiore magisque fructuoso quodam modo quam mortes reliquorum hominum omnium, contigit. Has præcipue ob caussas: Primum, ob gravissimam scelerum nostrorum sarcinam, ut de eo ait Propheta (Ies. liii. 4): 'Hic peccata nostra fert, et pro nobis dolore affligitur. Nos existimabamus, illum dolore et plagis et afflictionibus a Deo affici: sed ille ob peccata nostra sauciatus est, et ob iniquitates nostras languore correptus est.' Et Propheta alius, tanquam ex persona Christi (Ier. Thr. i. 12): 'Numquid non ad vos attinet, vos omnes qui iter facitis? revertimini ac videte, si est dolor, ut dolor meus, qui mihi accidit.' Deinde, quod in cruce Pontificium munus suum adimplevit, offerendo semet ipsum Deo et Patri in redemtionem generis humani. Sicut de illo loquitur Apostolus (1 Tim.ii. 6): 'Qui dedit se ipsum pretium redemtionis pro omnibus.' Et alibi (Ephes. v. 2):

 hemas, kai paredoken heauton huper hemon prosphoran, kai thusian to theo eis osmen heuodias. Kai eis allon popon (Rhom. e. e.); eti hamartolon onton hemon, kata kairon Christos huper hemon apethanen. Ekei akomi eis ton stauron eteleione ten mesiteian anameson Theou kai anthropon; kathos ho autos Apostolos legei (Kol. a. k'.) peri hautou; kai di autou apokatallaxai ta panta eis auton; eirenopoiesas dia tou haimatos tou staurou hautou; kai allachou (Kol. b'. id'.); exaleipsas to kath' hemon cheirographon tois dogmasin, ho en hupenantion hemin, kai auto eren ek tou mesou, proselosas auto to stauro. 'Christus dilexit nos, et se oblationem pro nobis ac victimam Deo tradidit in odorem suaviter fragrantem.' Et alio loco (Rom. v. 8): 'Cum adhuc inimici Dei essemus, Christus pro nobis mortuus est.' Tum quod ibidem in cruce, susceptam inter Deum atque homines conciliationem absolvit, quemadmodum idem de illo loquitur Apostolus (Col. i. 20): 'Et per illum reconciliare sibi omnia, pace facta per sanguinem crucis illius.' Et alibi (c. ii. 14): 'Delebat, quod contra nos erat, chirographum in decretis, quod adversum nobis erat: et cruci illud affixum de medio sustulit.' Erotesis me. Quæstio XLVIII.

 Ti didaskei pempton to arthron touto?

 Quodnam quintum est, quod hic docet Articulus?

 Ap. Peri tes taphes tou Kuriou hemon Iesou Christou; pos katapos epathe kurios kai alethos eis ton stauron apano; houtos kai apethanen alethos kai alethos etaphe eis topon episemon. Kai touto eginen ochi choris aitian, ma dia na men hupopteuetai tinas husteron peri tes alethous autou ek nekron anastaseos. Diati an ethele taphe eis kan hena topon apokruphon, kai kathos to legousin, en parabusto, ethelasin echein aphormen hoi Ioudaioi, na diasurousi ton Christou. Pros megaleteren loipon

 Resp. De sepultura Domini nostri Iesu Christi. Quod quemadmodum proprie vereque in crucem actus ultimos pertulit cruciatus: ita revera etiam mortuus, locoque celebri sepultus fuit. Id quod neutiquam sine caussa factum; verum ut ne deinde quisquam de vera Christi e mortuis resurrectione addubitaret. Quippe si loco quodam obscuro et abstruso, quod ajunt, angulo, sepultus fuisset: caussam haud inopportunam calumniis suis oppugnandi Christi reperissent Iudæi.

 pistosin kai doxan tes endoxou tou Christou anastaseos eparakinethekasin hoi Ioudaioi, kai elthasi pros Pilaton (Matth. kz'. xd'.) legontes; keleuson asphalisthenai ton taphon heos tes trites hemeras; kai autos tous apekrithe; echete koustodian, hupagete, asphalisasthe hos oidate. Hoi de poreuthentes esphalisanto ton taphon, sphragisantes ton lithon, meta tes koustodias. He hopoia koustodia ton Ioudaion phanerotata emarturese, pos ho Christos aneste apo tous nekrous; diati eis ton kairon ekeinon autoi ephobethesan, hos legei (Matth. ke. b'.) he Graphe; kai idou seismos egeneto megas; angelos gar Kuriou katabas ex ouranou proselthon apekulise ton lithon apo tes thuras, katheto epano autou. Apo de tou phobou autou eseisthesan hoi terountes, kai egenonto hosei nekroi. Hoitines husteron elthontes eis ten polin apengeilan tois Archiereusin hapanta ta genomena; kai dia touto henankazonto na eipousi kai ekeina ta logia, hopou eipen ho angelos Kuriou (stich. e.) eis tas gunaikas; oida hoti Iesoun ton estauromenon zeteite; ouk estin hode; hegerthe gar kathos eipe; deute, idete ton topon, hopou ekeito ho Kurios; kai tachu poreutheisai eipate tois mathetais autou, hoti egerthe apo ton nekron. Dia touten loipon ten aphormen ho taphos tou Kuriou einai onomastos, dia na Quocirca ad majorem gloriosæ Christi resurrectionis fidem ac gloriam, quodam quasi instinctu commoti, ad Pilatum adeunt ajuntque (Matt. xxvii. 64): 'Iube accurate asservari sepulcrum in diem tertium.' Quibus ille respondit: habetis custodiam, ite, asservate prout poteritis. Illi vero abeuntes asservabant sepulcrum, obsignato saxo atque apposita custodia. Quod Iudæorum custodia manifestissimum resurrectionis Christi perhibuit testimonium, quippe quæ eo ipso temporis articulo magno pavore percellebatur, teste Scriptura (Matt. xxviii. 2): 'Ecce autem ingens terræ motus exstitit. Nam Angelus Domini de coelo descendens, accedens saxum ab ostio devolvit, in eoque consedit; cujus terrore conturbati custodes velut mortui facti sunt.' Qui postea (versu 11) in urbem ingressi Pontificibus summis, quæ evenerant omnia, renunciarunt. Unde ea etiam proferre coacti sunt verba, quæ Angelus mulieribus dixerat (vers. 5): 'Scio Iesum vos, qui crucifixus erat, quærere. Ille vero hic non est. Iam enim, sicut prædixerat, surrexit. Venite, videte locum, in quo situs fuit Dominus, et cito euntes, enumerate discipulis illius, ipsum a mortuis resurrexisse.' Hanc igitur ob caussam sepulcrum Domini celebre

 einai piston eis holous, pos hoi mathetai tou den ton eklepsan, mete eis apokruphon topon ton ethapsan, hos hoi diestrammenoi Ioudaioi diephemisan, didontes chremata ei tous stratiotas. Ma ten hupopsian touten ten ekbale to mnema, eis to hopoion ekeiteto; he sphragis tou lithou meta tes koustodias ton Ioudaion; homoios kai ho Ioseph kai ho Nikodemos, oi hopoioi esan entimoi anamesa eis tous Ioudaious; akomi he sundona, me ten hopoian etulixasi to nenekromenon soma tou Kuriou hemon, kai to soudarion, hopou eton eis ten kephalen tou kai emeinen eis ton taphon diplomenon (Ioan. k'. z'.) anastantos autou. Tauta panta phaneronousi, pos den eklephtheken apo tous mathetas tou to soma, alla aneste. Me ten didaskalian touten prepei kai touto na noetai, pos kata ten propheteian eton ananke, na einai to mnemeion tou entimon, kathos eton, kai einai mechri tes semeron; phesi gar ho Prophetes (Es. ia. i.); kai estai he anapausis autou time. Kai eis auto hopoios en pistei kai agape te eis Christon hupagenei, megalen aphesin ton hamartion apoktatai, di autou pros Christon proserchomenos. fuit, quo liquidum omnibus fieret, non furto illum suorum discipulorum subductum, locoque quodam abstruso conditum fuisse. Cujusmodi rumusculos perversi Iudæi sparsere, militibus multo ære corruptis. Sed inanem suspiciunculam facile refellebant tum monumentum illud, in quo conditus fuerat Dominus, tum signatura saxi Iudæorumque excubiæ, Iosephus item, et Nicodemus, viri inter suos clari honoratique, ad hæc pretiosa illa sindon, qua involutum exanimum Domini corpus fuerat, et sudarium capitis velamen, quod postquam resurrexerat, in sepulcro complicatum remansit (Ioh. xx. 7). Quæ omnia satis evincunt, non surreptum furto discipulorum corpus illius fuisse, sed reapse revixisse. Ad quam doctrinam illud etiam animadversu dignum est: nimirum, ut secundum sacra vaticinia necesse erat honoratum Christi conditorium esse, ita etiam fuisse, itemque hodie esse. Sic enim Propheta (Ies. xi. 10): 'et erit requies illius honos.' Quod sepulcrum quisquis in fide et amore Christi visit: ille multam criminum suorum remissionem consequitur, dum per illud ad Christum ipsum animo accedit. Erotesis mth'. Quæstio XLIX.

 Anamesa eis ta eiremena epethumoun na ematha peri tes psuches tou

 Inter hæc quæ modo dicta fuere, suborta mihi cupido noscendi, quonam

 Christou, eis poion topon na heurisketo hustera apo ton thanaton tou prin tes anastaseos? sane loco anima Christi post excessum e corpore ante resurrectionem egerit?

 Ap. He psuche (Dam. homil. eis to hagion sabbaton.) tou Christou, estontas kai na choristhe apo to soma, eton pantote esmimene me ten theoteta, kai me ten theoteta ekatebeken eis ton haden; kala kai eis ton topon touton na men echomen kan mian enthumesin di auto. Monon to echomen bebaion apo holous tous ekklesiastikous humnous, hopou pragmateuontai di auto; pos ho Christos na ekatebeken eis ton haden me ten psuchen kai me ten theoteta; kai pleon chorista me to troparion ekeino tes ekklesias, hopou legei; "en tapho somatikos, en hadou de meta psuches hos Theos, en paradeiso de meta lestou, kai en throno huperches, Christe, meta Patros kai Pneumatos panta pleron ho aperigraptos." Kai apo ton haden elutrose tas psuchas ton hagion propatoron kai tas ebalen eis ton paradeison; mazi me tous hopoious suneisegage kai ton lesten, hopou episteusen en to stauro eis auton.

 Resp. (Ex Damasc. in sanctum sabbatum, loc. cit. sup. pag. 113). Anima Christi, quamquam corpore suo tum exsoluta, usque tamen juncta manebat divinitati, quacum etiam ad inferos descendit, tametsi nihil hoc (hujus Articuli) loco de isto negotio innuitur. Sed certum illud tamen contestatumque ex tot ecclesiæ hymnis, qui de eo agunt, habemus, quod nimirum simul anima et divinitate sua ad inferos descendit Christus. Inprimis autem rem sigillatim exprimit hoc Ecclesiæ Troparium: Tu corpore in sepulcro: tu anima apud inferos, ut Deus: tu in Paradiso cum latrone: itemque in throno gloriæ cum Patre ac Spiritu, Christe, fuisti, qui cuncta imples, ipse incircumscriptus. Simul ereptas orco sanctorum Patrum animas Paradiso intulit, quibuscum etiam latronem, qui in cruce pendens in ipsum crediderat, introduxit. Erotesis n'. Quæstio L.

 Ti einai to hekton, hopou pragmateuetai kai didaskei to arthron touto?

 Quodnam sextum est, quod hic tractat docetque articulus?

 Ap. Diati to arthron touto kamei enthumesin tou staurou tou Christou, eis to hopoion apano apethanen ho Christos, kai esose mas; didei aphormen

 Resp. Quoniam mentionem crucis Christi, in qua Christus mortuus est nosque in salutem vindicavit, hic facit articulus: eo et nobis ansam

 dia touto, na enthumoumen kai hemeis tou staurou; dia ton hopoion tetoias loges homilei (Gal. s'. id'.) ho Apostolos Paulos; emoi de me genoito kauchasthai, ei me en to stauro tou Kuriou hemon Iesou Christou, di hou emoi kosmos estaurotai, kago to kosmo. Kai allachou (a. Kor. a. ie.); ho logos gar tou staurou tois men apollumenois moria esti, tois de sozomenois eitoun hemin dunamis Theou estin. Hoste loipon dia megalais aphormais prepei na timatai apo hemas ho stauros; hos an semeion tou Christou, eis ton hopoion edotheke dunamis, diati echutheken eis auton to haima tou Huiou tou Theou, kai eis auton apethane, na dioke ta ponera pneumata. Dia touto ho hagios Kurillos ho Hierosolumon (Kat. ig'.) legei houtos; hotan me to semeion tou timiou staurou semeionomen tous heautous mas, tote ho diabolos, katanoontas pos ho Christos ho Kurios eis auton ekarphotheke dia ten soterian ten ediken mas kai dia ten exolothreusin tes daimonikes dunameos, den hemporei na steketai paron, mete na hupophere ten dunamin tou staurou; ma pheugei apo mas kai pleon den peirazei, kai malista diati tote echomen sunetheian, na epikaloumetha to onoma tou Christou. Dia touto chreostoumen na kamnomen ton stauron mas polla suchnia, diati suchnia groikoumen kai tous peirasmous tou daimonos; tous hopoious me allon de cruce commentandi offert, de qua hunc in modum Paulus Apostolus disserit (Gal. vi. 14): 'Absit a me ut gloriari velim, nisi in cruce Domini nostri Iesu Christi, per quam mihi mundus crucifixus est, et ego mundo.' Et alio loco (1 Cor. i. 18): 'Sermo crucis iis, qui pereunt, stultitia est: at nobis, qui salutem consequimur, potentia Dei est.' Multis igitur magnisque de causis venerabilis nobis crux erit, ut peculiare quoddam signum Christi, cui virtus mirifica fugandi dæmonum impressa est; siquidem effuso in illam sanguine filii Dei, qui et animam in ea efflabat, imbuta fuit. Qua de re ita dicit S. Cyrillus, Episcopus Hierosolymitanus (Catechesi XIII.): Quando venerabilis crucis signo nosmet ipsos signamus, tum Diabolus recogitans secum, Christum Dominum propter salutem nostram potentiæque diabolicæ exstirpationem cruci clavis suffixum fuisse, diutius præsens esse crucisque sufferre vim nequit; sed fugit a nobis, nec ulterius nos pertentat, maxime quoniam simul sanctissimum Servatoris Christi invocare nomen solemus. Est igitur necesse, ut crucis signum in nobis sæpe frequentemus, quoniam nimis frequentes dæmonis persentiscimus tentationes, quas haud alio profligare modo

 tropon den hemporoumen na diokomen, para me ton zoopoion stauron kai me ten epiklesin tou onomatos tou Iesou Christou. Kai ochi monon tous diokomen apo hemas, alla kai apo hola ta alla mas pragmata, egoun apo phageta, pista, skeue kai ta loipa. Dia touto ho autos Kurillos (eis to auto) didaskei legon; kamne to semeion tou timiou staurou trogontas, pinontas, kathemenos, histamenos, homilontas, e kai peripatontas; kai men archizes kan mian sou douleian, para na kames to semeion, tou timiou staurou, eis to ospetion, eis ton dromon, hemeran kai nukta, kai eis katha topon. possumus, quam signo vivificæ crucis et seria invocatione nominis Iesu Christi. Quo modo non solum a nobis ipsis insultus dæmonum arcemus; sed a reliquis etiam omnibus rebus nostris, ut ab esculentis potulentisque, a vasis, aliisque quibuslibet. Quapropter ita idem ille Cyrillus docet (loco eodem): Fac venerabilis crucis signum, dum edis bibisque, dum sedes, aut stas; dum loqueris, aut ambulas. Nullam coeptabis rem, nullum opus, nisi facto prius venerabilis crucis signo, domi, in via, diu noctuque omnibusque in locis. Erotesis na. Quæstio LI.

 Pos chreostoumen na semeionomesthan me to semeion tou timiou kai zoopoiou staurou?

 Quo ritu signum venerabilis et vivificæ crucis in nobis formare debemus?

 Ap. Me ten dexian cheira prepei na kamnes ton stauron banontas eis to metopon sou ta tria megala daktula; kai na leges; eis to onoma tou Patros. Kai tote katabazeis to cheri eis ton thoraka me to idion schema kai legeis kai tou Huiou. Kai ap' ekei eis ton dexion brachiona legontas; kai tou hagiou Pneumatos, pagenontas heos eis ton aristeron. Kai aph' hou semeioses ton heauton sou me to hagion touto semeion tou staurou, prepei na teleioses me ton logon touton; amen E kai hotan

 Resp. Crucem hoc modo dextra manu formabis. Primum tribus majusculis digitis frontem tanges dicesque: In nomine Patris. Tum manum, eodem gestu conformatum, in pectus deduces addesque: et Filii. Hinc in brachium (sive potius humerum) dextrum traducens manum dices: et Spiritus Sancti, simul ductum manus in humerum sinistrum usque continuabis. Atque ubi sacro hocce crucis signaculo temet signasti, claudes verbo: Amen. Potes etiam

 kames ton stauron sou, emporeis na leges; Kurie Iesou Christe, Huie tou Theou, eleeson me ton hamartolon, amen. in cruce formando hæc adhibere verba: Domine Iesu Christe, fili Dei, miserere mei peccatoris. Amen. Erotesis nb'. Quæstio LII.

 Poion einai to pempton arthron tes pisteos?

 Quintus Fidei Articulus, quis est?

 Ap. Kai anastanta te trite hemera kata tas graphas.

 Resp. Qui resurrexit die tertio secundum Scripturas. Erotesis ng'. Quæstio LIII.

 Ti didaskalian mas didaskei to arthron touto tes pisteos?

 Quam doctrinam iste nos fidei Articulus docet?

 Ap. Duo pragmata didaskei, proton pos ho Kurios hemon Iesous Christos me ten dunamin tos theotetos tou egerthe (Louk. kd'. z'.) apo ton nekron; kathos einai gegrammenon peri autou eis tous Prophetas kai eis tous Psalmous; deuteron, pos anestatheke me to idion soma, hopou egennethe kai apethane.

 Resp. Duo docet. Alterum, Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum suæ divinitatis viribus in vitam rediisse (Luc. xxiv. 7), prout de illo perscriptum erat in Prophetis et Psalmis. Alterum, resurrexisse ipsum in eodem illo corpore suo, quicum natus mortuusque fuerat. Erotesis nd'. Quæstio LIV.

 Kata tinas graphas ho Christos eton chreia na pathe, kai na apothane, kai ten triten hemeran na anastathe?

 Secundum quas scripturas ita necesse erat, tum pati Christum atque emori, tum die tertio reviviscere?

 Ap. Duo logion einai hai hagiai graphai; kapoiais tou palaiou nomou kai kapoiais tou neou. Hai protai eproeipasi, pos ho Christos mellei na elthe, kai me tina tropon eiche na sose to genos ton anthropon, egoun me to na pathe, na labe thanaton, kai na anastathe apo tous nekrous. Kai

 Resp. Duplices sacræ scripturæ sunt, quædam veteris legis, quædam novæ. Priores Christum venturum, modumque ipsum, quo genus humanum in salutem asserturus esset, prædixerunt: nimirum passurum, moriturum, e mortuisque resurrecturum. Itaque hæc omnia

 kata tas graphas tautas ho Christos eprepe, na ta plerose hola. Kata de tas graphas tou neou nomou ebebaiotheke, pos ta eplerose, kai pos tetoias loges elthe, kathos gegraptai peri autou; hos ho autos legei (Mark. id'. ka.) peri eautou; ho men Huios tou anthropou hupagei, kathos gegraptai peri autou. Kai hustera apo ten ek nekron autou anastasin elege (Louk. kd'. ks'.) pros duo tou mathetas stratokopous; ouchi tauta edei pathein ton Christon kai eiselthein eis ten doxan autou? kai arxamenos apo Moseos kai apo panton ton Propheton, diermeneuen autois en pasais tais graphais ta peri heautou. Kai pos prepei na eche to kuros kai ten bebaioteta he palaia graphe eis hemas, to martura legon ho Apostolos (b'. Petr. a. ith'.) peri autes; echomen bebaioteron ton prophetikon logon, ho kalos poieite prosechontes, hos luchno phainonti en auchmero topo, heos hou hemera diaugase, kai phosphoros anateile en tais kardiais humon. Kai pos na eteleiotheken houtos kata tas graphas tautas, holoi hoi euangelistai mas bebaionousi; kai ho Apostolos (a. Kor. ie. g'.) legei; hoti Christos apethanen huper ton hamartion hemon kata tas graphas; kai hoti etaphe, kai hoti egegertai te trite hemera kata tas graphas; kai hoti ophthe Kepha, eita tois dodeka. Epeita ophthe epano pentakosiois adelphois secundum istas scripturas adimplenda Christo fuere. Rursus ex novæ legis scripturis, isthæc omnia Christum implesse, luculenter confirmatum est, eaque prorsus ratione in mundum venisse, quemadmodum de eo scriptum fuerat. Sicut ipse de semet ipso affirmat (Marc. xiv. 21): 'Filius quidem hominis vadit, sicut scriptum est de illo.' Atque denuo ex inferis in lucem redux, duobus discipulis iter facientibus, dixit (Luc. xxiv. 26): 'Nonne hæc pati Christum oportuit, et intrare in gloriam suam? et exorsus a Mose et Prophetis omnibus, interpretabatur illis, quæ de ipso omnibus in scripturis prædicta essent.' Iam suam veteri testamento apud nos auctoritatem firmitudinemque sartam tectam constare oportere, illud testificatur Apostolus de ipso dicens (2 Pet. i. 19): 'Habemus firmiorem sermonem Propheticum, cui recte ac merito attenditis, veluti lucernæ lucenti in loco obscuro, donec elucescat dies, et lucifer in cordibus vestris exoriatur.' Porro quod eodem modo secundum Scripturas istas hæc perfecta sunt, Evangelistæ omnes nobis confirmant. Confirmat et Apostolus (1 Cor. xv. 3): 'Quod Christus mortuus fuerit pro peccatis nostris secundum Scripturas: quod sepultus sit, quodque tertio die resurrexerit secundum Scripturas;

 ephapax, ex hon hoi pleious menousin heos arti, tines de kai ekoimethesan. Epeita ophthe Iakobo; eita tois Apostolois pasin. Eschaton de panton hosper to ektromati ophthe kamoi. Ten tou Christou anastasin proetupou kai ho Prophetes Ionas, ton hopoion tupon ho Kurios hemon Iesous Christos ton anapherei pros ton eauton tou, legon (Matth. ib'. lth'.) pros tous Ioudaious; genea ponera kai moichalis semeion epixetei, kai semeion ou dothesetai aute, ei me to semeion Iona tou Prophetou. Hosper gar en Ionas en te koilia tou ketous treis hemeras kai treis nuktas, houtos estai ho Huios tou anthropou en te kardia tes ges treis hemeras kai treis nuktas. et quod visus sit Cephæ, deinde duodecim (Apostolis), postea plus quam quingentis fratribus simul, quorum plerique ad hunc usque diem in vita sunt, nonnulli etiam obdormierunt. Deinde visus est Iacobo, post Apostolis omnibus. Postremo vero omnium, velut abortivo, visus est et mihi.' Resurrectionem Christi pulchre etiam olim adumbraverat Ionas Propheta, quem typum Dominus noster Iesus Christus ipse sibi accommodat, dum Iudæis dicit (Matt. xii. 39): 'Natio prava et adultera signum postulat, nec aliud illi signum dabitur, quam Ionæ Prophetæ. Quemadmodum enim Ionas tribus diebus tribusque noctibus in ventre ceti fuit: ita filius hominis tres dies noctesque in corde terræ erit' Erotesis ne. Quæstio LV.

 Poiou einai to hekton arthron tes pisteos?

 Sextus fidei Articulus quis est?

 Ap. Kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kai kathezomenon ek dexion tou Patros.

 Resp. Qui adscendit in coelos, sedetque ad dexteram Patris. Erotesis ns'. Quæstio LVI.

 Ti mas ermeneuei to arthron touto tes pisteos?

 Quidnam iste nobis exponit Articulus?

 Ap. Tessara pragmata didaskei to arthron touto; proton pos me to idion soma, eis to hopoion epathen alethos, kai aneste apo tous nekrous,

 Resp. Dogmata quattuor. Primum est, Christum illo ipso corpore suo, in quo crucis supplicium vere pertulerat, et in quo postea a mortuis

 me to idion ekeino anebe eis tous ouranous, kai ekathisen eis ten dexian tou Patros me doxan kai ainon. Deuteron, pos hos anthropos monos anebeken eis ton ouranon, diati hos Theos pantote eton eis ton ouranon, kai eis panta topon. Triton didaskei, pos ten anthropoteta, hopou epere mian phoran apo ten parthenon Marian, pote den ten exapheke; ma met' auten palin thelei elthei na krine; kathos hoi Angeloi eipasin (Prax. a. ia.) eis tous Apostolous; houtos ho Iesous ho analephtheis aph' humon eis ton ouranon houtos eleusetai, hon tropon etheasasthe auton poreuomenon eis ton ouranon. Tetarton didaskei, pos ho Christos, einai monon ei ton ouranon, kai ochi eis ten gen kata ton tropon tes sarkos, hopou ephorese, kai sunanestrapheken eis ten gen; ma kata ton musteriode tropon, hopou eurisketai eis ten theian eucharistian, einai kai eis ten gen ho autos Huios tou Theou, Theos kai anthropos, kata metousiosin. Estontas kai he ousia tou artou na metaballetai eis ten ousian tou hagiou somatos autou; kai he ousia tou oinou eis ten ousian tou timiou haimatos autou; dia to hopoion prepei na doxazomen, kai na latreuomen ten hagian eucharistian homoios kathos kai auton ton Sotera mas Iesoun. resurrexerat, eodem inquam ipso in coelum adscendisse, et ad dexteram Patris cum gloria ac laude consedisse. Secundum, qua homo est, illum tantummodo in coelum adscendisse; namque qua Deus est, semper in coelo fuit locisque aliis omnibus. Tertium est: Christum humanam naturam, semel ex B. Virgine assumtam, nunquam postea dimisisse, eademque etiam vestitum olim ad judicium reventurum. Sicuti Angeli Apostolis dicebant (Actor. i. 11): 'Hic Iesus, qui a vobis in coelum receptus est, ita redibit, quemadmodum eum in coelum ire vidistis.' Quartum quod docet, hoc est: Christum nunc in coelo tantum esse, non vero in terra eo corporis sui modo, quo olim, dum his in locis agebat, usus fuerat; verum modo sacramentali, quo in sacra coena præsto est, eundem Dei filium, Deum hominemque, etiam in terra adesse, nimirum per Transsubstantiationem. Quippe substantia panis in substantiam sanctissimi corporis ipsius convertitur; et substantia vini in substantiam pretiosi sanguinis ipsius. Quamobrem sanctam Eucharistiam sic venerari adorareque nos oportet, quemadmodum ipsum Servatorem nostrum Iesum.

 Erotesis nz'. Quæstio LVII.

 Poion einai to hebdomon arthron tes pisteos?

 Septimus fidei Articulus quis est?

 Ap. Kai palin erchomenon meta doxes krinai zontas kai nekrous, hou tes basileias ouk estai telos.

 Resp. Qui iterum venturus est in gloria, indicatum vivos et mortuos, cuius regni nullus finis erit. Erotesis ne. Quæstio LVIII.

 Ti mas didaskei touto to arthron tes pisteos?

 Quid iste nos Articulus docet?

 Ap. Tria pragmata; proton pos ho Christos mellei na strepse dia na krine zontas kai nekrous, kathos ho idios legei (Matth. ke. la.) dia logou tou; hotan de elthe ho Huios tou anthropou en te doxe hautou kai pantes hoi hagioi angeloi met' autou. Kai thelei elthei toson gorga (Matth. kd'. kz'.), hosper he astrape exerchetai apo anatolon, kai phainetai heos dusmon, houtos estai kai he parousia tou Huiou tou anthropou. Peri (eis to auto sicho ls'.) de tes hemeras tes parousias ekeines kai tes horas oudeis oiden, oute hoi angeloi. M' holon touto protetera mellei, na genousi ta pragmata touta; na keruchthe to Euangelion (eis to auto sicho id'. kai ka.) eis hola ta ethne, na elthe ho Antichristos, na genousi megaloi polemoi, peinais, thanatika, kai hetera homoia; kai dia na ta eipo suntomos, megale polla thlipsis thelei gene, kata ta logia tou Kuriou legontos;

 Resp. Tria. Primum est, rediturum Christum, iudicatum vivos ac mortuos. Sicut ipse suis verbis testatur (Matt. xxv. 31): 'Quando venerit filius hominis in gloria sua, et sancti omnes Angeli cum illo.' Venturus autem est usque adeo velociter (Matt. xxiv. 27): 'Ut fulgur, quod exit ab oriente, et apparet ad occasum usque; eiusmodi item erit adventus filii hominis.' 'Atqui (ibidem 36) diem et horam adventus illius nemo novit, ne quidem Angeli.' Prius tamen ut eveniant hæc ipsa, necesse est. Nimirum (vers. 14) ut annuncietur Evangelium omnibus gentibus: ut veniat Antichristus: ut fiant bella horrida ac immania: itemque fames frugumque penuria et pestilentia aliaque consimilia. Atque ut summatim absolvam, multæ antea magnæque afflictiones secundum verbum Domini exsistent (vers. 21):

 estai gar tote thlipsis megale, hoia ou gegonen ap' arches kosmou heos tou nun, oud' ou me genetai. Dia ten krisin touten phaneran homilei legon (b'. Tim. d'. a.) ho Apostolos; diamarturomai oun ego enopion tou Theou kai tou Kuriou Iesou Christou tou mellontos krinein zontas kai nekrous kata ten epiphaneian autou kai ten basileian autou. 'Eo tempore magna erit afflictio, cuiusmodi ab origine mundi ad hoc usque tempus nec fuit, nec in posterum futura est.' De hoc iudicio manifeste hunc in modum disserit Apostolus (2 Tim. iv. 1): ' Testificor igitur ego coram Deo et Domino Iesu Christo, qui vivos mortuosque in apparitione sua et regno suo iudicaturus est.' Erotesis nth'. Quæstio LIX.

 Ti didaskei deuteron to arthron touto?

 Quid secundo loco hic docet Articulus?

 Ap. Pos eis ten teleutaian krisin hoi anthropoi thelousin apodosein logon dia tous logismous, dia ta logia kai dia ta erga; kata ten graphen ten (Matth. ib'. ls'.) legousan; lego de humin, hoti pan rhema argon, ho ean lalesousin hoi anthropoi, apodosousi peri autou logon en hemera kriseos; kai ho Apostolos (a. Kor. d'. e.) legei; hoste me pro kairou ti krinete, heos an elthe ho Kurios; hos kai photisei ta krupta tou skotous; kai phanerosei tas boulas ton kardion; kai tote ho epainos genesetai ekasto apo tou Theou.

 Resp. Quod extremo in judicio cogitationum, dictorum factorumque suorum omnium rationem reddituri sunt homines, teste Scriptura (Matt. xii. 36); 'Dico ego vobis, quod de quovis otioso verbo, quod locuti homines fuerint, rationem in die judicii reddent.' Et Apostolus ait (1 Cor. iv. 5): 'Ne itaque, ne ante tempus quidquam judicetis, donec venerit Dominus: qui et abscondita tenebrarum illustrabit, et consilia cordium manifestabit, et tunc sua cuique laus a Deo reddetur.' Erotesis x'. Quæstio LX.

 Ti didaskei triton touto to arthron?

 Quid tertio loco hic Articulus docet?

 Ap. Pos eis ten hemeran ekeinen kath' henas kata ta erga tou thelei labei teleian kai aionian pleromen;

 Resp. Quod illo die unusquisque secundum promerita sua plenam eamque sempiternam accepturus sit

 diati kapoioi thelousin akousein ten apophasin tauten (Matth. ke. ld'.); deute hoi eulogemenoi tou Patros mou, kleronomesate ten hetoimasmenen humin basileian apo kataboles kosmou. Kai alloi akousousi ten apophasin tauten (sich. ma.); poreuesthe ap' emou hoi kateramenoi eis to pur to aionion, to hetoimasmenon to diabolo kai tois angelois autou; hopou (Mar. th'. md'. me.) ho skolex auton ou teleuta kai to pur ou sbennutai. mercedem, quippe alii hanc audient sententiam (Matt. xxv. 34): 'Venite benedicti Patris mei, et hereditario jure possidete præparatum vobis a mundi exordio regnum.' Alii e contrario tristissimum hocce carmen audient (vers. 41): 'Discedite a me maledicti in ignem illum sempiternum, qui Diabolo atque Angelis ejus structus paratusque est;' (Marc. ix. 44): 'ubi vermis eorum non emoritur, et ignis non exstinguitur.' Erotesis xa. Quæstio LXI.

 Tacha ton kairon ekeinon holoi hoi anthropoi thelousin apodosein logou dia ta erga tous, e xechorista kath' henas apothneskontas apodidei ton logariasmon tes xoes tou, kai an einai kriterion merikon?

 Illo igitur fortasse die universi homines actionum rerumque suarum reddituri rationem sunt, an vero singulatim unusquisque, dum lucis hujus usurarn relinquit, vitæ suæ rationem reddit, atque particulare quoddam exercetur judicium?

 Ap. Kathos eis ten hemeran ekeinen tes teleutaias kriseos den zetatai tinas logariasmos xechora dia ton kath' hena, diati hola ta pragmata einai gnorismena sima eis ton Theon, kath' henas eis ton kairon tou thanatou tou gnorizei ta amartemata tou; tetoias loges malista hustera apo ton thanaton kath' henas thelei gnorizei ten amoiben ton ergon tou. Diati epeide kai ta erga tou thelousin einai phanera, loipon kai he apophasis tou Theou einai phanere heis auton; kathos legei ho theologos Gregorios

 Resp. Quemadmodum illo extremi judicii die ratio de unoquoque singillatim non exigitur; siquidem Deo res simul omnes per se manifestissimæ sunt, atque ut unusquisque in articulo mortis suæ satis suorum sibi delictorum conscius est: ita eodem prorsus modo post mortem operum suorum remunerationem unusquisque probe novit. Quoniam itaque opera ipsius manifesto patent; patet etiam Dei in illum sententia. Sicuti ait Gregorius Theologus (laudatione funebri

 (logo eis Kaisarion ton adelphon); peithomai sophon logois, hoti psuche pasa kale te kai theophiles, epeidan tou sundedemenou somatos enthende apallage, euthus en sunaisthesei kai theoria tou menontos auten kalou genomene (hate tou episkotountos anakatharthentos, e apotethentos, e--ouk oid' ho, ti kai legein chre) thaumasian tina hedonen hedetai kai agalletai, kai hileos chorei pros ton eautes despoten, hosper ti desmoterion chalepon ton entautha bion apophugousa; kai tas perikeimenas aposeisamene pedas; huph' hon to tes dianoias pteron katheilketo, kai hoion ede te phantasia karpoutai ten apokeimenen makarioteta; mikron d' husteron kai to sungenes sarkion apolabousa, ho ta ekeithen sunephilosophese, para tes kai douses kai pisteutheises ges, tropon hon oiden ho tauta sundesas kai dialusas Theos; touto sunkleronomei tes ekeithen doxes. Homoios prepei na logiazomen kai dia tas psuchas ton hamartolon ek tou enantiou; pos kai autai groikousi kai exeurousi ten kolasin, hopou tais anamenei. Kai kala kai na men echousi mete hoi dikaioi mete hoi amartoloi teleian ten amoiben ton ergon ton prin tes teleutaias kriseos, diati me holon touto den einai holais eis mian kai ten auten katastasin, mete eis ton auton topon pempontai. Apo touto fratris sui Cæsarii, p. 56, Bas. 173, Par.): Ego vero sapientum sermonibus adductus credo, bonam quamlibet Deoque acceptam animam, ut e conjugato soluta corpore hinc discedit, confestim intellectu ac contemplatione boni illius, quod ipsam manet, fruentem (quippe eo, quod caliginem antea offundebat, perpurgato jam aut deposito, aut--sed haud scio satis quod usurpem verbum), singulari et mirifica quadam efferri atque exsultare lætitia hilaremque admodum ad Dominum suum properare; dum ita nimirum ex hac vita tanquam ex ærumnoso quodam ergastulo aufugit, et circumjectas excutit pedicas, quibus gravatæ antea mentis alæ deprimebantur; jamque adeo velut imaginando reservatam sibi degustare felicitatem: verum paullo post, ubi cognatum corpusculum, quocum olim ætheriam illam vitam religiosissime vivebat, de terra, quæ illud et dederat, et suæ traditum fidei asservarat, receperit, modo eo, quem solus novit, qui ista duo tum colligavit tum dissolvit Deus; tum una cum illo coelestis gloriæ hereditatem cernere. Pari ratione de facinorosorum animis e contrario existimandum, illos videlicet extemplo sensum item intellectumque destinatorum sibi cruciatuum habere. Quamvis vero neque justi neque damnati

 ginetai phaneron, pos to toiouto na me ginetai prin tes teleutaias kriseos choris kriseos merikes; einai loipon merikon kriterion. Kai hotan legomen pos den zeta logariasmon tes zoes mas ho Theos apo emas, touto noeitai pos den apodidotai ho logariasmos toutos kata ton edikon mas tropon. plenam rerum actionumque suarum mercedem ante extremum assequantur judicium: non tamen in uno et eodem omnes statu sunt, nec in unum compelluntur locum. Hinc facile patet, hoc ipsum ante postremum illud judicium sine particulari aliquo judicio non fieri, atque hujuscemodi particulare judicium omnino esse. Quando igitur dicimus, non exigere a nobis Detim vitæ nostræ rationem, tum intelligendum est, non reddi hanc rationem secundum proprium nostrorum judiciorum morem. Erotesis xb'. Quæstio LXII.

 Tacha hai psuchai ton agion meta thanaton eis ton auton bathmon euriskontai?

 Numquid vero in eodem beatitudinis gradu, postquam e vita excesserunt, collocatæ Sanctorum animæ sunt?

 Ap. Diati hai psuchai den miseuousin apo ton kosmon touton eis mian kai ten auten charin, tetoias loges kai hustera, aph' hou miseusousin apo ton kosmon, den stekountai eis hena kai ton auton bathmon tes makariotetos kata ten Christou didaskalian, hopou (Ioan. id'. b'.) legei; en te oikia tou Patros mou monai pollai eisi; kai allachou (Louk. z'. mz'.); apheontai hai hamartiai autes hai pollai, hoti hegapese polu; ho de oligon aphietai, oligon agapa. Homoios kai ho Apostolos (Rhom. z'. s'.) legei, hoti apodosei hekasto kata ta erga autou.

 Resp. Quoniam animæ non in uno et eodem gratiæ divinæ gradu ex hoc mundo emigrant; pari modo, postquam hinc emigrarunt, non in uno eodemque beatitatis gradu consistunt; Christo ipso his illud docente verbis (Ioh. xiv. 2): 'In domo Patris mei multæ sunt mansiones;' et alibi (Luc. vii. 47): 'Remissa sunt multa illius peccata, quoniam dilexit multum; at parum diligit, cui parum remittitur.' Consimiliter et Apostolus ait (Rom. ii. 6): 'Quod redditurus sit cuique secundum opera sua.'

 Erotesis xg'. Quæstio LXIII.

 Tina gnomen prepei na echomen di ekeinous, hopou apothneskousin eis ten orgen tou Theou?

 Quid de iis vero judicandum, qui decedentes in offe